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Behav. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Oxidative Stress in Patients with Drug Resistant Partial Complex Seizure
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8060059
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 9 June 2018
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Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated as a pathophysiological mechanism of drug-resistant epilepsy, but little is known about the relationship between OS markers and clinical parameters, such as the number of drugs, age onset of seizure and frequency of seizures per month. The
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Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated as a pathophysiological mechanism of drug-resistant epilepsy, but little is known about the relationship between OS markers and clinical parameters, such as the number of drugs, age onset of seizure and frequency of seizures per month. The current study’s aim was to evaluate several oxidative stress markers and antioxidants in 18 drug-resistant partial complex seizure (DRPCS) patients compared to a control group (age and sex matched), and the results were related to clinical variables. We examined malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), nitric oxide (NO), uric acid, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione, vitamin C, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and nitrotyrosine (3-NT). All markers except 4-HNE and 3-NT were studied by spectrophotometry. The expressions of 4-HNE and 3-NT were evaluated by Western blot analysis. MDA levels in patients were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.0001) while AOPP levels were similar to the control group. AGEs, NO and uric acid concentrations were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.004, p ≤ 0.005, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively). Expressions of 3-NT and 4-HNE were increased (p ≤ 0.005) similarly to SOD activity (p = 0.0001), whereas vitamin C was considerably diminished (p = 0.0001). Glutathione levels were similar to the control group. There was a positive correlation between NO and MDA with the number of drugs. The expression of 3-NT was positively related with the frequency of seizures per month. There was a negative relationship between MDA and age at onset of seizures, as well as vitamin C with seizure frequency/month. We detected an imbalance in the redox state in patients with DRCPS, supporting oxidative stress as a relevant mechanism in this pathology. Thus, it is apparent that some oxidant and antioxidant parameters are closely linked with clinical variables. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Examining Self-Disclosure on Social Networking Sites: A Flow Theory and Privacy Perspective
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8060058
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 26 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
Social media and other web 2.0 tools have provided users with the platform to interact with and also disclose personal information to not only their friends and acquaintances but also relative strangers with unprecedented ease. This has enhanced the ability of people to
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Social media and other web 2.0 tools have provided users with the platform to interact with and also disclose personal information to not only their friends and acquaintances but also relative strangers with unprecedented ease. This has enhanced the ability of people to share more about themselves, their families, and their friends through a variety of media including text, photo, and video, thus developing and sustaining social and business relationships. The purpose of the paper is to identify the factors that predict self-disclosure on social networking sites from the perspective of privacy and flow. Data was collected from 452 students in three leading universities in Ghana and analyzed with Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling. Results from the study revealed that privacy risk was the most significant predictor. We also found privacy awareness, privacy concerns, and privacy invasion experience to be significant predictors of self-disclosure. Interaction and perceived control were found to have significant effect on self-disclosure. In all, the model accounted for 54.6 percent of the variance in self-disclosure. The implications and limitations of the current study are discussed, and directions for future research proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Correcting a Longstanding Misconception about Social Roles and Personality: A Case Study in the Psychology of Science
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8060057
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
Psychologists often argue that sex roles direct different types of socializing behaviors toward males and females and that this differential treatment, in turn, leads to sex differences in personality. Widely cited in support of this thesis has been the Fels longitudinal study finding
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Psychologists often argue that sex roles direct different types of socializing behaviors toward males and females and that this differential treatment, in turn, leads to sex differences in personality. Widely cited in support of this thesis has been the Fels longitudinal study finding that dependency and passivity are stable from childhood to adulthood for females only and aggressiveness and sexuality for males only. The present article explains why the type of sex differences in personality stability cited by Fels researchers actually contradicts the view that sex role expectations cause these differences. The report suggests ways in which social learning theory, the dominant developmental paradigm of the 1960s, may have contributed to the misinterpretation of the Fels data and how the rise of social constructivism maintained this misinterpretation for decades. The article concludes by correcting misconceptions about biology and personality stability and by explaining why theories that incorporate biology are not only more adequate than social constructivism but also more effective in bringing about the changes in society that constructivists desire. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Park, B.Y., et al. Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review with Clinical Reports. Behav. Sci. 2016, 6, 17
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8060055
Received: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
The conflict of interest section of the published paper[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Affective Congruence between Sound and Meaning of Words Facilitates Semantic Decision
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8060056
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
A similarity between the form and meaning of a word (i.e., iconicity) may help language users to more readily access its meaning through direct form-meaning mapping. Previous work has supported this view by providing empirical evidence for this facilitatory effect in sign language,
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A similarity between the form and meaning of a word (i.e., iconicity) may help language users to more readily access its meaning through direct form-meaning mapping. Previous work has supported this view by providing empirical evidence for this facilitatory effect in sign language, as well as for onomatopoetic words (e.g., cuckoo) and ideophones (e.g., zigzag). Thus, it remains largely unknown whether the beneficial role of iconicity in making semantic decisions can be considered a general feature in spoken language applying also to “ordinary” words in the lexicon. By capitalizing on the affective domain, and in particular arousal, we organized words in two distinctive groups of iconic vs. non-iconic based on the congruence vs. incongruence of their lexical (meaning) and sublexical (sound) arousal. In a two-alternative forced choice task, we asked participants to evaluate the arousal of printed words that were lexically either high or low arousing. In line with our hypothesis, iconic words were evaluated more quickly and more accurately than their non-iconic counterparts. These results indicate a processing advantage for iconic words, suggesting that language users are sensitive to sound-meaning mappings even when words are presented visually and read silently. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Subliminal Priming—State of the Art and Future Perspectives
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8060054
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
The influence of subliminal priming (behavior outside of awareness) in humans is an interesting phenomenon and its understanding is crucial as it can impact behavior, choices, and actions. Given this, research about the impact of priming continues to be an area of investigative
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The influence of subliminal priming (behavior outside of awareness) in humans is an interesting phenomenon and its understanding is crucial as it can impact behavior, choices, and actions. Given this, research about the impact of priming continues to be an area of investigative interest, and this paper provides a technical overview of research design strengths and issues in subliminal priming research. Efficient experiments and protocols, as well as associated electroencephalographic and eye movement data analyses, are discussed in detail. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of different priming experiments that have measured affective (emotional) and cognitive responses. Finally, very recent approaches and findings are described to summarize and emphasize state-of-the-art methods and potential future directions in research marketing and other commercial applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Violence Exposure and Mental Health of College Students in the United States
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8060053
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 20 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
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Abstract
Background: Despite the well-established link between exposure to violence and mental health problems, less is known about this association among college students. The current study aimed to investigate the association between history of exposure to violence and mental health of American college
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Background: Despite the well-established link between exposure to violence and mental health problems, less is known about this association among college students. The current study aimed to investigate the association between history of exposure to violence and mental health of American college students. Methods: Healthy Mind Study (HMS, 2016–2017) is a national online survey of 41,898 adult college students. The independent variable was lifetime history of exposure to violence (psychological, physical, and sexual). The dependent variables were anxiety, depression, and suicidality. Race, age, gender, sexual orientation, parental education, financial stress, transfer status, enrollment status, and graduate status were covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Results: History of exposure to violence was associated with all three aspects of poor mental health, namely general anxiety, depression, and suicidality. These associations were independent of covariates and type of abuse. Conclusions: There is a need to address various mental health needs of college students who have experienced various forms of violence. College students who screen positive for history of violence exposure should be evaluated for anxiety, depression, and suicidal behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sexual Violence on College Campus)
Open AccessArticle Sources of Embodied Creativity: Interactivity and Ideation in Contact Improvisation
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8060052
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
Drawing on a micro-phenomenological paradigm, we discuss Contact Improvisation (CI), where dancers explore potentials of intercorporeal weight sharing, kinesthesia, touch, and momentum. Our aim is to typologically discuss creativity related skills and the rich spectrum of creative resources CI dancers use. This spectrum
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Drawing on a micro-phenomenological paradigm, we discuss Contact Improvisation (CI), where dancers explore potentials of intercorporeal weight sharing, kinesthesia, touch, and momentum. Our aim is to typologically discuss creativity related skills and the rich spectrum of creative resources CI dancers use. This spectrum begins with relatively idea-driven creation and ends with interactivity-centered, fully emergent creation: (1) Ideation internal to the mind, the focus of traditional creativity research, is either restricted to semi-independent dancing or remains schematic and thus open to dynamic specification under the partner’s influence. (2) Most frequently, CI creativity occurs in tightly coupled behavior and is radically emergent. This means that interpersonal synergies emerge without anybody’s prior design or planned coordination. The creative feat is interpersonally “distributed” over cascades of cross-scaffolding. Our micro-genetic data validate notions from dynamic systems theory such as interpersonal self-organization, although we criticize the theory for failing to explain where precisely this leaves skilled intentionality on the individuals’ part. Our answer is that dancers produce a stream of momentary micro-intentions that say “yes, and”, or “no, but” to short-lived micro-affordances, which allows both individuals to skillfully continue, elaborate, tweak, or redirect the collective movement dynamics. Both dancers can invite emergence as part of their playful exploration, while simultaneously bringing to bear global constraints, such as dance scores, and guide the collective dynamics with a set of specialized skills we shall term emergence management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embodied Aesthetics and Interpersonal Resonance)
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