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Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8060059

Oxidative Stress in Patients with Drug Resistant Partial Complex Seizure

1
Immunochemical Department, International Center for Neurological Restoration, 25th Ave, Playa, Havana 15805, Cuba
2
Medical Research Unit in Nephrological Diseases, Specialty Hospital, National Medical Center “XXI Century”, IMSS, Mexico City 06720, Mexico
3
Clinical Neurophysiology Lab., International Center for Neurological Restoration, Havana 11300, Cuba
4
Nanomaterials Laboratory, Research Center in Health Sciences, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosi 78300; Mexico
5
Morphological Laboratory, International Center for Neurological Restoration, Havana 11300, Cuba
6
Biology Faculty, University of Havana, Havana 10400, Cuba
7
Medical Research Unit in Neurological Diseases, Specialty Hospital, National Medical Center, XXI Century, IMSS, Mexico City 06720, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 9 June 2018
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Abstract

Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated as a pathophysiological mechanism of drug-resistant epilepsy, but little is known about the relationship between OS markers and clinical parameters, such as the number of drugs, age onset of seizure and frequency of seizures per month. The current study’s aim was to evaluate several oxidative stress markers and antioxidants in 18 drug-resistant partial complex seizure (DRPCS) patients compared to a control group (age and sex matched), and the results were related to clinical variables. We examined malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), nitric oxide (NO), uric acid, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione, vitamin C, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and nitrotyrosine (3-NT). All markers except 4-HNE and 3-NT were studied by spectrophotometry. The expressions of 4-HNE and 3-NT were evaluated by Western blot analysis. MDA levels in patients were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.0001) while AOPP levels were similar to the control group. AGEs, NO and uric acid concentrations were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.004, p ≤ 0.005, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively). Expressions of 3-NT and 4-HNE were increased (p ≤ 0.005) similarly to SOD activity (p = 0.0001), whereas vitamin C was considerably diminished (p = 0.0001). Glutathione levels were similar to the control group. There was a positive correlation between NO and MDA with the number of drugs. The expression of 3-NT was positively related with the frequency of seizures per month. There was a negative relationship between MDA and age at onset of seizures, as well as vitamin C with seizure frequency/month. We detected an imbalance in the redox state in patients with DRCPS, supporting oxidative stress as a relevant mechanism in this pathology. Thus, it is apparent that some oxidant and antioxidant parameters are closely linked with clinical variables. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; drug-resistant epilepsy; redox; MDA; 4-HNE; 3-NT; AGEs; SOD; nitric oxide; vitamin C oxidative stress; drug-resistant epilepsy; redox; MDA; 4-HNE; 3-NT; AGEs; SOD; nitric oxide; vitamin C
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lorigados Pedre, L.; Gallardo, J.M.; Morales Chacón, L.M.; Vega García, A.; Flores-Mendoza, M.; Neri-Gómez, T.; Estupiñán Díaz, B.; Cruz-Xenes, R.M.; Pavón Fuentes, N.; Orozco-Suárez, S. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Drug Resistant Partial Complex Seizure. Behav. Sci. 2018, 8, 59.

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