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Geosciences, Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2021) – 39 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this issue, Hall et al. provide the first evidence for erosion by glacial ripping in sedimentary rock. Early Cambrian quartz sandstones at Loch Eriboll, NW Scotland, show extensive dilation along joints and bedding planes at shallow depth. Dilation was in response to very high subglacial water pressures and led to widespread brecciation. Traction from the moving glacier detached sheets and blocks of rock and reworked breccias into immature rubble tills. Ripping operated close to the margin of the ice sheet as it melted rapidly between 17.6 and 16.5 ka. View this paper.
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Article
Hydrochemistry and Evolution of Water Quality in a Context of Aridity and Increasing Agriculture in Three River Sub-Basins of Santiago Island (Cape Verde)
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060263 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 356
Abstract
In regions under development and facing recurrent droughts, increasing the area of irrigated agriculture may create additional disruption in water resources management. The present study was focused on three river sub-basins with the highest agricultural intensity (S. Miguel, Ribeira Seca and S. Domingos) [...] Read more.
In regions under development and facing recurrent droughts, increasing the area of irrigated agriculture may create additional disruption in water resources management. The present study was focused on three river sub-basins with the highest agricultural intensity (S. Miguel, Ribeira Seca and S. Domingos) in Santiago Island (Cape Verde). Sets of wells were selected to evaluate the influence of salinization and agriculture practices on the hydrochemistry. This assessment was performed by using data from the bibliography (2003) and a recent campaign (2016). The water chemistry indicates lower mineralization in the S. Miguel sub-basin. Nitrates and nitrites, typically associated with diffuse pollution, are present in all sub-basins, but with varying patterns. Additionally, sodium chloride waters occur in all the three sub-basins, especially those closest to the coastline. In turn, a bicarbonate-magnesium facies was identified in S. Domingos, at the furthest point from the coast, indicating a geological control. The comparison between the two periods suggests a decrease in water quality. The rising extension of the irrigation area associated with aridity should intensify the already observed soil salinization. Thus, the present review highlights the strategic importance of water monitoring at the basin level as a management tool for resources preservation in insular arid and developing regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Systems Quality and Pollution Control)
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Review
Advanced Methods of Joint Inversion of Multiphysics Data for Mineral Exploration
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060262 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Different geophysical methods provide information about various physical properties of rock formations and mineralization. In many cases, this information is mutually complementary. At the same time, inversion of the data for a particular survey is subject to considerable uncertainty and ambiguity as to [...] Read more.
Different geophysical methods provide information about various physical properties of rock formations and mineralization. In many cases, this information is mutually complementary. At the same time, inversion of the data for a particular survey is subject to considerable uncertainty and ambiguity as to causative body geometry and intrinsic physical property contrast. One productive approach to reducing uncertainty is to jointly invert several types of data. Non-uniqueness can also be reduced by incorporating additional information derived from available geological and/or geophysical data in the survey area to reduce the searching space for the solution. This additional information can be incorporated in the form of a joint inversion of multiphysics data. This paper presents an overview of the main ideas and principles of novel methods of joint inversion, developed over the last decade, which do not require a priori knowledge about specific empirical or statistical relationships between the different model parameters and/or their attributes. These approaches are designated as follows: (1) Gramian constraints; (2) Gramian-based structural constraints; (3) localized Gramian constraints; and (4) joint focusing constraints. We provide a short description of the mathematical foundations of each of these approaches and discuss the practical aspects of their applications in mineral exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modelling/Inversion for Mineral Exploration)
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Article
Impulsive Signals Produced by Earthquakes in Italy and Their Potential Relation with Site Effects and Structural Damage
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060261 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Near fault seismic records may contain impulsive motions in velocity-time history. The seismic records can be identified as impulsive and non-impulsive depending on the features that their waveforms have. These motions can be an indicator of directivity or fling step effect, and they [...] Read more.
Near fault seismic records may contain impulsive motions in velocity-time history. The seismic records can be identified as impulsive and non-impulsive depending on the features that their waveforms have. These motions can be an indicator of directivity or fling step effect, and they may cause dangerous effects on structures; for this reason, there is increasing attention on this subject in the last years. In this study, we collect the major earthquakes in Italy, with a magnitude large or equal to Mw 5.0, and identify the impulsive motions recorded by seismic stations. We correlate impulsive motions with directivity and fling step effects. We find that most earthquakes produced impulsive signals due to the directivity effect, though those at close stations to the 30 October 2016 Amatrice earthquake might be generated by the fling step effect. Starting from the analyzed impulses, we discuss on the potential influence of site effects on impulsive signals and suggest a characterization based on the main displacement directions of the impulsive horizontal displacements. Finally, we discuss on the damage of three churches in Emilia, which were subject to impulsive ground motion, underlying in a qualitative way, how the characteristics of the pulses may have had influences the structural response of the façades. Full article
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Article
Integration of Thermal Core Profiling and Scratch Testing for the Study of Unconventional Reservoirs
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060260 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Core analysis provides the essential information necessary for the characterization and development of hydrocarbon reservoirs. High core-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy, natural in unconventional reservoirs, complicate reservoir characterization and dictate the sampling methodology used. Continuous high-resolution thermal measurements with an optical scanner and scratcher [...] Read more.
Core analysis provides the essential information necessary for the characterization and development of hydrocarbon reservoirs. High core-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy, natural in unconventional reservoirs, complicate reservoir characterization and dictate the sampling methodology used. Continuous high-resolution thermal measurements with an optical scanner and scratcher along the core column can yield benefits in a sampling strategy. This article describes some features of the suggested integration of non-destructive thermal profiling with partially destructive scratch testing applied for the study of rocks from the Bazhenov Formation (West Siberia, Russia). The spatial variation in the unconfined compressive strength and thermal conductivity components parallel and perpendicular to bedding for more than 1000 samples are demonstrated and discussed on core and log scales. The relationships between these properties are established for different rock types composing the formation. The joint analysis allows specialists to correctly define multiscale heterogeneities and facies that would be difficult or impossible to observe with logging data analysis or geological description alone. The established relationships make it possible to partially replace the semi-destructive scratch test with non-destructive optical scanning, providing UCS estimation. One more important outcome of the present work is the lessons learned regarding how to organize future works. The integration of thermal core profiling and scratch testing data looks promising for unconventional reservoir characterization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrophysics and Geochemistry of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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Article
Characteristics and Distribution of Landslides in the Populated Hillslopes of Bujumbura, Burundi
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060259 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Accurate and detailed multitemporal inventories of landslides and their process characterization are crucial for the evaluation of landslide hazards and the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in densely-populated mountainous regions. Such investigations are, however, rare in many regions of the tropical African [...] Read more.
Accurate and detailed multitemporal inventories of landslides and their process characterization are crucial for the evaluation of landslide hazards and the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in densely-populated mountainous regions. Such investigations are, however, rare in many regions of the tropical African highlands, where landslide research is often in its infancy and not adapted to the local needs. Here, we have produced a comprehensive multitemporal investigation of the landslide processes in the hillslopes of Bujumbura, situated in the landslide-prone East African Rift. We inventoried more than 1200 landslides by combining careful field investigation and visual analysis of satellite images, very-high-resolution topographic data, and historical aerial photographs. More than 20% of the hillslopes of the city are affected by landslides. Recent landslides (post-1950s) are mostly shallow, triggered by rainfall, and located on the steepest slopes. The presence of roads and river quarrying can also control their occurrence. Deep-seated landslides typically concentrate in landscapes that have been rejuvenated through knickpoint retreat. The difference in size distributions between old and recent deep-seated landslides suggests the long-term influence of potentially changing slope-failure drivers. Of the deep-seated landslides, 66% are currently active, those being mostly earthflows connected to the river system. Gully systems causing landslides are commonly associated with the urbanization of the hillslopes. Our results provide a much more accurate record of landslide processes and their impacts in the region than was previously available. These insights will be useful for land management and disaster risk reduction strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Monitoring and Mapping)
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Article
The Use of TERRA-ASTER Satellite for Landslide Detection
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060258 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 414
Abstract
In August 2005, numerous shallow landslides occurred in the region of Vorarlberg (Austria), particularly induced by unfavourable event-related weather conditions. Two scenes of TERRA-ASTER sensor were used for the identification of the vegetation change induced by the landslides. The focus of this study [...] Read more.
In August 2005, numerous shallow landslides occurred in the region of Vorarlberg (Austria), particularly induced by unfavourable event-related weather conditions. Two scenes of TERRA-ASTER sensor were used for the identification of the vegetation change induced by the landslides. The focus of this study is the establishment of a reliable method, comparable to aerial-photo visual interpretation standards, able to identify accurately landslides by processing a series of medium-resolution remote sensing optical data, before and after a catastrophic event. A very intuitive workflow for a semi-automatic image classification for the detection of landslide-induced change on the image data is proposed. The accuracy and validation assessment was carried out by means of a landslide (aerial-photos derived) inventory. By taking into account the central area of investigation, the landslide detection method, which adopted an innovative double classification workflow (a first supervised followed by an unsupervised algorithm), delivered a very high producer accuracy (81.5%) coupled to a more-than-acceptable user accuracy (68.9%) and kappa coefficient (72.9%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Hazards)
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Article
A Comparison Study of Explicit and Implicit 3-D Transient Electromagnetic Forward Modeling Schemes on Multi-Resolution Grid
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060257 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
This study compares the efficiency of 3-D transient electromagnetic forward modeling schemes on the multi-resolution grid for various modeling scenarios. We developed time-domain finite-difference modeling based on the explicit scheme earlier. In this work, we additionally implement 3-D transient electromagnetic forward modeling using [...] Read more.
This study compares the efficiency of 3-D transient electromagnetic forward modeling schemes on the multi-resolution grid for various modeling scenarios. We developed time-domain finite-difference modeling based on the explicit scheme earlier. In this work, we additionally implement 3-D transient electromagnetic forward modeling using the backward Euler implicit scheme. The iterative solver is used for solving the system of equations and requires a proper initial guess that has significant effect on the convergence. The standard approach usually employs the solution of a previous time step as an initial guess, which might be too conservative. Instead, we test various initial guesses based on the linear extrapolation or linear combination of the solutions from several previous steps. We build up the implicit scheme forward modeling on the multi-resolution grid, which allows for the adjustment of the horizontal resolution with depth, hence improving the performance of the forward operator. Synthetic examples show the implicit scheme forward modeling using the linearly combined initial guess estimate on the multi-resolution grid additionally reduces the run time compared to the standard initial guess approach. The result of comparison between the implicit scheme developed here with the previously developed explicit scheme shows that the explicit scheme modeling is more efficient for more conductive background models often found in environmental studies. However, the implicit scheme modeling is more suitable for the simulation with highly resistive background models, usually occurring in mineral exploration scenarios. Thus, the inverse problem can be solved using more efficient forward solution depending on the modeling setup and background resistivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modelling/Inversion for Mineral Exploration)
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Review
Digital Elevation Models of Rockfalls and Landslides: A Review and Meta-Analysis
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060256 - 14 Jun 2021
Viewed by 572
Abstract
The scope of this paper is to summarize previous research pertaining to the use of digital elevation models (DEMs) and digital terrain models (DTMs) in the study of rockfalls and landslides. Research from 1983 to 2020 was surveyed in order to understand how [...] Read more.
The scope of this paper is to summarize previous research pertaining to the use of digital elevation models (DEMs) and digital terrain models (DTMs) in the study of rockfalls and landslides. Research from 1983 to 2020 was surveyed in order to understand how the spatial resolution of DEMs and DTMs affects landslide detection, validation, and mapping. Another major question examined was the relationship between the DEM resolution and the extent of the rockfall or landslide event. It emerged from the study that, for landslides, the majority of researchers used DEMs with a spatial resolution of between 10 m and 30 m, while for rockfalls, they used DEMs with a spatial resolution of between 5 m and 20 m. We concluded that DEMs with a very high resolution (less than 5 m) are suitable for local-scale occurrences, while medium-resolution (from 20 m to 30 m) DEMs are suitable for regional-scale events. High resolution is associated with high accuracy and detailed structural characteristics, while medium accuracy better illustrates the topographic features. A low pixel size (more than 90 m) is not recommended for this type of research. Susceptibility maps, inventory maps, hazard risk zones, and vulnerability assessments are some of the main tools used in landslide/rockfall investigations, and topographic indexes, methods, models, and software optimize the reliability of the results. All of these parameters are closely related to DEMs and DTMs as the cell size affects the credibility of the final outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rock Fall Protection for Surface Mining)
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Article
Associating Climatic Trends with Stochastic Modelling of Flow Sequences
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060255 - 13 Jun 2021
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Water is essential to all lifeforms including various ecological, geological, hydrological, and climatic processes/activities. With the changing climate, associated El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events appear to stimulate highly uncertain patterns of precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (EV) processes across the globe. Changes in P and EV patterns are highly sensitive to temperature (T) variation and thus also affect natural streamflow processes. This paper presents a novel suite of stochastic modelling approaches for associating streamflow sequences with climatic trends. The present work is built upon a stochastic modelling framework (HMM_GP) that integrates a hidden Markov model (HMM) with a generalised Pareto (GP) distribution for simulating synthetic flow sequences. The GP distribution within the HMM_GP model aims to improve the model’s efficiency in effectively simulating extreme events. This paper further investigated the potential of generalised extreme value distribution (GEV) coupled with an HMM model within a regression-based scheme for associating the impacts of precipitation and evapotranspiration processes on streamflow. The statistical characteristic of the pioneering modelling schematic was thoroughly assessed for its suitability to generate and predict synthetic river flow sequences for a set of future climatic projections, specifically during ENSO events. The new modelling schematic can be adapted for a range of applications in hydrology, agriculture, and climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Mathematical/Statistical Techniques to Extreme Events)
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Article
Seismicity and the State of Stress in the Dezful Embayment, Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060254 - 12 Jun 2021
Viewed by 510
Abstract
This study focuses on determining the orientation and constraining the magnitude of present-day stresses in the Dezful Embayment in Iran’s Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt. Two datasets are used: the first includes petrophysical data from 25 wells (3 to 4 km deep), and [...] Read more.
This study focuses on determining the orientation and constraining the magnitude of present-day stresses in the Dezful Embayment in Iran’s Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt. Two datasets are used: the first includes petrophysical data from 25 wells (3 to 4 km deep), and the second contains 108 earthquake focal mechanisms, mostly occurring in blind active basement faults (5 to 20 km deep). Formal stress inversion analysis of the focal mechanisms demonstrates that there is currently a compressional stress state (Aφ=2.02.2) in the basement. The seismologically determined SHmax direction is 37° ± 10°, nearly perpendicular to the strike of most faults in the region. However, borehole geomechanics analysis using rock strength and drilling evidence leads to the counterintuitive result that the shallow state of stress is a normal/strike-slip regime. These results are consistent with the low seismicity level in the sedimentary cover in the Dezful Embayment, and may be evidence of stress decoupling due to the existence of salt layers. The stress state situation in the field was used to identify the optimally oriented fault planes and the fault friction coefficient. This finding also aligns with the prediction Coulomb faulting theory in that the N-S strike-slip basement Kazerun Fault System has an unfavorable orientation for slip in a reverse fault regime with an average SW-NE SHmax orientation. These results are useful for determining the origin of seismic activity in the basin and better assessing fault-associated seismic hazards in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geomechanics)
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Article
Legacy of Human Impact on Geomorphic Processes in Mountain Headwater Streams in the Perspective of European Cultural Landscapes
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060253 - 12 Jun 2021
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Mountain headwater streams are still somewhat on the boundary of interest regarding possible human impact on their morphology or geomorphic processes, which may be caused by our perception of mountains as islands of relatively preserved natural conditions. This paper summarizes the past and [...] Read more.
Mountain headwater streams are still somewhat on the boundary of interest regarding possible human impact on their morphology or geomorphic processes, which may be caused by our perception of mountains as islands of relatively preserved natural conditions. This paper summarizes the past and present human pressure on the headwater streams that drain the highest mountain ranges of the Outer Western Carpathians in Czechia. Anthropogenic pressure began in this region in the 16th century during a colonization of the mountains and continued by timber harvesting, timber floating, and construction of torrent control works until present. Each of these interventions produced a morphological response of the channels in relation to altered sediment or water fluxes at the whole catchment scale or within longitudinal stream profiles. Because it is highly unlikely to reach pre-settlement conditions of the channels, the management effort should be concentrated to achieve realistic restoration targets under the present socioeconomic circumstances by taking into consideration the morphodynamical specifics of mountain headwater streams. Full article
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Article
Alginite-Rich Layers in the Bazhenov Deposits of Western Siberia
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060252 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 404
Abstract
In this study, we identified the luminescent layers containing a significant amount of alginite in the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Bazhenov Formation named “the alginite-rich layers”. Lithological and geochemical methods were used to determine distinctive features of these layers and to evaluate their impact [...] Read more.
In this study, we identified the luminescent layers containing a significant amount of alginite in the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Bazhenov Formation named “the alginite-rich layers”. Lithological and geochemical methods were used to determine distinctive features of these layers and to evaluate their impact on the total petroleum generation potential of the Bazhenov Formation. We have shown that the composition of the alginite-rich layers differs significantly from the organic-rich siliceous Bazhenov rocks. Rock-Eval pyrolysis, bulk kinetics of thermal decomposition, elemental analysis, and the composition of pyrolysis products indicate type I kerogen to be the predominant component of the organic matter (OM). Isotope composition of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur was used to provide insights into their origin and formation pathways. The luminescent alginite-rich layers proved to be good regional stratigraphic markers of the Bazhenov Formation due to widespread distribution over the central part of Western Siberia. They can also be applied for maturity evaluation of the deposits from immature to middle of the oil window, since the luminescence of the layers changes the color and intensity during maturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrophysics and Geochemistry of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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Article
Unique Path Method of the Pinch-Out Profile Based on Unified Stratigraphic Sequence
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060251 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Pinch-outs refers to the gradual thinning of the thickness of the sedimentary layer laterally until there is no deposition and are a major topic of modern research on the automated drawing of geological profiles. The rapid development of smart geological systems imposed an [...] Read more.
Pinch-outs refers to the gradual thinning of the thickness of the sedimentary layer laterally until there is no deposition and are a major topic of modern research on the automated drawing of geological profiles. The rapid development of smart geological systems imposed an urgent need for high-speed, accurate methods to plot pinch-outs. However, because of their complexity, excessive number of branch paths, low rendering speed, and poor reliability in the case of large-scale data, the existing pinch-out drawing methods are inadequate and cannot satisfy the modeling needs of large-scale geological projects. To resolve these problems, based on unified stratigraphic sequences, this paper proposes a unique path method for drawing pinch-out profiles by converting the principle of plotting of pinch-outs into controlling the appearance of stratigraphic boundaries, and a high-speed and reliable method for drawing pinch-out in digital profiles is also proposed. The proposed method is successfully applied to drawing geological profiles for an urban geological project in East China, and greatly reduces the complexity of the method without reducing the drawing accuracy. Compared with those of other methods, the speed and reliability are significantly improved. Therefore, the unique path method for drawing pinch-out profiles based on a unified stratigraphic sequence proposed in the writers’ previous paper effectively avoids the excessive branch paths, slow speed, and insufficient reliability of the existing methods and provides effective and reliable support for the rapid drawing of profiles in smart geological systems. Full article
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Review
Mitigation of Uranium Mining Impacts—A Review on Groundwater Remediation Technologies
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060250 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Groundwater contamination is one of the most concerning issues from uranium mining activities. Radionuclides cannot be destroyed or degraded, unlike some organic contaminants (and similar to metals). Besides, sites, where radionuclides may be found, are mainly radioactive and mixed waste disposal areas, and [...] Read more.
Groundwater contamination is one of the most concerning issues from uranium mining activities. Radionuclides cannot be destroyed or degraded, unlike some organic contaminants (and similar to metals). Besides, sites, where radionuclides may be found, are mainly radioactive and mixed waste disposal areas, and therefore many other contaminants may also be present in groundwater. The state-of-the-art of environmental technology is continually changing, and thus a review on technologies application is of utmost relevance. This work gives an overview of the available remediation technologies for groundwater contaminated with radionuclides resulting mainly from uranium mining. For each technology, a theoretical background is provided; the state of development, limitations, efficiency, and potential adverse effects are also approached. Examples of application and performance monitoring of remediation progress are described, and criteria for the selection of the appropriate remediation technology are given. The most effective remediation technology will always be site-specific as a result of the multitude of geographic and operational factors that influence the effluent quality and impact the technical feasibility of treatment methods. Ion exchange, chemical precipitation, and membrane filtration have been considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as best demonstrated available technologies for radium and uranium removal. Several factors have been demonstrated to influence the selection of a remediation technology (technological aspects and non-technical factors), but even for the technologies demonstrated or industrial proven, two important challenges remain; the (still) mobile radionuclides and the generation of secondary wastes. Besides, remediation technologies are constantly evolving, but future advancement depends on rigorously monitored, documented efficiency, and results achieved. Therefore, the technologies approached in this paper are by no means exhaustive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Systems Quality and Pollution Control)
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Article
Sensitivity of Earthquake Damage Estimation to the Input Data (Soil Characterization Maps and Building Exposure): Case Study in the Luchon Valley, France
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060249 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 697
Abstract
This article studies the effects of the soil data and exposure data of residential building inventories, as well as their spatial resolution, on seismic damage and loss estimates for a given earthquake scenario. Our aim is to investigate how beneficial it would be [...] Read more.
This article studies the effects of the soil data and exposure data of residential building inventories, as well as their spatial resolution, on seismic damage and loss estimates for a given earthquake scenario. Our aim is to investigate how beneficial it would be to acquire higher resolution inventories at the cost of additional effort and resources. Seismic damage computations are used to evaluate the relative influence of varying spatial resolution on a given damage model, where other parameters were held constant. We use soil characterization maps and building exposure inventories, provided at different scales from different sources: the European database, a national dataset at the municipality scale, and local field investigations. Soil characteristics are used to evaluate site effects and to assign amplification factors to the strong motion applied to the exposed areas. Exposure datasets are used to assign vulnerability indices to sets of buildings, from which a damage distribution is produced (based on the applied seismic intensity). The different spatial resolutions are benchmarked in a case-study area which is subject to moderate-to-average seismicity levels (Luchon valley in the Pyrénées, France). It was found that the proportion of heavily damaged buildings is underestimated when using the European soil map and the European building database, while the more refined databases (national/regional vs. local maps) result in similar estimates for moderate earthquake scenarios. Finally, we highlight the importance of pooling open access data from different sources, but caution the challenges of combining different datasets, especially depending on the type of application that is pursued (e.g., for risk mitigation or rapid response tools). Full article
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Article
Lateral Constrained Inversion of DC-Resistivity Data Observed at the Area North of Tenth of Ramadan City, Egypt for Groundwater Exploration
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060248 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 683
Abstract
In the arid climate area north of Tenth of Ramadan City, southeast of the Nile Delta, Egypt, it is necessary to search for additional water resources for sustainable developments such as agricultural and industrial activities. Thirty two vertical electrical soundings (VES) of a [...] Read more.
In the arid climate area north of Tenth of Ramadan City, southeast of the Nile Delta, Egypt, it is necessary to search for additional water resources for sustainable developments such as agricultural and industrial activities. Thirty two vertical electrical soundings (VES) of a electrical resistivity (DC) survey were carried out along four main profiles by using the Schlumberger array with electrode distances (AB/2) up to 500 m, to explore the shallow Pleistocene groundwater aquifer. The collected data was interpreted by a one-dimensional laterally constrained inversion (1D-LCI) and two-dimensional inversion algorithms to derive a best fit layered-earth resistivity model. The derived resistivity sections are geologically well interpreted based on information taken from the available water boreholes (P2-Well and P3-Well). The lateral constraints are part of the inversion where all data sets are inverted simultaneously, and consequently the output models are balanced between the constraints and the data-model fit. The 1D-LCI offers good analysis of the model parameters, which was successfully used to characterize a zone of groundwater aquifer, as it produces a laterally smooth model with sharp layer boundaries. The 1D-LCI inversion results show that the study area is subdivided into five geo-electrical layers of varied resistivity and thickness. In particular, the resistivity values of the last layer range between 9.3 and 110 Ωm representing the existing shallow Pleistocene aquifer located at depths between 134.5 and 118.4 m. Such results are tied and confirmed well with the results of the 2D inversion of the DC data. It reveals three interpreted geo-electric layers along the four profiles and shows that the area is affected by some normal faults striking nearly in the E–W direction. The very low resistivities of the groundwater aquifer beneath the agricultural part of the survey area probably indicates contamination due to the possible effect of irrigation operated in the cultivated lowlands. The results obtained could help the stakeholder to find additional information about the ground water aquifers in the newly reclaimed arid area and possible locations of new sites for drilling new water wells as additional water resources. Full article
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Technical Note
Reappraisal of the ASTM/AASHTO Standard Rolling Device Method for Plastic Limit Determination of Fine-Grained Soils
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060247 - 06 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
Given its apparent limitations, various attempts have been made to develop alternative testing approaches to the standardized rolling-thread plastic limit (PLRT) method (for fine-grained soils), targeting higher degrees of repeatability and reproducibility. Among these, device-rolling techniques, including the method described in [...] Read more.
Given its apparent limitations, various attempts have been made to develop alternative testing approaches to the standardized rolling-thread plastic limit (PLRT) method (for fine-grained soils), targeting higher degrees of repeatability and reproducibility. Among these, device-rolling techniques, including the method described in ASTM D4318/AASHTO T90 standards, based on original work by Bobrowski and Griekspoor (BG) and which follows the same basic principles as the standard thread-rolling (by hand) test, have been highly underrated by some researchers. To better understand the true potentials and/or limitations of the BG method for soil plasticity determination (i.e., PLBG), this paper presents a critical reappraisal of the PLRT–PLBG relationship using a comprehensive statistical analysis performed on a large and diverse database of 60 PLRT–PLBG test pairs. It is demonstrated that for a given fine-grained soil, the BG and RT methods produce essentially similar PL values. The 95% lower and upper (water content) statistical agreement limits between PLBG and PLRT were, respectively, obtained as −5.03% and +4.51%, and both deemed “statistically insignificant” when compared to the inductively-defined reference limit of ±8% (i.e., the highest possible difference in PLRT based on its repeatability, as reported in the literature). Furthermore, the likelihoods of PLBG underestimating and overestimating PLRT were 50% and 40%, respectively; debunking the notion presented by some researchers that the BG method generally tends to greatly underestimate PLRT. It is also shown that the degree of underestimation/overestimation does not systematically change with changes in basic soil properties; suggesting that the differences between PLBG and PLRT are most likely random in nature. Compared to PLRT, the likelihood of achieving consistent soil classifications employing PLBG (along with the liquid limit) was shown to be 98%, with the identified discrepancies being cases that plot relatively close to the A-Line. As such, PLBG can be used with confidence for soil classification purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geomechanics)
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Article
SyPEAH: The WebAPP System for Protection and Education to Archaeological Heritage in the Parco Archeologico del Colosseo
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060246 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Archaeological sites are affected by changes due to a natural deterioration process over time. If not prevented, this may compromise the functionality of the cultural property, and in turn become pathological and result in degradation. Monitoring through innovative technologies paves the way towards [...] Read more.
Archaeological sites are affected by changes due to a natural deterioration process over time. If not prevented, this may compromise the functionality of the cultural property, and in turn become pathological and result in degradation. Monitoring through innovative technologies paves the way towards an effective planned maintenance activity and therefore preventive conservation. The monitoring project of the Parco Archeologico del Colosseo was inspired by the desire to build a system of protection and conservation at the service of sustainable exploitation. Established by Ministerial Decree 12 January 2017 in art. 3, the park is an independent cultural site of the Ministry of Culture. It includes the central area of Rome—the Roman Forum, the Palatine, the Colosseum and the Domus Aurea—and has an extension of about 77 hectares, of which about 32 are buildings. With these objectives, the Parco Archeologico del Colosseo has launched a static and dynamic monitoring project consisting of six fundamental levels of activities. The project involves the creation of a multi-parameter system of permanent control of the entire archaeological area, with the associated indicators of the level of risk, for which it is necessary the combined use of innovative technologies. Full article
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Article
Plio-Pleistocene Landscape Evolution of the Turano River Basin (Central Apennines, Italy): Insights from Continental Deposits’ Analysis and Drainage Network Development
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060245 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Quaternary continental deposits record spatio-temporal changes of the landscape and offer insights for drainage network analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. This paper focuses on the Turano River, a left tributary of the Velino River, which flows in the southwestern Abruzzo area at the boundary [...] Read more.
Quaternary continental deposits record spatio-temporal changes of the landscape and offer insights for drainage network analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. This paper focuses on the Turano River, a left tributary of the Velino River, which flows in the southwestern Abruzzo area at the boundary with Lazio Region. Its basin preserves lithological and morphological field evidence particularly suitable for reconstructing the long-term geomorphological evolution of the Central Apennines and the drainage network development. In detail, the Turano River was investigated through a drainage basin-scale analysis incorporating morphometric analysis, field mapping, continental deposits analysis, and integrated drainage network analysis. This approach allowed us to define a drainage network reversal process, clearly highlighted by the spatial arrangement of continental deposits, spanning from Upper Pliocene to Holocene. The results also indicated tectonic activity as the main factor driving incision and river inversion processes. The work contributes to identifying and describing the main steps of the Quaternary landscape evolution of this mountainous catchment and its morphoneotectonic framework. Therefore, it could represent a methodological tool for multidisciplinary studies in similar mountainous catchments to support any territorial planning activity, from large infrastructure localization (i.e., artificial dams) to sustainable land management. Full article
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Article
Laboratory Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Draupne Shale Relevant for CO2 Seal Integrity
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060244 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 557
Abstract
The mechanical integrity of caprocks overlying injection formations is one of the key factors for safe storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations. Undrained effects caused by CO2 injection on strength and elastic parameters should be properly considered in the operational design [...] Read more.
The mechanical integrity of caprocks overlying injection formations is one of the key factors for safe storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations. Undrained effects caused by CO2 injection on strength and elastic parameters should be properly considered in the operational design to avoid fracture creation, fault reactivation and unwanted surface uplift. This study presents results from eleven undrained triaxial compression tests and one oedometer test on the Draupne shale, which is the main caprock of the Smeaheia site in the North Sea, to extract parameters relevant for seal integrity. Tests have been performed on samples oriented perpendicular to and parallel with the horizontal layering of the rock to study the effects of sample orientation relative to the loading direction. Results from undrained triaxial tests showed only minor effects of sample orientation on friction and cohesion. However, when loading during undrained shearing was parallel with layering (horizontal samples), measured Young’s modulus was roughly 1.4 times higher than for the vertical samples. Undrained shearing of vertical samples generated 30–50% more excess pore pressure than for horizontal samples with similar consolidation stress owing to more volume compaction of vertical samples. With apparent pre-consolidation stress determined from a high-stress oedometer test, the normalized undrained shear strength was found to correlate well with the overconsolidation ratio following the SHANSEP (Stress History and Normalized Soil Engineering Properties) procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Integrity of CO2 Storage Sites)
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Article
Stiffness and Strength of Stabilized Organic Soils—Part I/II: Experimental Database and Statistical Description for Machine Learning Modelling
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060243 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 438
Abstract
This paper presents the experimental database and corresponding statistical analysis (Part I), which serves as a basis to perform the corresponding parametric analysis and machine learning modelling (Part II) of a comprehensive study on organic soil strength and stiffness, stabilized via the wet [...] Read more.
This paper presents the experimental database and corresponding statistical analysis (Part I), which serves as a basis to perform the corresponding parametric analysis and machine learning modelling (Part II) of a comprehensive study on organic soil strength and stiffness, stabilized via the wet soil mixing method. The experimental database includes unconfined compression tests performed under laboratory-controlled conditions to investigate the impact of soil type, the soil’s organic content, the soil’s initial natural water content, binder type, binder quantity, grout to soil ratio, water to binder ratio, curing time, temperature, curing relative humidity and carbon dioxide content on the stabilized organic specimens’ stiffness and strength. A descriptive statistical analysis complements the description of the experimental database, along with a qualitative study on the stabilization hydration process via scanning electron microscopy images. Results confirmed findings on the use of Portland cement alone and a mix of Portland cement with ground granulated blast furnace slag as suitable binders for soil stabilization. Findings on mixes including lime and magnesium oxide cements demonstrated minimal stabilization. Specimen size affected stiffness, but not the strength for mixes of peat and Portland cement. The experimental database, along with all produced data analyses, are available at the Texas Data Repository as indicated in the Data Availability Statement below, to allow for data reproducibility and promote the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning competing modelling techniques as the ones presented in Part II of this paper. Full article
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Article
Toward Workable and Cost-Efficient Monitoring of Unstable Rock Compartments with Ambient Noise
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060242 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Ambient Vibration-Based Structural Health Monitoring (AVB–SHM) studies on prone-to-fall rock compartments have recently succeeded in detecting both pre-failure damaging processes and reinforcement provided by bolting. The current AVB–SHM instrumentation layout is yet generally an overkill, creating cost and power issues and sometimes requiring [...] Read more.
Ambient Vibration-Based Structural Health Monitoring (AVB–SHM) studies on prone-to-fall rock compartments have recently succeeded in detecting both pre-failure damaging processes and reinforcement provided by bolting. The current AVB–SHM instrumentation layout is yet generally an overkill, creating cost and power issues and sometimes requiring advanced signal processing techniques. In this article, we paved the way toward an innovative edge-computing approach tested on ambient vibration records made during the bolting of a ~760 m3 limestone rock column (Vercors, France). First, we established some guidelines for prone-to-fall rock column AVB–SHM by comparing several basic, computing-efficient, seismic parameters (i.e., Fast Fourier Transform, Horizontal to Vertical and Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratios). All three parameters performed well in revealing the unstable compartment’s fundamental resonance frequency. HHSR appeared as the most consistent spectral estimator, succeeding in revealing both the fundamental and higher modes. Only the fundamental mode should be trustfully monitored with HVSR since higher peaks may be artifacts. Then, the first application of a novelty detection algorithm on an unstable rock column AVB–SHM case study showed the following: the feasibility of automatic removing the adverse thermomechanical fluctuations in column’s dynamic parameters based on machine learning, as well as the systematic detection of clear, permanent change in column’s dynamic behavior after grout injection and hardening around the bolts (i1 and i2). This implementation represents a significant workload reduction, compared to physical-based algorithms or numerical twin modeling, and shows better robustness with regard to instrumentation gaps. We believe that edge-computing monitoring systems combining basic seismic signal processing techniques and automatic detection algorithms could help facilitate AVB–SHM of remote natural structures such as prone-to-fall rock compartments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Monitoring and Mapping)
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Article
Spatio-Seasonal Hypoxia/Anoxia Dynamics and Sill Circulation Patterns Linked to Natural Ventilation Drivers, in a Mediterranean Landlocked Embayment: Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060241 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Amvrakikos Gulf is a Mediterranean landlocked, fjord-like embayment and marine protected area suffering from natural, human-induced hypoxia/anoxia and massive fish mortality events. Seasonal marine geophysical and oceanographic surveys were conducted focusing on the water-circulation patterns at the sill and the spatial-seasonal distribution of [...] Read more.
Amvrakikos Gulf is a Mediterranean landlocked, fjord-like embayment and marine protected area suffering from natural, human-induced hypoxia/anoxia and massive fish mortality events. Seasonal marine geophysical and oceanographic surveys were conducted focusing on the water-circulation patterns at the sill and the spatial-seasonal distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the gulf. Detailed surveys at the sill, the only communication route between the gulf and the open sea, revealed a two-layer water circulation pattern (top brackish outflow–bottom seawater inflow) and the role of the tide in the daily water exchange. Statistical analysis of the known natural drivers of DO distribution (density difference between the Ionian Sea and Amvrakikos, river inflow, wind) revealed that horizontal density gradients strongly affect anoxia reduction and seafloor oxygenation, while river inflow and wind mainly oxygenate volume/areas located above or within the pycnocline range, with DO concentrations > 2 mg/L. Complex geomorphology with well-formed internal basins contributes to the development and preservation of low DO conditions below the pycnocline. Finally, 43% of the seafloor and 36% of the gulf’s total water volume are permanently hypoxic, and reach a maximum of 70% and 62%, respectively, in September and July. This work is tailored to future ecosystem management plans, decisions, and future research on coastal ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geophysics)
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Article
Heat Flow Measurements at the Danube Deep-Sea Fan, Western Black Sea
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060240 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Seafloor heat flow measurements are utilized to determine the geothermal regime of the Danube deep-sea fan in the western Black Sea and are presented in the larger context of regional gas hydrate occurrences. Heat flow data were collected across paleo-channels in water depths [...] Read more.
Seafloor heat flow measurements are utilized to determine the geothermal regime of the Danube deep-sea fan in the western Black Sea and are presented in the larger context of regional gas hydrate occurrences. Heat flow data were collected across paleo-channels in water depths of 550–1460 m. Heat flow across levees ranges from 25 to 30 mW m−2 but is up to 65 mW m−2 on channel floors. Gravity coring reveals sediment layers typical of the western Black Sea, consisting of three late Pleistocene to Holocene units, notably red clay within the lowermost unit cored. Heat flow derived from the bottom-simulating reflector (BSR), assumed to represent the base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), deviates from seafloor measurements. These discrepancies are linked either to fast sedimentation or slumping and associated variations in sediment physical properties. Topographic effects account of up to 50% of heat flow deviations from average values. Combined with climate-induced variations in seafloor temperature and sea-level since the last glacial maximum large uncertainties in the prediction of the base of the GHSZ remain. A regional representative heat flow value is ~30 mW m−2 for the study region but deviations from this value may be up to 100%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Heat Flow Measurements)
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Article
An Exploratory Study of Geospace Perturbations Using Financial Analysis Tools in the Context of Complex Systems
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060239 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 719
Abstract
In the frame of complex systems research, methods used to quantitatively analyze specific dynamic phenomena are often used to analyze phenomena from other disciplines on the grounds that are governed by similar dynamics. Technical analysis is considered the oldest, currently omnipresent, method for [...] Read more.
In the frame of complex systems research, methods used to quantitatively analyze specific dynamic phenomena are often used to analyze phenomena from other disciplines on the grounds that are governed by similar dynamics. Technical analysis is considered the oldest, currently omnipresent, method for financial markets analysis, which uses past prices aiming at the possible short-term forecast of future prices. This work is the first attempt to explore the applicability of technical analysis tools on disturbance storm time (Dst) index time series, aiming at the identification of similar features between the Dst time series during magnetic storms (MSs) and asset price time series. We employ the following financial analysis tools: simple moving average (SMA), Bollinger bands, and relative strength index (RSI), formulating an analysis approach based on various features, appearing in financial time series during high volatility periods, that could be found during the different phases of the evolution of an MS (onset, main development, and recovery phase), focusing on the temporal sequence they occur. The applicability of the proposed analysis approach is examined on several MS events and the results reveal similar behavior with the financial time series in high volatility periods. We postulate that these specialized data analysis methods could be combined in the future with other statistical and complex systems time series analysis methods in order to form a useful toolbox for the study of geospace perturbations related to natural hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detecting Geospace Perturbations Caused by Earth)
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Article
Identifying 3000-Year Old Human Interaction Spheres in Central Fiji through Lapita Ceramic Sand-Temper Analyses
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060238 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Petrographic analyses of sand tempers in Pacific Island potsherds reveal information about ancient human interactions within archipelagic contexts. By comparison with bedrock mineralogy, analyses of 45 sherds from the Lapita settlement at Naitabale on Moturiki Island (central Fiji) show that most sherds were [...] Read more.
Petrographic analyses of sand tempers in Pacific Island potsherds reveal information about ancient human interactions within archipelagic contexts. By comparison with bedrock mineralogy, analyses of 45 sherds from the Lapita settlement at Naitabale on Moturiki Island (central Fiji) show that most sherds were manufactured locally but that a minority is exotic. Using ternary plots of LF-QF-FM (LF—lithic fragments; QF—quartz + feldspar; FM—ferromagnesian), it is shown that exotic material (either pots or temper sands) most likely came from elsewhere in Fiji, probably southeast Viti Levu Island, central Lau, Lomaiviti and Kadavu. Geoscientific analyses of archaeological samples therefore gives us insights into how people likely interacted within the Fiji Archipelago three millennia ago. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Geoscience of the Pacific Islands Region: Theory and Practice)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Variability of Extreme Wave Storms in a Beach Tourism Destination Area
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060237 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
This study explores the spatiotemporal variability of extreme wave storms around the Canary archipelago, with special focus on the southern coastal flank of Tenerife island, a strategic beach tourism destination of large socioeconomic importance. To this end, experimental and simulated data of winds [...] Read more.
This study explores the spatiotemporal variability of extreme wave storms around the Canary archipelago, with special focus on the southern coastal flank of Tenerife island, a strategic beach tourism destination of large socioeconomic importance. To this end, experimental and simulated data of winds and waves are used to study the severity, seasonality, and directionality of wave storms with considerable potential to cause significant impact on beaches. Furthermore, tidal experimental records are employed to test the joint occurrence of wave storms and significantly high sea levels. Long-term statistical analysis of extreme wave storms at different locations reveals a complex spatial pattern of wave storminess around the islands and in the southern flank of Tenerife, due to the intricacy of the coastline geometry, the presence of deep channels between islands, the high altitude and complex topography of the islands, and the sheltering effects exerted by each island over the others, depending on the directionality of the incident wave fields. In particular, south of Tenerife, the energy content and directionality of wave storms show substantial spatial variability, while the timing of extreme wave storms throughout the year exhibits a marked seasonal character. A specific extreme storm is examined in detail, as an illustrative case study of severe beach erosion and infrastructure damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shoreline Dynamics and Beach Erosion)
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Article
Distribution and Assessment of Trace Elements Contamination in Sediments of Conceição River Basin, Brazil
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060236 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 533
Abstract
The Conceição river basin, in Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Iron Quadrangle), Brazil, has a long mining history which dates back to the late 17th century, with large gold and iron mines. These activities may be associated with river sediment contamination by trace elements, which were [...] Read more.
The Conceição river basin, in Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Iron Quadrangle), Brazil, has a long mining history which dates back to the late 17th century, with large gold and iron mines. These activities may be associated with river sediment contamination by trace elements, which were evaluated in this paper by the enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). Potential ecological risks, assessed by combining sediment quality control guidelines (SQCG) and potential ecological risk indexes (Er and RI), are presented. Anomalous values for As (92.5 mg·kg−1), Cd (22.49 mg·kg−1), Cr (2582 mg·kg−1), Cu (65.9 mg·kg−1), Pb (58.6 mg·kg−1) and Zn (133.4 mg·kg−1) are observed. The EF and CF indexes indicate contamination by Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn in at least one site, with the highest values for Fe and Mn downstream of the iron mines, and Cr and Ni close to the gold mines. According to the SQGC and Er, As, Cd, Cr, and Ni are the most probable to result in adverse effects on sediment-dwelling organisms in this study. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) indicate distinct lithological units as sources of the analyzed elements, which, associated with the indexes, made it possible for the first time to delimit and classify the high concentrations of some analyzed elements as contamination in the Conceição river basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Systems Quality and Pollution Control)
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Article
An Integrated Approach for Formation Micro-Image Rock Typing Based on Petrography Data: A Case Study in Shallow Marine Carbonates
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060235 - 30 May 2021
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Core rock-typing (RT) is commonly used for creating geologically reliable models of porous media in carbonate reservoirs. This approach is more advanced than the traditional porosity–permeability relationship and is based on the division of carbonate rocks into groups, using common classifications (lithofacies, FZI, [...] Read more.
Core rock-typing (RT) is commonly used for creating geologically reliable models of porous media in carbonate reservoirs. This approach is more advanced than the traditional porosity–permeability relationship and is based on the division of carbonate rocks into groups, using common classifications (lithofacies, FZI, Winland–Pittman, etc.). These clustering methods can provide either geological or petrophysical descriptions of the identified rock types. Besides, the connection of identified core rock types with standard logs could be challenging due to the different scales of measurement. This paper considers the creation of a new approach, named “integrated rock-typing,” which connects geologically and petrophysically driven rock types using borehole image logs. The methodology was applied to an Upper Devonian–Lower Carboniferous carbonate field. The workflow comprises borehole image structural/textural analysis with vug fraction identification, quantitative geological descriptions from thin sections, and petrophysical measurements. The geological section is divided into six rock types, which were controlled by sedimentary and diagenetic processes. The created Rock Type Catalogue provides clear links between rock types and log data, including wells with standard suites of logs. The results will be useful for geological modelling and validation of the future drilling strategy for the studied field. Full article
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Article
Efficiency of Intensity Measures Considering Near- and Far-Fault Ground Motion Records
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060234 - 30 May 2021
Viewed by 570
Abstract
This paper focuses on the identification of high-efficiency intensity measures to predict the seismic response of buildings affected by near- and far-fault ground motion records. Near-fault ground motion has received special attention, as it tends to increase the expected damage to civil structures [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the identification of high-efficiency intensity measures to predict the seismic response of buildings affected by near- and far-fault ground motion records. Near-fault ground motion has received special attention, as it tends to increase the expected damage to civil structures compared to that from ruptures originating further afield. In order to verify this tendency, the nonlinear dynamic response of 3D multi-degree-of-freedom models is estimated by using a subset of records whose distance to the epicenter is lower than 10 km. In addition, to quantify how much the expected demand may increase because of the proximity to the fault, another subset of records, whose distance to the epicenter is in the range between 10 and 30 km, has been analyzed. Then, spectral and energy-based intensity measures as well as those obtained from specific computations of the ground motion record are calculated and correlated to several engineering demand parameters. From these analyses, fragility curves are derived and compared for both subsets of records. It has been observed that the subset of records nearer to the fault tends to produce fragility functions with higher probabilities of exceedance than the ones derived for far-fault records. Results also show that the efficiency of the intensity measures is similar for both subsets of records, but it varies depending on the engineering demand parameter to be predicted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Analysis of Near-Source Strong Ground Motion)
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