Special Issue "Women in Male-Dominated Domains"

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Sylvia Beyer

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53141, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: (262) 595-2353
Fax: (262) 595-2353
Interests: women in science (STEM); gender stereotypes; gender and confidence (self-efficacy); psychology of gender; gender pay gap

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will examine empirical and theoretical approaches to research on women’s underrepresentation in male-dominated domains. Papers may focus on the underrepresentation of women in certain high school courses, college majors, or occupations. This underrepresentation may be in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) or non-STEM-related courses (such as woodworking or welding), majors, or occupations (such as law enforcement and the trades). Articles on causes and consequences of females’ underrepresentation are welcome. Submission of manuscripts from a variety of disciplines such as psychology, sociology, economics, political science, and various STEM fields is encouraged.

Prof. Sylvia Beyer
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Gender
  • STEM
  • Stereotypes
  • Gender pay gap
  • Self-efficacy
  • Discrimination
  • Sexual harassment
  • Course selection
  • Occupational preferences

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Difficulty Orientations, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: An Intersectional Analysis of Pathways to STEM Degrees
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020043
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Is there a relationship between mathematics ability beliefs and STEM degrees? Fields such as physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC) are thought to require talent or brilliance. However, the potential effects of difficulty perceptions on students’ participation in STEM have yet to [...] Read more.
Is there a relationship between mathematics ability beliefs and STEM degrees? Fields such as physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC) are thought to require talent or brilliance. However, the potential effects of difficulty perceptions on students’ participation in STEM have yet to be examined using a gender and race/ethnicity intersectional lens. Using nationally representative U.S. longitudinal data, we measure gender and racial/ethnic variation in secondary students’ orientation towards mathematics difficulty. We observed nuanced relationships between mathematics difficulty orientation, gender, race/ethnicity, and PEMC major and degree outcomes. In secondary school, the gap between boys’ and girls’ mathematics difficulty orientations were wider than gaps between White and non-White students. Mathematics difficulty orientation was positively associated with both declaring majors and earning degrees in PEMC. This relationship varied more strongly based on gender than race/ethnicity. Notably, Black women show higher gains in predicted probability to declare a mathematics-intensive major as compared to all other women, given their mathematics difficulty orientations. This study’s findings show that both gender and racial/ethnic identities may influence the relationship between mathematics difficulty orientation and postsecondary STEM outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
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Open AccessArticle
Gender Inequity during the Ph.D.: Females in the Life Sciences Benefit Less from Their Integration into the Scientific Community
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080140
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
Female researchers remain underrepresented in higher academic ranks, even within female-dominated fields, such as the life sciences. The phenomenon is often attributed to women’s lower publication productivity. The current article explores gender differences with respect to integration into the scientific community, pursued tasks [...] Read more.
Female researchers remain underrepresented in higher academic ranks, even within female-dominated fields, such as the life sciences. The phenomenon is often attributed to women’s lower publication productivity. The current article explores gender differences with respect to integration into the scientific community, pursued tasks during the Ph.D. (e.g., teaching and research), and publication productivity in the life sciences. Moreover, it explores how these variables relate to the intention of pursuing an academic research career. Survey data with recent Ph.D. graduates from the life sciences in Germany (N = 736) were analyzed through descriptive and multivariate analysis. Females had fewer publications as lead author (1.4 vs. 1.9, p = 0.05). There were no differences in pursued tasks, perceived integration into the scientific community, and co-authorship. However, Ph.D. characteristics affected females and males differently. Only male Ph.D. graduates benefited from being integrated into their scientific community by an increase in lead author publications. In contrast to male Ph.D. graduates, women’s academic career intentions were significantly affected by their integration into the scientific community and co-authorship. Results suggest that women may benefit less from their integration into the scientific community and may ascribe more importance to networks for their career progress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
Open AccessArticle
Sense of Belonging in Computing: The Role of Introductory Courses for Women and Underrepresented Minority Students
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080122
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 21 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
This study examines an aspect of gender and racial/ethnic gaps in undergraduate computing by focusing on sense of belonging among women and underrepresented minority (URM) introductory computing students. We examine change in sense of belonging during the introductory course as well as the [...] Read more.
This study examines an aspect of gender and racial/ethnic gaps in undergraduate computing by focusing on sense of belonging among women and underrepresented minority (URM) introductory computing students. We examine change in sense of belonging during the introductory course as well as the predictors of belonging, with attention to conditional effects by gender and URM status. Results show that sense of belonging outcomes are a product of both incoming student characteristics and college environments and experiences, highlighting the important role the computing faculty play in fostering belonging. These and other findings are discussed, focusing on sense of belonging among women, URM students, and URM women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
Open AccessArticle
How the Demographic Composition of Academic Science and Engineering Departments Influences Workplace Culture, Faculty Experience, and Retention Risk
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(5), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7050071
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Although on average women are underrepresented in academic science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) departments at universities, an underappreciated fact is that women’s representation varies widely across STEM disciplines. Past research is fairly silent on how local variations in gender composition impact faculty [...] Read more.
Although on average women are underrepresented in academic science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) departments at universities, an underappreciated fact is that women’s representation varies widely across STEM disciplines. Past research is fairly silent on how local variations in gender composition impact faculty experiences. This study fills that gap. A survey of STEM departments at a large research university finds that women faculty in STEM are less professionally satisfied than male colleagues only if they are housed in departments where women are a small numeric minority. Gender differences in satisfaction are largest in departments with less than 25% women, smaller in departments with 25–35% women, and nonexistent in departments approaching 50% women. Gender differences in professional satisfaction in gender-unbalanced departments are mediated by women’s perception that their department’s climate is uncollegial, faculty governance is non-transparent, and gender relations are inequitable. Unfavorable department climates also predict retention risk for women in departments with few women, but not in departments closer to gender parity. Finally, faculty who find within-department mentors to be useful are more likely to have a favorable view of their department’s climate, which consequently predicts more professional satisfaction. Faculty gender and gender composition does not moderate these findings, suggesting that mentoring is equally effective for all faculty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
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Open AccessArticle
Gender Disparities in Faculty Rank: Factors that Affect Advancement of Women Scientists at Academic Medical Centers
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7040062
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
While a significant portion of women within academic science are employed within medical schools, women faculty in these academic medical centers are disproportionately represented in lower faculty ranks. The medical school setting is a critical case for both understanding and advancing women in [...] Read more.
While a significant portion of women within academic science are employed within medical schools, women faculty in these academic medical centers are disproportionately represented in lower faculty ranks. The medical school setting is a critical case for both understanding and advancing women in basic sciences. This study highlights the findings from focus groups conducted with women faculty across Assistant, Associate, and Full Professor ranks (n = 35) in which they discussed barriers and facilitators for advancement of women basic scientists at an academic medical center. Qualitative analysis demonstrated several emergent themes that affect women’s advancement, including gendered expectation norms (e.g., good citizenship, volunteerism), work-life balance, mentorship/sponsorship, adoption of a team science approach, tenure process milestones, soft money research infrastructure, institution specific policies (or lack thereof), and operating within an MD-biased culture. These findings are compared with the extant literature of women scientists in STEM institutions. Factors that emerged from these focus groups highlight the need for evidence-based interventions in the often overlooked STEM arena of academic medical centers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
Open AccessArticle
Engineering Women’s Attitudes and Goals in Choosing Disciplines with Above and Below Average Female Representation
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7030044
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
Women’s participation in engineering remains well below that of men at all degree levels. However, despite the low enrollment of women in engineering as a whole, some engineering disciplines report above average female enrollment. We used multiple linear regression to examine the attitudes, [...] Read more.
Women’s participation in engineering remains well below that of men at all degree levels. However, despite the low enrollment of women in engineering as a whole, some engineering disciplines report above average female enrollment. We used multiple linear regression to examine the attitudes, beliefs, career outcome expectations, and career choice of first-year female engineering students enrolled in below average, average, and above average female representation disciplines in engineering. Our work begins to understand how the socially constructed masculine cultural norms of engineering may attract women differentially into specific engineering disciplines. This study used future time perspective, psychological personality traits, grit, various measures of STEM identities, and items related to career outcome expectations as theoretical frameworks. The results of this study indicate that women who are interested in engineering disciplines with different representations of women (i.e., more or less male-dominated) have significantly different attitudes and beliefs, career goals, and career plans. This study provides information about the perceptions that women may have and attitudes that they bring with them into particular engineering pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
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Open AccessArticle
“It’s Broader than Just My Work Here”: Gender Variations in Accounts of Success among Engineers in U.S. Academia
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7030032
Received: 10 December 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 25 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, the percentage participation of women in engineering has shown significant gains over the past few decades. However, women are still largely absent (or exist in very small numbers) in tenured academic ranks in several engineering [...] Read more.
Among science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, the percentage participation of women in engineering has shown significant gains over the past few decades. However, women are still largely absent (or exist in very small numbers) in tenured academic ranks in several engineering sub-fields. In this study we present female and male engineers’ varying understandings of ‘scientific success’ as a potential contributor to women’s retention and success in their (sub)fields. Using in-depth interviews conducted among engineering graduate students and faculty at two U.S. Northwest land-grant research universities, this study demonstrates the ‘dual’ nature in accounts of scientific success, where formal measures of success operate in tandem with informal measures. While both men and women attribute their success to formal and informal measures, gender-based variations tend to be more prevalent among informal measures. By examining these informal measures, this study highlights the context surrounding success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
Open AccessArticle
Negative Gender Ideologies and Gender-Science Stereotypes Are More Pervasive in Male-Dominated Academic Disciplines
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020027
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Male-dominated work environments often possess masculine cultures that are unwelcoming to women. The present work investigated whether male-dominated academic environments were characterized by gender ideologies with negative implications for women. A survey of 2622 undergraduates across a variety of academic majors examined how [...] Read more.
Male-dominated work environments often possess masculine cultures that are unwelcoming to women. The present work investigated whether male-dominated academic environments were characterized by gender ideologies with negative implications for women. A survey of 2622 undergraduates across a variety of academic majors examined how gender imbalance within the major corresponded with students’ gender ideologies. We hypothesized that men in male-dominated domains might justify their dominance and prototypical status by adopting gender ideologies and stereotypes that denigrate women and treat men as the normative and superior group. Confirming this hypothesis, men in increasingly male-dominated academic majors were more likely to endorse Assimilationism—that women should adapt and conform to masculine work norms in order to succeed—and Segregationism—that men and women should pursue traditional social roles and careers. Moreover, they were less likely to endorse Gender Blindness—that attention to gender should be minimized. They were also more likely to agree with the gender-science stereotype that men do better in math and science than women. In contrast, gender imbalance in the major did not influence women’s gender ideologies, and women in increasingly male-dominated majors were significantly less likely to endorse the gender-science stereotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
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Open AccessArticle
Chilly Climates, Balancing Acts, and Shifting Pathways: What Happens to Women in STEM Doctoral Programs
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020023
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 21 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Women in doctoral programs in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) leave without finishing at higher rates than men and, as with men, turn away from academic and research careers. This qualitative study examines the day-to-day influences on female doctoral students during their [...] Read more.
Women in doctoral programs in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) leave without finishing at higher rates than men and, as with men, turn away from academic and research careers. This qualitative study examines the day-to-day influences on female doctoral students during their third or fourth year in physical science and engineering programs. Ethnographic cognitive interviewing and online incident reports document the specific experiences and reactions of 28 participants over a six-month period. The data were analyzed to identify key incidents, categories and recurring themes. Some incidents contributed to women’s growing sense of competence, recognition and identification of oneself as a scientist. Others fit a model of microaggressions and gender barriers in a predominantly masculine culture. Problems of work-life balance were demonstrated for some women. Incidents generated responses by some participants that they would disengage from a research-intensive career trajectory toward alternate career interests outside of academic research. The findings provide information about the lived experiences of women in doctoral programs and suggest that the metaphor of career pathways may be more useful than pipelines in explaining the direction of women who are advanced doctoral students in research-intensive fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
Open AccessArticle
Strategic Self-Presentation of Women in STEM
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020020
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (643 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite a plethora of initiatives and a surge of research activity, women remain under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines (National Science Foundation 2017). While much research has focused on ways to recruit women into these disciplines, less work has explored [...] Read more.
Despite a plethora of initiatives and a surge of research activity, women remain under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines (National Science Foundation 2017). While much research has focused on ways to recruit women into these disciplines, less work has explored the strategies women use to navigate these contexts once they have entered. In a set of two experimental studies, we investigate women’s potential response strategies to the well-documented tension between female and STEM attributes in terms of individual self-presentation. In Study 1 (N = 240), we examine whether female STEM professionals have different impression goals when introducing themselves to professional peers versus a group of other women. In Study 2 (N = 169), we extend our inquiry to include self-presentation behavior as well as intentions. Across studies, we find that female STEM professionals hold different impression goals based on the audience with whom and context in which they expect to interact. These intentions align with actual self-introduction behavior, as observed in written self-introductions. Tuning one’s self-presentation, however, leads participants to feel less authentic. This work highlights one way women in male-dominated STEM contexts may navigate and strategically communicate their female and STEM identities to others, as well as the personal implications of doing so. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Communicating Gender-Equality Progress, Reduces Social Identity Threats for Women Considering a Research Career
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020018
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the majority of top-level researchers are men, how does this vertical gender-segregation affect students’ perceptions of a research career? In the current study, an experimental manipulation either reminded students of academia’s current dominance of men or of its improving gender-balance. The results [...] Read more.
Since the majority of top-level researchers are men, how does this vertical gender-segregation affect students’ perceptions of a research career? In the current study, an experimental manipulation either reminded students of academia’s current dominance of men or of its improving gender-balance. The results showed that women primed with the dominance of men anticipated much higher social identity threats (e.g., fear of discrimination) in a future research career as compared to a control group. In contrast, women primed with the improving gender-balance anticipated much lower threat. Further, the dominance of men prime increased men’s interest in the PhD program, as compared to controls. Women’s interest was unaffected by the prime, but their lower interest as compared to men’s across conditions was mediated by their lower research self-efficacy (i.e., competence beliefs). The results imply that communicating gender-equality progress may allow women to consider a career in research without the barrier of social identity threat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Boys Club: Engineering a More Positive Environment for Women in Male-Dominated Majors
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020017
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Sexual harassment has been widely studied in the workforce, but the factors that contribute to hostile educational environments for women have received less attention. The present study focuses on male dominance, gender harassment, gender threats, masculinity, and their influences on creating a hostile [...] Read more.
Sexual harassment has been widely studied in the workforce, but the factors that contribute to hostile educational environments for women have received less attention. The present study focuses on male dominance, gender harassment, gender threats, masculinity, and their influences on creating a hostile environment for women in academia. One hundred and forty-two male participants from a private university in the Southwestern United States self-reported their masculinity, completed a group task with a female confederate leader serving as a gender threat in half the conditions, and had their subsequent affect, perceptions of leadership effectiveness, and behavioral aggression measured. Men from male-dominated majors and men who had received a gender threat did not differ from men from gender-equivalent majors and men who had not received a gender threat on affect, perceptions of leadership effectiveness, or behavioral aggression (ps > 0.201, ηp2s ≤ 0.007). However, post-hoc analyses revealed that as masculinity increased among men from male-dominated majors under gender threat, they became significantly more behaviorally aggressive (b = 5.92, p = 0.003) and perceived their female leader as less effective (b = −0.83, p = 0.076). Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
Open AccessArticle
“Girl Power”: Gendered Academic and Workplace Experiences of College Women in Engineering
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7010011
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Women in engineering continue to experience bias in the field. This constructivist case study uses feminist theory to examine the gendered experiences of graduating senior women engineering students in academic and workplace environments. In each setting we identified three subthemes; in academia: “I [...] Read more.
Women in engineering continue to experience bias in the field. This constructivist case study uses feminist theory to examine the gendered experiences of graduating senior women engineering students in academic and workplace environments. In each setting we identified three subthemes; in academia: “I don’t think my education is any different,” “Being underestimated constantly,” and “You don’t want to be seen as getting advantages”; in the workplace: “Oh, you’re a girl,” “There’s a lot of sexism,” and Benefits of “girl power.” Overall, findings indicate that women experience bias in both settings, often via implicit bias in academia and with instances of implicit bias, sexism, and sexual harassment occurring even more often in the workplace through internship experiences. The article concludes with suggestions for practice, future research, and strategies to create supportive academic and workplace experiences and environments for women engineers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
Open AccessArticle
Framing Engineering: The Role of College Website Descriptions
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7010007
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 31 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study contributes to the literature on women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by examining the framing of engineering on college websites, a major recruitment tool. We take websites to be key sources of textual data that can provide insights into [...] Read more.
This study contributes to the literature on women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by examining the framing of engineering on college websites, a major recruitment tool. We take websites to be key sources of textual data that can provide insights into the discourses surrounding the field of engineering. We ask whether women-only institutions (WOIs) frame engineering in ways that appeal more broadly to women. Our sample comprises the full range of WOIs offering engineering degrees in the US (14) and a comparison sample of 14 coeducational universities also offering engineering degrees. We employ established methods for discourse analysis, and both deductive and inductive coding processes in analyzing the textual data. Our main findings indicate that WOIs’ framing of engineering places a greater emphasis on collaboration, supports for students, interdisciplinarity, and the potential for engineering to contribute to improvements for society. In contrast, co-ed institutions tend to place a greater emphasis on the financial returns and job security that result from majoring in engineering. We conclude that co-ed engineering programs should consider a broadening of the descriptions surrounding the engineering field, since the inclusion of a wider set of values could be appealing to women students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
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