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Soc. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 8 (August 2021) – 40 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In these turbulent times of social and economic upheaval, the importance of family bonds is greater than ever. The authors aimed to contribute to the growing discourse on marriage and romantic partnerships in non-Western cultural contexts. Relationship satisfaction was surveyed in Slovenia, a Central European nation located at the crossroads of East and West, a region marked by rapid cultural, economic, and political change following the collapse of the Soviet Bloc. Values and virtues emerged as significant correlates of relationship quality. Romantic love and other family-oriented values were strongly endorsed, while individualistic virtues such as competitiveness were deprioritised. The authors situated their findings in the wider context of epistemological challenges facing this field of research. View this paper.
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Article
Higher Education Institutions as Partners in Growing Innovation of Local Economy
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080316 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Higher education institutions (HEIs) are constantly evolving how they operate and their areas of academic interest. What remains unchanged is the fact that the raison d’être of a university is to fulfill the role of a citadel of knowledge to its environment. The [...] Read more.
Higher education institutions (HEIs) are constantly evolving how they operate and their areas of academic interest. What remains unchanged is the fact that the raison d’être of a university is to fulfill the role of a citadel of knowledge to its environment. The aim of this paper is to show the relationship between HEIs and entities that have an impact on the growth of the local economy, in particular the possibilities of shaping local partnerships for innovation. The paper thus outlines the nature of individual sectors, the special role played by local governments, and the activities of universities related to innovation in the economy, based on the results of two collaborative studies co-sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education and teams of researchers at the WSB University in Dąbrowa Górnicza. One of the projects was under the framework of the DIALOG program of 2019–2020 and the other used the framework of the Regional Excellence Initiative program of 2019–2022. The main part of this study was based on a survey of representatives of local governments; the survey was oriented towards identifying the opinions of local managers on the current and postulated roles of universities in the development of the local economy. The results presented in this study indicate, among other things, a significant differentiation of expectations concerning the cooperation of entities in the process of local development based on innovation and changes in the areas of this cooperation. Full article
Article
Same Degree, Same Opportunities? Educational and Social Background Effects on Overeducation in Germany
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080315 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Overeducation is indicative of a suboptimal education–job match and is related to several negative consequences for workers. Despite extensive research explaining the overeducation phenomenon, previous studies have not simultaneously analyzed educational background (i.e., educational degrees) and social background effects, or have failed to [...] Read more.
Overeducation is indicative of a suboptimal education–job match and is related to several negative consequences for workers. Despite extensive research explaining the overeducation phenomenon, previous studies have not simultaneously analyzed educational background (i.e., educational degrees) and social background effects, or have failed to consider both the vertical and horizontal dimension that educational degrees entail (i.e., level and field). This article seeks to overcome these limitations by examining whether overeducation varies (1) across educational background (considering both level and field of educational degrees), (2) across social background, and (3) by social background among workers with the same degree. Based on the German BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey 2018, results suggest that highly educated workers are more likely to be overeducated for the jobs they hold, implying the supply of this workforce exceeds the available adequate jobs on the German labor market. The field of education determines the risk of overeducation as well, with some occupationally specific fields of education (IT, natural sciences, and health) making for lower overeducation risk for both vocational and academic education. The results also indicate social background directly influences education–job matches (controlling for level and field of education), i.e., a social gap in overeducation. This evidence suggests an effect of social background on job allocation processes, beyond the effect of education, so that the offspring of privileged classes (i.e., high salariat) use the same degrees on the labor market more profitably than the offspring of less privileged classes. Given the low attention paid to education–job matches in social stratification analyses, the present article makes a noteworthy contribution to the literature on social stratification and inequality. In addition, the present research will serve as a base for future studies on overeducation including both the vertical and horizontal dimension of educational degrees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Economic Implications of Skill and Educational Mismatch)
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Article
Does the Sustainability of the Anthropocene Technosphere Imply an Existential Risk for Our Species? Thinking with Peter Haff
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080314 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1433
Abstract
Throughout the 20th century, several thinkers noticed that Technology was becoming a global phenomenon. More recently, US geologist Peter Haff claimed that a Technosphere is now in place and can be conceived as a new Earth geological system. This unprecedented situation is creating [...] Read more.
Throughout the 20th century, several thinkers noticed that Technology was becoming a global phenomenon. More recently, US geologist Peter Haff claimed that a Technosphere is now in place and can be conceived as a new Earth geological system. This unprecedented situation is creating enormous challenges not only for our species, since more and more of its members are now dependent on the subsistence of this man-made sphere, but also for other species and natural ecosystems that have become increasingly dependent on it. Perhaps the most crucial of these challenges is the sustainability of the Technosphere itself. In the first part of the article, I attempted a critical reconstruction of Haff’s Technosphere concept. The second part is dedicated to analyzing how the unsustainability of the Technosphere represents a global catastrophic risk and ultimately an existential risk. Full article
Article
The Impact of Short-Term Cross-Cultural Experience on the Intercultural Competence of Participating Students: A Case Study of Australian High School Students
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080313 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1581
Abstract
Over recent years, globalisation occasioned a dramatic rise in cross-cultural interactions until this was disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The ability to competently engage in a multicultural world is often considered the “literacy of the future”. Global interconnectedness has brought studies into intercultural [...] Read more.
Over recent years, globalisation occasioned a dramatic rise in cross-cultural interactions until this was disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The ability to competently engage in a multicultural world is often considered the “literacy of the future”. Global interconnectedness has brought studies into intercultural competence to centre stage. This has increased the demand for cross-cultural education experiences that facilitate such learning. However, there is a dearth of empirical research into the issues and effects surrounding short-term cross-cultural educational experiences for adolescents. This mixed-methods study extends previous research by looking specifically into what impact short-term cross-cultural experiences may have on the formation of intercultural competence (IC) and emotional intelligence (EI) of Australian high school students. This study used two instruments for measuring IC and EI in a pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design (n = 14), the General Ethnocentrism (GENE) Scale and Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ). Moreover, it conducted in-depth post-experience qualitative interviews (n = 7) that broadly followed a phenomenological paradigm of inquiry. The findings suggest that fully embodied cross-cultural immersive experiences can effectively support the formation of IC and EI in high school students and may thereby play a contributing role in redressing ignorance, xenophobia, prejudice, and discrimination. A greater understanding of the linkages between immersive cross-cultural experiences and intercultural competence offers prospects for policymakers, educators, pastoral carers, and other relevant stakeholders who might employ such experiential learning to foster more interculturally and interracially harmonious human relations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
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Article
Developing Intercultural Efficiency: The Relationship between Cultural Intelligence and Self-Efficacy
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080312 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
Cultural intelligence measures an individual’s ability to succeed in a culturally unknown environment. Self-efficacy expresses self-confidence in one’s own ability to handle a situation. The two concepts are closely linked, as confirmed by a number of previous studies. Using the multivariate method PLS-SEM, [...] Read more.
Cultural intelligence measures an individual’s ability to succeed in a culturally unknown environment. Self-efficacy expresses self-confidence in one’s own ability to handle a situation. The two concepts are closely linked, as confirmed by a number of previous studies. Using the multivariate method PLS-SEM, the predictive effect of CQ on self-efficacy is investigated; compared to previous studies, the relationship causality is reversed. A sample of 190 university students was also tested for how this relationship is moderated by two categorical variables: work experience abroad and gender. The results showed that cultural intelligence is a predictor of intercultural self-efficacy in communication. Its impact on the endogenous variable (self-efficacy) is rather weak, but significantly strengthened by work experience abroad. Gender has no effect on this relationship. Full article
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Article
The Impact of Coparenting on Mothers’ COVID-19-Related Stressors
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080311 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
To test and explore whether more positive coparenting will significantly predict lower COVID-19-related stress across family configurations and dynamics and across both higher- and lower-income mothers, we developed and circulated an online survey among mothers from the U.S. and Canada. Coparenting was measured [...] Read more.
To test and explore whether more positive coparenting will significantly predict lower COVID-19-related stress across family configurations and dynamics and across both higher- and lower-income mothers, we developed and circulated an online survey among mothers from the U.S. and Canada. Coparenting was measured using the Coparenting Across Family Structures (CoPAFS) short form (27 items) scale, comprised of factors representing five coparenting dimensions: communication, respect, trust, animosity, and valuing the other parent. Items specific to COVID-19 stressors assessed the types of stressors each parent faced. The sample consisted of 236 North American mothers, mostly white (n = 187, 79.2%) and aged 30–50 years. The surveyed mothers reported a consistent and significant relation between more positive coparenting and less COVID-19-related stressors whether parents were living together or not, married or divorced, and with a lower or higher income level, suggesting the importance and centrality of positive coparenting as a key factor for family well-being. Coparenting was especially predictive among mothers who were never married and those with lower incomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
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Article
Mission Unaccomplished: Impediments to Affordable Housing Drive in Addressing Homelessness in Sub-Saharan Africa
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080310 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Affordable housing is a people-centered strategy in dealing with homelessness. However, the increasing number of people in need of homes in sub-Saharan Africa suggests that this strategy has not afforded homes to the homeless. Theoretically, affordable housing exists to provide cheap and decent [...] Read more.
Affordable housing is a people-centered strategy in dealing with homelessness. However, the increasing number of people in need of homes in sub-Saharan Africa suggests that this strategy has not afforded homes to the homeless. Theoretically, affordable housing exists to provide cheap and decent homes, but in contrast, these social houses are practically unaffordable, which raises the question of why this is the case. This paper articulates the impediments that account for unrealized affordable social housing in sub-Saharan Africa. It argues that tackling these impediments through the recommended ways will booster realization of this dream. In conclusion, while provision of affordable housing to all who are in need of homes in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa is a desirable goal, all indications point to the reality that this mission is far from an accomplished status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection The Crisis of Homelessness)
Article
The Role of Personality Traits, Cooperative Behaviour and Trust in Governments on the Brexit Referendum Outcome
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080309 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
We analyse the role of personality traits along with individuals’ cooperative behaviour, level of trust in the UK government and the European Council (EC, the body that defines the European Union’s overall political direction and priorities) and socio-demographics on UK citizens’ voting choices [...] Read more.
We analyse the role of personality traits along with individuals’ cooperative behaviour, level of trust in the UK government and the European Council (EC, the body that defines the European Union’s overall political direction and priorities) and socio-demographics on UK citizens’ voting choices on the 2016 Brexit referendum. We use data from a survey conducted in April 2019 on 530 UK citizens who voted in the 2016 Brexit referendum. We use a Probit model to investigate what role voters’ personality traits, their trust in government institutions, their level of cooperative behaviour and socio-demographics played in the way they voted. We find voters’ choice was associated voters’ personality traits. In particular, voters associated with being extraverted, acting with self-confidence and outspokenness (i.e., agency), and voters’ closeness to experience, to forming part of a diverse community and the exchange of ideas and experiences were found to be associated with voting for Brexit in the 2016 referendum. We found that voters’ willingness to cooperate with others was associated with being less likely to vote for Brexit. In addition, voters who trusted the UK government were more likely to vote for Brexit, whereas voters trusting the EC were more likely to vote for the UK to stay in the EU. We also found that voters with relatively high level of education were less likely to vote for Brexit and voters not seeking jobs were more likely to vote for Brexit than students, unemployed and retired. We conclude that incorporating personality profiles of voters, their pro-social behaviour as well as their views on trust in politicians/government institutions, along with socio-demographic variables, into individuals’ vote choice analysis can account for voter heterogeneity and provide a more complete picture of an individual’s vote choice decisions, helping to gain a better understanding of individual vote choices (e.g., better predictions of future individual vote intentions). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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Article
“If You Don’t Speak English, I Can’t Understand You!”: Exposure to Various Foreign Languages as a Threat
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080308 - 14 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1425
Abstract
The number of non-English speaking and bilingual immigrants continues to grow in the U.S. Previous research suggests that about one third of White Americans feel threatened upon hearing a language other than English. The current research examines how exposure to a foreign language [...] Read more.
The number of non-English speaking and bilingual immigrants continues to grow in the U.S. Previous research suggests that about one third of White Americans feel threatened upon hearing a language other than English. The current research examines how exposure to a foreign language affects White Americans’ perceptions of immigrants and group-based threats. In Study 1, White Americans were randomly assigned to read one of four fictional transcripts of a conversation of an immigrant family at a restaurant, where the type of language being spoken was manipulated to be either Korean, Spanish, German, or English. In Study 2, White Americans read the same fictional transcript—minus the Spanish; however, there was an addition of two subtitles conditions in which the subtitles were provided next to the Korean and German texts. The two studies suggest that exposure to a foreign language—regardless of whether they are consistent with Anglocentric constructions of American identity—lead White Americans to form less positive impressions of the immigrant targets and their conversation, experience an uptick in group-based threats, and display greater anti-immigrant attitudes. Moreover, there is evidence that the (in)ability to understand the conversation (i.e., epistemic threat) influences participants’ perceptions of immigrants and group-based threats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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Article
Political Leaders in the APP Ecosystem
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080307 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1416
Abstract
This article analyzes the process of symbolic and critical-discursive construction of applications developed for mobile devices for some of the world’s most important heads of state through their manifestation in the ecosystem of mobile applications for iOS and Android. The sample includes 233 [...] Read more.
This article analyzes the process of symbolic and critical-discursive construction of applications developed for mobile devices for some of the world’s most important heads of state through their manifestation in the ecosystem of mobile applications for iOS and Android. The sample includes 233 applications of 45 politicians from 37 countries. A content analysis-based method was applied to the discourse of these apps and users’ comments. The results reveal the dominant discourses in this scenario and identify the characteristics that influence their popularity, the influence of viral content and their reception in the connection between the mobile ecosystem and the political sphere. The discourse on the apps reveals a commercial interest and the existence of a diffuse diffusion of political commitment in terms of entertainment, parody and virality. Full article
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Article
Enhancing Planning Behavior during Retirement: Effects of a Time Perspective Based Training Intervention
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080306 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Time perspective is a psychological construct that reflects the way people view time. Two schools of thought exist that theorize how this temporal mindset affects behavior—dominant and balanced. We applied dominant and balanced time perspective frameworks separately to two versions of an online [...] Read more.
Time perspective is a psychological construct that reflects the way people view time. Two schools of thought exist that theorize how this temporal mindset affects behavior—dominant and balanced. We applied dominant and balanced time perspective frameworks separately to two versions of an online intervention that aimed to promote goal-setting and accumulation of essential retirement resources (health, physical, social, cognitive and emotional) and compared effects with a control group. The effectiveness of the intervention was tested with 109 US retirees using a 4-wave design over a 6-month period. Linear mixed models showed an increase in health goal striving for the balanced group at posttraining and gains were maintained at the 3-month time point. Both training groups demonstrated an increase in the number and specificity of goals at posttraining and 3-months. Applying a time perspective framework to an online planning intervention for retirees shows promise in promoting planning for retirement resources. Practical implications, limitations, and suggestions for developing future interventions are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Article
Negotiating Multiple Identities of Brazilian Paralympians
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080305 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1271
Abstract
In this article, I draw on the personal narratives of 41 Brazilian Paralympic athletes who competed in the 2016 Rio Paralympic Games to explore their multiple identities shaped within and outside sport and how they negotiated those self-representations. Parathletes’ narratives gave a sense [...] Read more.
In this article, I draw on the personal narratives of 41 Brazilian Paralympic athletes who competed in the 2016 Rio Paralympic Games to explore their multiple identities shaped within and outside sport and how they negotiated those self-representations. Parathletes’ narratives gave a sense of who they are, how they live their lives, and what their struggles, hopes, and aspirations are within and outside sport. The available studies in disability sport and the representation of disabled athletes have largely failed to examine the stories of these individuals and address their unique realities and perspectives. Five major themes emerged from the interview analysis regarding the parathletes’ self-representation: athletic identity, gender identity, disability identity, national identity, and activist identity. These accounts also revealed how these individuals negotiated their multiple identities in different settings and the tensions they experienced in their social interactions. The Rio Paralympics presented such a new interaction setting for the Brazilian parathletes who competed on such a grand scale at home for the first time and provided multiple examples in the athletes’ accounts of their identities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Article
“Mexicans Built This Neighborhood!” Gentrification, Organizations, and the Role of Place-Based Identity in Latinx Chicago
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080304 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1591
Abstract
This exploratory study draws on qualitative interviews to investigate respondents’ perspectives about gentrification in their Chicago neighborhood. Prior research has demonstrated that place-based networks are crucial for the well-being of low-income and immigrant urban residents. A parallel though a previously disparate thread of [...] Read more.
This exploratory study draws on qualitative interviews to investigate respondents’ perspectives about gentrification in their Chicago neighborhood. Prior research has demonstrated that place-based networks are crucial for the well-being of low-income and immigrant urban residents. A parallel though a previously disparate thread of research discusses the negative impacts of gentrification on long-term residents. I find that residents underscore concerns about their neighborhood’s decreasing affordability, as well as the impending loss of their neighborhood’s local Latinx immigrant identity, as central issues for their community. For residents, “place”, vis-á-vis the neighborhood identity, was central to their own construction of ethnic identity. Concurrently, I find that community organizers viewed place-based changes associated with gentrification as nonstrategic for their organization, whose operations have evolved “beyond the neighborhood”, and endeavor to meet the needs of low-income ethnic Latinx populations across the metropolitan region. I conclude that scholars of both ethnic identity and those studying urban inequalities may benefit from taking a place-centered approach in addressing the gentrification, community organizing, and residential displacement occurring within Latinx communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Stratification and Inequality)
Article
A Multilevel Analysis of Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Childbearing in Malawi
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080303 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1713
Abstract
Although teenage pregnancy and childbearing has declined throughout sub-Saharan Africa, the recent increase in teenage pregnancy in countries such as Malawi has prompted interest from social researchers. Using Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS) data from 2004 to 2015, this study employs multilevel [...] Read more.
Although teenage pregnancy and childbearing has declined throughout sub-Saharan Africa, the recent increase in teenage pregnancy in countries such as Malawi has prompted interest from social researchers. Using Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS) data from 2004 to 2015, this study employs multilevel logistic regression to examine the magnitude of change over time in risk and protective factors for teenage childbearing. During this period, teenage childbearing declined from 36.1% (C.I.: 31.5–36.7) in 2004 to 25.6% (C.I.: 24.0–27.3) in 2010 before increasing to 29.0% (C.I.: 27.4–30.7) in 2015. Age and being married (compared to never married) were consistently significantly associated with increased odds of teenage childbearing. However, delaying sexual debut, attaining secondary education, belonging to the richest quintile and rural residence offered protective effects against early motherhood, while Muslim affiliation (compared to Christian denominations) was associated with increased likelihood of teenage childbearing among adolescents. Teenage childbearing remains high in the country, largely influenced by adolescents’ early sexual debut and child marriage—risk factors that have hardly changed over time. While individual socioeconomic predictors are useful in explaining the apparent high risk of adolescent fertility among specific subgroups in Malawi, sustained declines in teenage childbearing were not evident at district level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: Global Perspectives)
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Article
Appraisals of Childbirth Experience in Hungary
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080302 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1199
Abstract
The main focus of our research is to identify the factors that impact childbirth experience positively and negatively, with special attention to the case of caesarean sections. Drawing on a telephone survey conducted over four years between 2021 and 2018, we use data [...] Read more.
The main focus of our research is to identify the factors that impact childbirth experience positively and negatively, with special attention to the case of caesarean sections. Drawing on a telephone survey conducted over four years between 2021 and 2018, we use data on 2000 Hungarian mothers and assessed a total of 4266 births. According to the regression analysis, there is a significant association between childbirth experience and settlement type, marital status, financial situation and factors measuring social support, as well as between high-risk pregnancy and informal patient payments. Significant results relating to caesarean sections indicate that the proportion of this mode of birth is higher among women who are older, completed a higher level of education and who live in settlements of a larger type. Based on regression analysis, we can conclude that the likelihood of opting for a caesarean section increases with the mother having a degree or diploma, giving birth with support from an obstetrician of her own choice, experiencing high-risk pregnancy or being older. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
Article
Social Support and Attachment to Pets Moderate the Association between Sexual and Gender Minority Status and the Likelihood of Delaying or Avoiding COVID-19 Testing
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080301 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
Sexual and gender minority individuals (SGM) face barriers to accessing COVID-19 testing and treatment services. Living with pets may pose an additional barrier due to concerns about pet welfare. This study investigates whether the relation between SGM status and the likelihood of delaying [...] Read more.
Sexual and gender minority individuals (SGM) face barriers to accessing COVID-19 testing and treatment services. Living with pets may pose an additional barrier due to concerns about pet welfare. This study investigates whether the relation between SGM status and the likelihood of delaying or avoiding testing and treatment for COVID-19 varies as a function of attachment to pets and social support. Our sample consisted of 1453 adults (Mage = 39.4 years, 12.6% racial/ethnic minority; 21.8% SGM). We conducted simple and additive multiple moderation analyses to investigate the moderating effect of attachment to pets and social support on the relation between SGM status and the likelihood of delaying or avoiding COVID-19 testing or treatment. Attachment to pets moderated the association between SGM status and the likelihood of delaying or avoiding COVID-19 testing in the simple (β = 0.82, Z = 2.09, p = 0.04) and additive multiple moderation analyses (β = 0.82, Z = 2.05, p = 0.04). SGM participants were more likely than non-SGM participants to report that they would delay or avoid testing when they reported high attachment to their pet (β = 0.75, OR = 2.11, Z = 2.51, p = 0.01) and low (β = 0.75, OR = 2.12, Z = 2.48, p = 0.01) or moderate (β = 0.73, OR = 2.08, Z = 2.14, p = 0.03) levels of social support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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Review
Teamwork, Spirit of the Game and Communication: A Review of Implications from Sociological Constructs for Research and Practice in Ultimate Frisbee Games
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080300 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 2247
Abstract
Ultimate Frisbee (UF) is a non-contact, challenging, and self-promoted team sport. Its characteristics, such as the game environment and rules, appear to influence the on-the-pitch behaviour of players. This article examines the content of qualitative studies to determine if and how the unique [...] Read more.
Ultimate Frisbee (UF) is a non-contact, challenging, and self-promoted team sport. Its characteristics, such as the game environment and rules, appear to influence the on-the-pitch behaviour of players. This article examines the content of qualitative studies to determine if and how the unique characteristics of UF may be related to nine sociological themes, that may be identified during gameplay. These themes include the following: (a) competition and performance; (b) enjoyment; (c) communication; (d) cooperation/friendship; (e) behaviors/welfare; (f) teamwork/social skills; (g) environment/lifestyle; (h) rules/self-refereeing and (i) spirit of the Game (SOTG). The review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. A comprehensive search protocol was used to identify, screen, and select published research articles under a Qualitative Systematic Review (QSR). The search was occurred from 1 June to 30 December 2020 with no limitations regarding the year of publication. Original English-language papers that contained relevant data regarding sociological themes and UF were selected. As a result, nine papers were qualified to be included in the final version of QSR. The files analyzed were structured with MAXQDA. A total of 521 references were identified and selected for analysis. After the Screening (n = 301) and Eligibility (n = 71) phases, a total of 30 potential papers were selected and classified. Nine studies were included in the final analysis. The three most cited sociological themes in these studies were: communication, teamwork/social skills, and spirit of the game. Research suggests that UF involves patterns of interaction related to communication and the spirit of the game that encourage active lifestyles. Finally, we point out that UF is an appropriate sport to include in physical education classes in which the creation of positive relationships between students is the desired outcome. This topic should be explored further through interventional studies done in different contexts although the evidence suggests that UF offers players unique opportunities to experience a combination of physical activity and enjoyment. Full article
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Article
Modern Slavery Characterisation through the Analysis of Energy Replenishment
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080299 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
The Brazilian economy was, until the end of the 19th Century, based on slave labour. However, in this first quarter of the 21st Century, the problem persists. These situations tend to be mistaken with “simple” violations of labour laws. This work aims to [...] Read more.
The Brazilian economy was, until the end of the 19th Century, based on slave labour. However, in this first quarter of the 21st Century, the problem persists. These situations tend to be mistaken with “simple” violations of labour laws. This work aims to establish Occupational Health and Safety parameters, focusing on energy needs, to distinguish between the breach of labour legislation and modern rural slavery in the 21st Century in Brazil. In response to this challenge, bibliographical research was carried out on the feeding and energy replenishment conditions of Brazilian slaves in the 19th Century. Obtained data were compared with a sample where 392 cases of neo-slavery in Brazil are described. The energy spent and the energy supplied was calculated to identify the enslaved workers’ general feeding conditions in the two historical periods. The general conditions of food and water supply were analysed. It was possible to identify three comparable parameters: food quality, food quantity, and water supply. It was concluded that there is a parallelism of energy replenishment conditions between Brazilian slaves and neo-slaves of the 19th and 21st centuries, respectively, different from that of free workers. This difference can help authorities identify and punish instances of modern slavery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
Article
Counterterrorism Evaluation and Citizens: More Than about Policing?
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080298 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1687
Abstract
The police force is one of the few institutions still trusted by the public today. Yet, whilst the recent waves of terrorism have “stimulated” academic activity on the determinants of public fear of terrorism, much less academic effort has been focused on measuring [...] Read more.
The police force is one of the few institutions still trusted by the public today. Yet, whilst the recent waves of terrorism have “stimulated” academic activity on the determinants of public fear of terrorism, much less academic effort has been focused on measuring and assessing the effectiveness of anti-terrorism strategies. The present article makes some contributions towards addressing this gap by investigating what shapes public attitudes towards the effectiveness of terrorism policing. Using Eurobarometer data, our results demonstrate that objective national economic, societal and political indicators do not tend to influence popular opinion on the effectiveness of the police in dealing with terrorism. They also show that individuals’ perceptions about the national socio-economic situation are better predictors of public opinion on terrorism policing than individuals’ financial and social positions or levels of education. The influence of these perceptions on public attitudes towards the effectiveness of counterterrorism seems to be more potent than the one on public fear of terrorism found in the extant literature. The implications of these findings are then considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrorism, Public Reactions and Public Opinions: New Perspectives)
Article
The Work Values of Portuguese Generation Z in the Higher Education-to-Work Transition Phase
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080297 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
The cohort of young people born with or after the Internet has been dubbed Generation Z (Gen Z, or post-millennials). They are now entering the higher education-to-work transition phase, although this is yet to be studied. Previous studies have found that work values [...] Read more.
The cohort of young people born with or after the Internet has been dubbed Generation Z (Gen Z, or post-millennials). They are now entering the higher education-to-work transition phase, although this is yet to be studied. Previous studies have found that work values and work preferences vary across generations and national cultures, justifying regular and localised examination. However, very little is known to date about the work values of Portuguese Gen Zs. In this study, we describe the work values of Portuguese university students in the higher education-to-work transition phase and examine their influence on salient work-related preferences. We surveyed over 3000 students attending university degrees from eight main Portuguese universities. We find that Portuguese Gen Zs value social values above all, followed by intrinsic and then extrinsic work values, potentially configuring a unique profile. Work values partially explain work preferences such as employer size and salary expectations. Gender differences mark our results, with women expressing higher work values in all three dimensions and lower entry salary expectations. These results can be useful for employers seeking to attract the best university graduates, facilitate their integration and promote their development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transition from Higher Education to Employment)
Article
Renegotiating Identity and Agency in Everyday Oppression: Experiences of Forced Migrant Youth in Malaysia
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080296 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1977
Abstract
This study explored how forced migrant youth in transit renegotiated their identity and agency after fleeing their homes and sociocultural connections, and while enduring ongoing precarity in a new, oppressive sociopolitical environment in Malaysia. As Malaysia is a non-signatory state that denies legal [...] Read more.
This study explored how forced migrant youth in transit renegotiated their identity and agency after fleeing their homes and sociocultural connections, and while enduring ongoing precarity in a new, oppressive sociopolitical environment in Malaysia. As Malaysia is a non-signatory state that denies legal status to forced migrants, youth face significant structural barriers that constrain their capacities to participate in society and explore their identity. Using an innovative Peer Mediated Storyboard Narrative method (PMSN), thirteen adolescents visually depicted and then explained how their experiences of forced migration affected their sense of self, belonging, and future. Participants were receiving non-formal education and services from a migrant-serving agency in Malaysia while awaiting UNHCR adjudication of their application for resettlement. Youths’ transcribed narratives were the focus of analysis using constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Youth described a process whereby renegotiating identity was inextricably linked to (re)claiming agency, if only in situated ways, as they navigated oppression, discrimination, and rejection. Their renegotiation of identity involved (re)evaluating loss and opportunity, (re)constructing belonging, and working through prescribed identities. As youth renegotiated identities, they continuously sought to recreate agency, or a sense of ownership, over their experiences and stories. Their agency was situated within seemingly ordinary assertions of preserving and expanding their identities, forging spaces of belonging, and defining their own narratives rather than accepting prescribed identities. Perceived family support, duration of stay in Malaysia, and experiences as a girl or boy within their communities were key elements that shaped youths’ negotiation. Far from being passive recipients of circumstance, forced migrant youth strategically navigated systemic oppression and actively strove to reconstruct their identity and ownership over their experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crisis, (Im)mobilities and Young Life Trajectories)
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Article
Exploring Bottled Water Purchase Intention via Trust in Advertising, Product Knowledge, Consumer Beliefs and Theory of Reasoned Action
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080295 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
As the bottled water market is projected to grow continuously worldwide, so is the plastic waste that pollutes the environment. The beverage industry’s marketing campaigns have played an important role in sustaining the popularity of bottled water. Social science theory-based empirical research examining [...] Read more.
As the bottled water market is projected to grow continuously worldwide, so is the plastic waste that pollutes the environment. The beverage industry’s marketing campaigns have played an important role in sustaining the popularity of bottled water. Social science theory-based empirical research examining how consumers make bottled water consumption decisions remains limited. To help fill this literature gap, the current study tested a conceptual framework to explore the influence of trust in bottled water advertising and perceived product knowledge on consumer beliefs about bottled water, in conjunction with theory of reasoned action. The study surveyed a sample of college students in the U.S. (N = 445). Findings showed that greater trust in bottled water advertising as well as more false knowledge and less factual knowledge were significantly related to consumer beliefs about bottled water’s product content and image. Furthermore, more favorable cognitive beliefs, affective beliefs, attitude and perceived subjective norms toward bottled water consumption were positively related to purchase intention. To reduce bottled water purchase among young adults, it would be beneficial to utilize marketing strategies to popularize and normalize carrying a reusable water bottle as an environmentally friendly habit and a preferred lifestyle choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Article
Populism, Twitter, and COVID-19: Narrative, Fantasies, and Desires
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080294 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2288
Abstract
During a global pandemic, the great impact of populist discourse on the construction of social reality is undeniable. This study analyzes the fantasmatic dimension of political discourse from Donald Trump’s and Jair Bolsonaro’s Twitter accounts between 1 March and 31 May. To do [...] Read more.
During a global pandemic, the great impact of populist discourse on the construction of social reality is undeniable. This study analyzes the fantasmatic dimension of political discourse from Donald Trump’s and Jair Bolsonaro’s Twitter accounts between 1 March and 31 May. To do so, it applies a Clause-Based Semantic Text Analysis (CBSTA) methodology that categorizes speech in Subject-Verb-Object (SVO) triplets. The study findings show that in spite of the Coronavirus pandemic, the main beatific and horrific subjects remain the core populist signifiers: the people and the elite. While Bolsonaro’s narrative was predominantly beatific, centered on the government, Trump’s was mostly horrific, centered on the elite. Trump signified the pandemic as a subject and an enemy to be defeated, whereas Bolsonaro portrayed it as a circumstance. Finally, both leaders defined the people as working people, therefore their concerns about the pandemic were focused on the people’s ability to work. Full article
Article
Our Life Is Not Here: Migration and Return of Young Spaniards Living in Chile
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080293 - 04 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1245
Abstract
With the aim of understanding the recent migration processes of young Spaniards settled in Chile, the present paper analyzes, on the one hand, how these young people experience their arrival and establishment in said Latin American country and, in the other hand, how [...] Read more.
With the aim of understanding the recent migration processes of young Spaniards settled in Chile, the present paper analyzes, on the one hand, how these young people experience their arrival and establishment in said Latin American country and, in the other hand, how the process of returning and readjusting to Spanish society takes place. For that, and following the procedures of the Grounded Theory, the discourses of 37 Spanish migrants obtained through in depth interviews were analyzed: 22 of them are living in Chile and the other 15 returned to Spain after spending a long period in Chilean society and have been living in Spain for at least one year since then. All of them have university degrees, are between 25 and 35 years old, and arrived in Chile between 2013 and 2018. This qualitative study shows the way in which these migrants experience their sociocultural integration in Chilean society, which could be typified as “nostalgic” since it is characterized by the idealization of and the longing for their society of origin. Another key characteristic is the eventual return to the country of origin, in which the desynchronization they experience is especially remarkable: after a long period abroad, they feel disconnected from the transformations that have taken place in their original environment, which leads them to experience a difficult process of readjustment to Spanish society that sometimes is even more complex than that experienced abroad. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
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Article
Young Children’s Learning about Hunger and Satiety through the Lens of the Norms of Those Who Feed Them
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080292 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1701
Abstract
This article focuses on parental perceptions of signs of hunger and satiety in children under 4 years of age and their effects on feeding practices, in a sample of parents of children with typical development. Discourse analysis shows the close relationships between social [...] Read more.
This article focuses on parental perceptions of signs of hunger and satiety in children under 4 years of age and their effects on feeding practices, in a sample of parents of children with typical development. Discourse analysis shows the close relationships between social food norms, nutritional norms, medicalized child care norms, and educational norms in adults’ determination of children’s appetites according to their perceived needs and psychomotor development. The results also indicate how these norms are expressed according to social position, parental experience and context. More broadly, this article addresses top-down education—from adults to children—in food socialization, and points to the varying attention paid to the signals given by the child. It thus highlights some of the processes by which biological, psychological and social factors interact in socializing children to food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Studies and Sociology)
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Article
Value Consistency across Relational Roles and Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Self-Concept Clarity
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080291 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
Living in today’s complex social world can contribute to the development of a multi-faceted personal identity and to the risk of identity dispersion. This study focused on values, which are conceptualised as the core of one’s personal identity. It aimed to explore the [...] Read more.
Living in today’s complex social world can contribute to the development of a multi-faceted personal identity and to the risk of identity dispersion. This study focused on values, which are conceptualised as the core of one’s personal identity. It aimed to explore the within-person value consistency across relational roles (i.e., relationships with parents, partners, and friends) and to analyse the association between value consistency, self-concept clarity, and basic psychological needs satisfaction. One hundred ninety-five Italian young adults (F = 85%; Mage = 26.65, SD = 3.83) participated in the study. They completed the Values in Context Questionnaire, the Self-Concept Clarity Scale, and the satisfaction subscale from the Basic Needs Satisfaction and Frustration Scale. Findings showed high value consistencies across the relational roles. Specifically, consistency is higher when values as a partner and values as a friend are considered. Moreover, the relation between value consistency and basic psychological needs satisfaction was fully mediated by self-concept clarity. Limitations of the study, future research developments, and practical implications of the results are discussed. Full article
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Article
The Relationship between Drug Consumption and Dating App Use: Results from an Italian Survey
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080290 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1645
Abstract
To date, the literature regarding the relationship between drug consumption and dating app use is still very scant and inconclusive. The present study was thus aimed at investigating the association between drug consumption and dating app use in the general population. A total [...] Read more.
To date, the literature regarding the relationship between drug consumption and dating app use is still very scant and inconclusive. The present study was thus aimed at investigating the association between drug consumption and dating app use in the general population. A total of 1278 Italian respondents completed an online ad hoc questionnaire assessing drug consumption (cannabis versus other illicit drugs), dating app use, the primary motive for installing dating apps, and demographics. Multiple logistic regression analyses were run to investigate the role of demographics and dating app use on drug consumption. Being single predicted cannabis use. Using dating apps accounted for higher odds of cannabis use; however, people who intensely used the apps were less likely to consume marijuana. Conversely, dating app use was not associated with the consumption of other drugs. This study suggests the presence of common underlying factors between dating app use and cannabis use, and it highlights the mediating role of the intensity of app use. Conversely, the study suggests that dating app use and the use of other drugs are quite independent behaviors. Full article
Article
Values and Virtues as Correlates of Quality and Stability of Romantic Relationships and Marriage in a Post-Socialist Transitional Society
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080289 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1637
Abstract
An individual’s value system plays an important role in their intimate relationship or marriage. Most marital satisfaction research to date has been carried out in high-income liberal Western societies. We conducted an original quantitative empirical survey of virtues and values to examine their [...] Read more.
An individual’s value system plays an important role in their intimate relationship or marriage. Most marital satisfaction research to date has been carried out in high-income liberal Western societies. We conducted an original quantitative empirical survey of virtues and values to examine their effect on relationship quality and stability in a sample of 511 respondents from Slovenia, a post-socialist society in transition. The results showed that respondents rated health, love, and safety at the top of their hierarchy of values. The key finding was that the presence of love was associated with an individual’s subjective perception of relationship quality but had no effect on the self-evaluation of relationship stability. In addition to love, both family safety and comfort were significant correlates of relationship quality while self-respect was negatively correlated with relationship quality. Only excitement was found to have a statistically significant effect on relationship stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
Article
Undergraduate Students’ Device Preferences in the Transition to Online Learning
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080288 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1766
Abstract
The global higher education sector has been greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the mode of delivery has transformed into a blended learning mode of delivery or fully remote mode. Online delivery significantly demands reliable and stable internet access and technology, at [...] Read more.
The global higher education sector has been greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the mode of delivery has transformed into a blended learning mode of delivery or fully remote mode. Online delivery significantly demands reliable and stable internet access and technology, at both the lecturer’s and students’ ends. This paper investigates the challenges and barriers to accessibility of technologies used for remote delivery of learning and teaching. The paper also investigates key digital skills students need to help them develop and enhance their technology literacy. A survey was also conducted among 555 university undergraduate students to identify their choice of device to connect to remote learning during the transition to online learning. It was revealed that students used laptops and smartphones considerably and least relied on desktop computers. The results indicate the significance of a device’s portability, built-in network hardware and cost. Further, it identifies the impacts of accessibility of educational technologies on students’ learning experience. Full article
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Article
Racial Disparities in Police Crime Victimization
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080287 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Policing has become a topic of intense public scrutiny and protest in the aftermath of several recent highly questionable and violent police–citizen encounters including the acts of police violence against George Floyd in Minneapolis (MN), Breonna Taylor in Louisville (KY), and Jacob Blake [...] Read more.
Policing has become a topic of intense public scrutiny and protest in the aftermath of several recent highly questionable and violent police–citizen encounters including the acts of police violence against George Floyd in Minneapolis (MN), Breonna Taylor in Louisville (KY), and Jacob Blake in Kenosha (WI). These encounters have led to large-scale street protests, the legitimization of the Black Lives Matter movement, and what many commentators perceive as a “national reckoning” on the issue of racial justice. The focus of our research is on police crime—a particular form of police misconduct that involves the criminal arrest of police officers. Our work is designed to identify cases in which law enforcement officers have been arrested for any type of criminal offense(s). One area of police scholarship that has thus far been neglected is the relationship between citizen race and the perpetration of police crime. We are aware of no existing empirical studies on whether, and if so, to what degree, citizen race is associated with crimes committed by police officers. The public has been forced to re-examine and question the role and legitimacy of police against the backdrop of protests and concerns about how police may contribute to racial injustice and discrimination. The broadest research issue involved an examination of the association between police crime and the race of the victim. Our goal was to identify and examine any racial disparities of police crime overall and within specific types of police crime. The analyses compared police crimes committed against Black victims to all other police crimes identified within the dataset. More specifically, we examined the degree to which police crimes perpetrated against Black victims tend to be more violent than those perpetrated against non-Black victims. CHAID regression models were utilized to explore any multivariate relationships between race and police crime. Data were derived from published news articles using the Google News search engine and its Google Alerts email update service. Our database currently includes information on more than 18,700 cases of police crime from years 2005–2021. The study utilized data derived from this larger project. The study examined those cases of police crime in which we have identified a victim and recorded information on the race of the victim. The dataset for this study includes information on 865 criminal arrest cases of sworn nonfederal law enforcement officers within the United States from 2005 through 2014. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racial and Ethnic Issues in the Criminal Justice System)
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