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Review

Digital Elevation Models of Rockfalls and Landslides: A Review and Meta-Analysis

Division of Applied Geology and Geophysics, Department of Geology, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
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Academic Editors: Hans-Balder Havenith and Jesus Martinez-Frias
Geosciences 2021, 11(6), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060256
Received: 8 April 2021 / Revised: 7 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rock Fall Protection for Surface Mining)
The scope of this paper is to summarize previous research pertaining to the use of digital elevation models (DEMs) and digital terrain models (DTMs) in the study of rockfalls and landslides. Research from 1983 to 2020 was surveyed in order to understand how the spatial resolution of DEMs and DTMs affects landslide detection, validation, and mapping. Another major question examined was the relationship between the DEM resolution and the extent of the rockfall or landslide event. It emerged from the study that, for landslides, the majority of researchers used DEMs with a spatial resolution of between 10 m and 30 m, while for rockfalls, they used DEMs with a spatial resolution of between 5 m and 20 m. We concluded that DEMs with a very high resolution (less than 5 m) are suitable for local-scale occurrences, while medium-resolution (from 20 m to 30 m) DEMs are suitable for regional-scale events. High resolution is associated with high accuracy and detailed structural characteristics, while medium accuracy better illustrates the topographic features. A low pixel size (more than 90 m) is not recommended for this type of research. Susceptibility maps, inventory maps, hazard risk zones, and vulnerability assessments are some of the main tools used in landslide/rockfall investigations, and topographic indexes, methods, models, and software optimize the reliability of the results. All of these parameters are closely related to DEMs and DTMs as the cell size affects the credibility of the final outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: landslides; rockfalls; DEM; DTM; spatial resolution landslides; rockfalls; DEM; DTM; spatial resolution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kakavas, M.P.; Nikolakopoulos, K.G. Digital Elevation Models of Rockfalls and Landslides: A Review and Meta-Analysis. Geosciences 2021, 11, 256. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060256

AMA Style

Kakavas MP, Nikolakopoulos KG. Digital Elevation Models of Rockfalls and Landslides: A Review and Meta-Analysis. Geosciences. 2021; 11(6):256. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060256

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kakavas, Maria P., and Konstantinos G. Nikolakopoulos 2021. "Digital Elevation Models of Rockfalls and Landslides: A Review and Meta-Analysis" Geosciences 11, no. 6: 256. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060256

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