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Arts, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2013) – 5 articles , Pages 77-181

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Open AccessArticle
Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Rock Art from the Mongolian Altai: The Material and its Cultural Implications
Arts 2013, 2(3), 151-181; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts2030151 - 18 Sep 2013
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4242
Abstract
Rock-pecked images from the northern Mongolian Altai attest to the presence of human communities within the high valleys of that region during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. The material provides evidence that is hitherto largely missing from the archaeological record of that [...] Read more.
Rock-pecked images from the northern Mongolian Altai attest to the presence of human communities within the high valleys of that region during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. The material provides evidence that is hitherto largely missing from the archaeological record of that region. This paper reviews the rock art, its find sites and larger physical contexts and uses evidence from paleoenvironmental studies to propose dating and cultural significance. The material is compared with other sites said to have Paleolithic imagery from Mongolia and the adjoining Russian Altai. The body of presented material offers a major resource for the study of early hunter-gatherer communities at the interface of Central and North Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection World Rock Art)
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Open AccessArticle
Architectural History and Painting Art at Ajanta: Some Salient Features
Arts 2013, 2(3), 134-150; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts2030134 - 21 Aug 2013
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4856
Abstract
The present paper deals with the period of India’s greatest cultural fluorescence, The Golden Age. A lively intellectual debate has been going on among historians and archaeologists on the subject of the chronology of the caves at Ajanta. The study shows addition of [...] Read more.
The present paper deals with the period of India’s greatest cultural fluorescence, The Golden Age. A lively intellectual debate has been going on among historians and archaeologists on the subject of the chronology of the caves at Ajanta. The study shows addition of many iconographic styles from Ajanta to Bagh caves and vice-versa due to movement of skilled workers and craftsmen between these two Buddhist sites. Many iconographic figures were added / deleted depending on the local condition of rock at both the sites. The art and architecture of these sites reflects India’s great materials culture. The Ajanta paintings are not just a milestone in the history of development of world art but they also convey unique insights about the life of ancient Indians and their culture. This paper outlines some of the architectural features introduced from Ajanta into the other cultures. Furthermore, structural conservation measures and scientific methodology adopted for the preservation of Ajanta murals have also been highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection World Rock Art)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Rock Art of the Howz-Māhy Region in Central Iran
Arts 2013, 2(3), 124-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts2030124 - 29 Jul 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3626
Abstract
Howz-Māhy is a region located in the center of Iran, where a considerable number of petroglyphs can be found in two sites, at Ghārā-Tepe I and II. Ghārā-Tepe I is the largest site and includes a variety of depictions, especially geometric markings. In [...] Read more.
Howz-Māhy is a region located in the center of Iran, where a considerable number of petroglyphs can be found in two sites, at Ghārā-Tepe I and II. Ghārā-Tepe I is the largest site and includes a variety of depictions, especially geometric markings. In addition, various depictions can be found throughout the region situated on isolated cliffs and stones on the edge of an ancient pool. The most common image is of ibexes. There are also several other kinds of representations that show animals, humans, geometric markings, and so on, which can be found on panels. Despite difficulties for dating the petroglyphs of Iran, microerosion analysis should be applicable for dating the engravings of Howz-Māhy, especially in Ghārā-Tepe I. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection World Rock Art)
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Open AccessArticle
Lacquerware Pigment Identification with Fixed and Mobile Raman Microspectrometers: A Potential Technique to Differentiate Original/Fake Artworks
Arts 2013, 2(3), 111-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts2030111 - 15 Jul 2013
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3542
Abstract
(FT) Raman spectroscopy is used for the first time to identify pigments used in 19th & 20th century Japanese and Vietnamese Lacquerwares. IR spectroscopy is used to assess the Lacquer matrix. Different operative conditions and parameters were experimented with on a [...] Read more.
(FT) Raman spectroscopy is used for the first time to identify pigments used in 19th & 20th century Japanese and Vietnamese Lacquerwares. IR spectroscopy is used to assess the Lacquer matrix. Different operative conditions and parameters were experimented with on a limited number of lacquerwares in order to determine the optimal procedure for the identification of pigments/dyes as potential chronological or technological markers. The test was then performed in the collector’s rooms with a mobile Raman set-up. Different pigments (vermilion, Prussian Blue, Naples Yellow, Phtalocyanine Blue, anatase, rutile, chalk, carbon black) were identified despite a strong fluorescence and a rapid degradation of both pigments and binder under increasing laser power. Better spectra were obtained on older lacquerwares. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Visual Arts)
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Open AccessArticle
The Destructive/Non-Destructive Identification of Enameled Pottery, Glass Artifacts and Associated Pigments—A Brief Overview
Arts 2013, 2(3), 77-110; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts2030077 - 15 Jul 2013
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3842
Abstract
The birth of Chemistry can be found in two main practices: (i) the Arts du feu (ceramic and glass, metallurgy, i.e., inorganic and solid state chemistry) and (ii) the preparation of remedies, alcohols and perfumes, dyes, i.e., organic and liquid state chemistry). After [...] Read more.
The birth of Chemistry can be found in two main practices: (i) the Arts du feu (ceramic and glass, metallurgy, i.e., inorganic and solid state chemistry) and (ii) the preparation of remedies, alcohols and perfumes, dyes, i.e., organic and liquid state chemistry). After a brief survey of the history of (glazed) pottery and (enameled) glass artifacts, the development of destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques during the last few centuries is reviewed. Emphasis is put on mobile non-destructive Raman microspectroscopy of pigments and their glass/glaze host matrices for chronological/technological expertise. The techniques of white opacification, blue, yellow, green, red, and black coloring, are used as examples to point out the interest of pigments as chronological/technological markers. Full article
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