Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Buildings, Volume 8, Issue 8 (August 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) This paper examines 30 projects representing the major regions of the world that have been active [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-20
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Using Network Analysis and BIM to Quantify the Impact of Design for Disassembly
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080113
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
PDF Full-text (3319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Design for Disassembly (DfD) is a promising design strategy to improve resource efficiency in buildings. To facilitate its application in design and construction practice, specific assessment tools are currently being developed. By reviewing the literature on DfD, including criteria and assessment methods, and
[...] Read more.
Design for Disassembly (DfD) is a promising design strategy to improve resource efficiency in buildings. To facilitate its application in design and construction practice, specific assessment tools are currently being developed. By reviewing the literature on DfD, including criteria and assessment methods, and with an explorative research approach on simple examples, we have developed a new method called Disassembly Network Analysis (DNA) to quantify the impact of DfD and link it to specific design improvements. The impact of DfD is measured in material flows generated during the disassembly of a building element. The DNA method uses network analysis and Building Information Modeling to deliver information about flows of recovered and lost materials and disassembly time. This paper presents the DNA method and two illustrative examples. Although DNA is still at a preliminary stage of development, it already shows the potential to compare assemblies and supports better-informed decisions during the design process by detecting potential points of improvements regarding waste generation and time needed to disassemble an element. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Sustainability Assessment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Updating the Path to a Carbon-Neutral Built Environment—What Should a Single Builder Do
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080112
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
PDF Full-text (1734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes an extension for feasibility assessment of residential energy (heat and electricity) supply solutions in an operational environment undergoing major changes. In order to improve the life cycle economy of the energy supply, the design has to accommodate technological, economic, and
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes an extension for feasibility assessment of residential energy (heat and electricity) supply solutions in an operational environment undergoing major changes. In order to improve the life cycle economy of the energy supply, the design has to accommodate technological, economic, and regulatory changes in operational environment over the long time. New elements must be included in feasibility assessments of energy supply to ensure consideration of future economic opportunities and risks. The extended feasibility assessment brings up the profitability of “future proofed” more sustainable solutions with lower risks related to utilization costs and with improved resale value preservation. The findings of systematic literature study were structured and clarified into a decision support matrix to guide the assessment process. The procedure was verified by identifying the optimal energy supply solution for a net-zero energy single-family house in Southern Finland. The verification demonstrated that the procedure provides new insights on the economy and the climate implications of the energy solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Sustainability Assessment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mechanical and Durability Properties of Green Star Concretes
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080111
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
PDF Full-text (4860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents mechanical and durability properties of green star concretes. Four series of concretes are considered. The first series is control concrete containing 100% ordinary Portland cement, 100% natural aggregates and fresh water. The other three series of concretes are green star
[...] Read more.
This paper presents mechanical and durability properties of green star concretes. Four series of concretes are considered. The first series is control concrete containing 100% ordinary Portland cement, 100% natural aggregates and fresh water. The other three series of concretes are green star concretes according to Green Building Council Australia (GBCA), which contain blast furnace slag, recycled coarse aggregates and concrete wash water. In all above concretes compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, elastic modulus, water absorption, sorptivity and chloride permeability are measured at 7 and 28 days. Results show that mechanical properties of green star concretes are lower than the control concrete at both ages with significant improvement at 28 days. Similar results are also observed in water absorption, sorptivity and chloride permeability where all measured durability properties are lower in green star concretes compared to control concrete except the higher water absorption in some green star concretes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact Assessment of Buildings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Role of Personal Control in Alleviating Negative Perceptions in the Open-Plan Workplace
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080110
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
PDF Full-text (495 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today’s office buildings adopt open-plan settings for collaboration and space efficiency. However, the open plan setting has been intensively criticized for its adverse user experiences, such as noise, privacy loss, and over cooling. The provision of personal control in open-plan work environments is
[...] Read more.
Today’s office buildings adopt open-plan settings for collaboration and space efficiency. However, the open plan setting has been intensively criticized for its adverse user experiences, such as noise, privacy loss, and over cooling. The provision of personal control in open-plan work environments is an important means to alleviating the adverse perceptions. This research is to investigate the relationship between the availability of personal controls and the degree of control over the physical environment, as well as their effectiveness in alleviating adverse perceptions in open-plan workplaces. The study combined three systematic occupant survey tools and collected responses from open-plan offices in Shenzhen, China. Specifically, this survey covered 12 personal controls in open-plan workplaces; respondents were asked to report their degree of control over the physical environment and also were required to report if they had adverse perceptions such as sick building syndrome in their offices. The results showed that most of the 12 personal controls supported perceived degree of control over the physical environment but only half of them were negatively associated with adverse perceptions. Non-mechanical controls, such as windows and blinds, were found to be more effective than mechanical controls such as fans and air-conditioning in alleviating adverse perceptions. Conflicts were found between task/desk lights and other personal controls. The research generates important evidence for the interior design of open-plan offices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Factors in Green Building)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Awareness and Benefits of Self-Curing Concrete in Construction Projects: Builders and Civil Engineers Perceptions
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080109
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
PDF Full-text (2243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Self-cured concrete is a type of concrete with a special ability to reduce autogenous shrinkage responsible for early-stage cracking. It is useful generally for the construction of high rise buildings and bridges. The application and use of this technique of curing concrete, however,
[...] Read more.
Self-cured concrete is a type of concrete with a special ability to reduce autogenous shrinkage responsible for early-stage cracking. It is useful generally for the construction of high rise buildings and bridges. The application and use of this technique of curing concrete, however, depends on the level of awareness among stakeholders regarding the application of the technique and its benefits among other factors. This study, therefore, sets out to investigate the level of awareness of selected construction professionals regarding the self-curing concrete technique in addition to the benefits. A cross-sectional survey design method was embraced by giving out 115 questionnaires to builders and engineers in Lagos who were purposely selected. The data was subjected to descriptive statistics. The results indicate that about 21% of selected builders and civil engineers practicing in Lagos are not aware and familiar with the concept of self-curing technology while about 43.1% of the professionals who have the knowledge of SCT have never used it in their professional practice. In addition, lower permeability, reduced coefficients of thermal expansion, and improved microstructures of cementitious paste were perceived as the dominant benefits of the self-curing concrete method. The implication of this study to construction professionals in Nigeria is in developing capacities on innovation practices in high-strength concrete technologies that will make them strike a balance with international counterparts. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparative Evaluation of Structural Systems for Tapered Tall Buildings
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080108
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
PDF Full-text (4805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Structural efficiency of tapered tall buildings has been well recognized, and many tall buildings of tapered forms have been built throughout the world. Tall buildings are built with an enormous amount of building materials. As one of the most efficient structural forms for
[...] Read more.
Structural efficiency of tapered tall buildings has been well recognized, and many tall buildings of tapered forms have been built throughout the world. Tall buildings are built with an enormous amount of building materials. As one of the most efficient structural forms for tall buildings, the contribution of tapered forms to saving structural materials coming from our limited natural resources could be significant. Structural design of tall buildings is generally governed by lateral stiffness rather than strength. This paper systematically studies the structural efficiency of tapered tall buildings in terms of lateral stiffness. Tall buildings of various heights and angles of taper are designed with different structural systems prevalently used for today’s tall buildings, such as diagrids, braced tubes, and core-outrigger systems. The heights of the studied buildings range from 60 to 100 stories, and the corresponding height-to-width aspect ratios in their non-tapered prismatic forms range from 6.5 to 10.8. The angles of taper studied are 1, 2, and 3 degrees. Gross floor area of each building of the same story height is maintained to be the same regardless of the different angles of taper. Based on design studies, comparative evaluation of the various structural systems for tapered tall buildings is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Vertical Urbanism)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sustainability Assessment of Urban Heritage Sites
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080107
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
PDF Full-text (3160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to create a framework of indicators that enabled us to measure the classic dimensions of sustainable development (SD): People, Planet, and Profit, in combination with the sustainability of the heritage values and the policy dimension. Methods developed
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this research was to create a framework of indicators that enabled us to measure the classic dimensions of sustainable development (SD): People, Planet, and Profit, in combination with the sustainability of the heritage values and the policy dimension. Methods developed as an approach to sustainable urban planning and that were based on system analysis models were modified, streamlined, and adapted into a concrete set of indicators for historical city sites. This framework, a multimodal system which maps out the holistic sustainability could serve as an incentive from the policy to the heritage world to implement sustainable objectives; and it could be used as an extra argument for the broader social relevance of heritage care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Sustainability Assessment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Database Tool for Systematic Analysis of Embodied Emissions in Buildings and Neighborhoods
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080106
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
PDF Full-text (3145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a growing body of research on the embodied emissions of individual buildings, but the results and methods remain mostly inaccessible and incomparable due to insufficient reported information, and differences in system boundaries, methods, and data used. This inhibits further utilization of
[...] Read more.
There is a growing body of research on the embodied emissions of individual buildings, but the results and methods remain mostly inaccessible and incomparable due to insufficient reported information, and differences in system boundaries, methods, and data used. This inhibits further utilization of the results in statistical applications and makes interpretation and validation of results difficult. The database tool presented in this paper attempts to mitigate these challenges by systematizing and storing all relevant information for these studies in a compatible format. The tool enables comparison of results across system boundaries, improves the transparency and reproducibility of the assessments, and makes utilization of the results in statistical applications possible. Statistical applications include embodied emission benchmarking, identifying emission drivers, and quantifying relationships between variables. Other applications of the tool include the assessment of embodied emissions of buildings and neighborhoods. This paper presents the tool and exemplifies its use with preliminary results based on a dataset of 11 buildings. Work is ongoing to expand the dataset, which will provide more comprehensive results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Sustainability Assessment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Strategies to Improve the Energy Performance of Buildings: A Review of Their Life Cycle Impact
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080105
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
PDF Full-text (1860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Globally, the building sector is responsible for more than 40% of energy use and it contributes approximately 30% of the global Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. This high contribution stimulates research and policies to reduce the operational energy use and related GHG emissions of
[...] Read more.
Globally, the building sector is responsible for more than 40% of energy use and it contributes approximately 30% of the global Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. This high contribution stimulates research and policies to reduce the operational energy use and related GHG emissions of buildings. However, the environmental impacts of buildings can extend wide beyond the operational phase, and the portion of impacts related to the embodied energy of the building becomes relatively more important in low energy buildings. Therefore, the goal of the research is gaining insights into the environmental impacts of various building strategies for energy efficiency requirements compared to the life cycle environmental impacts of the whole building. The goal is to detect and investigate existing trade-offs in current approaches and solutions proposed by the research community. A literature review is driven by six fundamental and specific research questions (RQs), and performed based on two main tasks: (i) selection of literature studies, and (ii) critical analysis of the selected studies in line with the RQs. A final sample of 59 papers and 178 case studies has been collected, and key criteria are systematically analysed in a matrix. The study reveals that the high heterogeneity of the case studies makes it difficult to compare these in a straightforward way, but it allows to provide an overview of current methodological challenges and research gaps. Furthermore, the most complete studies provide valuable insights in the environmental benefits of the identified energy performance strategies over the building life cycle, but also shows the risk of burden shifting if only operational energy use is focused on, or when a limited number of environmental impact categories are assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Sustainability Assessment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Advances in Structural Systems for Tall Buildings: Emerging Developments for Contemporary Urban Giants
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080104
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
PDF Full-text (6273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New developments of tall buildings of ever-growing heights have been continuously taking place worldwide. Consequently, many innovations in structural systems have emerged. This paper presents a retrospective survey of the main structural systems for tall buildings with emphasis on the advancements of recent,
[...] Read more.
New developments of tall buildings of ever-growing heights have been continuously taking place worldwide. Consequently, many innovations in structural systems have emerged. This paper presents a retrospective survey of the main structural systems for tall buildings with emphasis on the advancements of recent, emerging, and potentially emerging systems. A structural systems chart that was previously developed by the authors has been updated in this paper to recognize, categorize and add the more recent structural systems. Recent trends of tubular structural systems in modified forms including the braced megatubes and diagrids are presented. Core-outrigger structural systems are discussed with emphasis on their adaptability. The potential of employing superframes for stand-alone and conjoined megatall buildings is predicted. As a means to solve today’s various project-specific complex design requirements, different mixed structural systems for supertall and megatall buildings are presented. This paper also discusses the widespread application of composite structural systems and recent trends of concrete cores for contemporary tall buildings. Finally, the future of tall buildings is predicted as the race for height continues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Vertical Urbanism)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Relevance of Embodied Energy and Carbon Emissions on Assessing Cost Effectiveness in Building Renovation—Contribution from the Analysis of Case Studies in Six European Countries
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080103
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
PDF Full-text (15429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The construction sector is facing increasingly strict energy efficiency regulations. Existing buildings have specific technical, functional and economic constraints, which, in fulfilling regulations, could lead to costly and complex renovation procedures and also lead to missed opportunities for improving their energy performance. In
[...] Read more.
The construction sector is facing increasingly strict energy efficiency regulations. Existing buildings have specific technical, functional and economic constraints, which, in fulfilling regulations, could lead to costly and complex renovation procedures and also lead to missed opportunities for improving their energy performance. In this article, the methodology for comparing cost-optimality in building renovations, developed in the International Energy Agency (IEA)–Energy in Buildings and Communities (EBC) Annex 56 project, is extended with a life cycle assessment by including embodied primary energy and carbon emissions in the calculations. The objective is to understand the relevance of embodied energy and carbon emissions in the evaluation of the cost effectiveness of building renovation solutions towards nearly zero energy buildings, as well as the effect of the embodied values in the achievable carbon emissions and primary energy reductions expected in an energy renovation. Results from six case studies, representative of different regions in Europe, suggest that embodied values of energy and carbon emissions have a decreasing effect—ranging from 2 to 32%—on the potential reductions of energy and emissions that can be achieved with renovation measures in buildings. In addition, the consideration of the embodied energy and carbon emissions does not affect the ranking of the renovation packages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Sustainability Assessment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Sustainability and the 21st Century Vertical City: A Review of Design Approaches of Tall Buildings
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080102
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
As cities cope with rapid population growth—adding 2.5 billion dwellers by 2050—and grapple with destructive sprawl, politicians, planners, and architects have become increasingly interested in the vertical city paradigm. Given the large-scale problems of skyscrapers, any improvements in their planning, design, and construction
[...] Read more.
As cities cope with rapid population growth—adding 2.5 billion dwellers by 2050—and grapple with destructive sprawl, politicians, planners, and architects have become increasingly interested in the vertical city paradigm. Given the large-scale problems of skyscrapers, any improvements in their planning, design, and construction would be significant. This paper examines a new crop of skyscrapers that employs green design elements, including aerodynamic forms, greeneries, energy-saving systems, innovative renewable energy techniques, water-saving technologies, rainwater catchment systems, and the like. The examined projects illustrate foremost sustainable design features, strategies, and techniques that help to meet the functional requirements while resulting in attractive forms. They include towers that are completed, under-construction, on-hold, proposed and on the drawing boards. In an attempt to capture a wide-range of innovative ideas and concepts, this paper examines 30 major projects representing major world’s regions that have been active in constructing tall buildings including Southeast Asia and the Far East, the Middle East, Europe, and North America. The discussion section also engages the reader with additional buildings that have employed similar sustainable design. The paper concludes by identifying design approaches that could twin sustainability with iconicity, and highlights some of the shortfalls of intended sustainable design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Vertical Urbanism)
Figures

Figure 1a

Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Visualisation of Reflections from Building Integrated Photovoltaics
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080101
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
PDF Full-text (8218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
With the increasing adoption of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), concerns arise about potential glare. While recommended criteria to assess glare exist, it is challenging to apply these in the spatial and temporal domains and communicate the complex data to planning authorities and clients.
[...] Read more.
With the increasing adoption of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), concerns arise about potential glare. While recommended criteria to assess glare exist, it is challenging to apply these in the spatial and temporal domains and communicate the complex data to planning authorities and clients. This paper presents a new computational workflow using annual daylight simulation, material modelling using bi-directional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) and image-based postprocessing to obtain 3-dimensional renderings of cumulative annual irradiance and glare duration on the built environment. The annual daylight simulation considers relevant sun positions in high temporal resolution (15-min timesteps) and measured BSDFs to model different PV materials. The postprocessing includes a relative irradiance visualisation comparing the impact of a proposed PV proportional to a reference material. It also includes a new spatio-temporal workflow to assess the glare duration based on recommended thresholds. This workflow is demonstrated with a case study of a proposed PV roof for a church, assessing the glare potential of two different PV materials. The visualisations indicate glare durations well below the thresholds with satinated PVs, and in noncritical zones outside observer positions with standard PVs. Thus the proposed PV roof does not cause any disturbing glare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Renewable Energy Sources in Buildings)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle In-Plane Strength and Stiffness of Cross-Laminated Timber Shear Walls
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080100
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
PDF Full-text (3316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The research presented herein investigated the in-plane performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) shear walls for platform-type buildings under lateral loading. Finite element models of CLT connections (i.e., brackets, hold-downs and self-tapping screws) were developed in OpenSees and calibrated against experimental tests to represent
[...] Read more.
The research presented herein investigated the in-plane performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) shear walls for platform-type buildings under lateral loading. Finite element models of CLT connections (i.e., brackets, hold-downs and self-tapping screws) were developed in OpenSees and calibrated against experimental tests to represent the connections’ hysteresis behaviour under cyclic tension and shear loading. The results were incorporated into models of CLT single and coupled shear walls. The results in terms of peak displacement, peak load and energy dissipation were in good agreement when compared to full-scale shear wall tests. Subsequently, a parametric study of 56 single and 40 coupled CLT shear walls was conducted with varying numbers and types of connectors (wall-to-floor and wall-to-wall) for evaluating their seismic performance. It was found that the strength, stiffness and energy dissipation of the single and coupled CLT shear walls increased with an increase in the number of connectors. Single shear walls with hold-downs and brackets performed better under seismic loading compared to walls with brackets only. Similarly, coupled shear walls with four hold-downs performed better compared to walls with two hold-downs. Finally, ductility of coupled shear walls was found to be 31% higher compared to that of single shear walls. The findings from this research are useful for engineers to efficiently design CLT shear walls in platform-type construction. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Shear Performance Assessment of Timber Log-House Walls under In-Plane Lateral Loads via Numerical and Analytical Modelling
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
PDF Full-text (5113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Log-house is an ancient construction technology based on the superposition of linear timber logs, connected to the orthogonal walls by a system of carvings, notches and corner joints. Due to the fact that this solution is widely used in constructions located in seismic
[...] Read more.
Log-house is an ancient construction technology based on the superposition of linear timber logs, connected to the orthogonal walls by a system of carvings, notches and corner joints. Due to the fact that this solution is widely used in constructions located in seismic or windy areas, the in-plane behaviour of walls represents an attractive research topic. In this paper, major outcomes of a Finite-Element (FE) numerical investigation carried out on single corner joints currently in use for log-house buildings are discussed under different loading conditions (i.e., in-plane lateral and vertical compressive loads), including parametric analyses to capture the key aspects of their typical structural response. Careful consideration is paid for the elastic stiffness of such joints, being of primary interest for design purposed. At the same time, a linear analytical formulation is presented, with the aim of providing a simple but useful tool in support of design, and especially to estimate the maximum lateral displacement/resistance for a given log-house wall when subjected to in-plane lateral forces. There, the intrinsic mechanical features of corner joints and related aspects are properly considered (i.e., static friction phenomena, as well as the presence of small gaps, etc.). The analytical model, in addition, takes advantage of the numerically predicted joint stiffness values, being dependent on several parameters. As shown, rather good agreement is obtained between the FE model output, the analytical predictions and past reference experimental/numerical results available in the literature for full-scale log-house walls under in-plane lateral loads, hence suggesting the potential of the proposed approach. In conclusion, possible Force-Preload-Displacement (FPD) charts are presented, to act as simplified tools for preliminary design considerations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Feasibility Study of Mass-Timber Cores for the UBC Tall Wood Building
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
PDF Full-text (5005 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The UBC Brock Commons building in Vancouver, which comprises of 18 stories and stands 53 m in height, was at the time of completion in 2016 the world’s tallest hybrid wood-based building. The building’s 17 stories of mass-timber superstructure, carrying all gravity loads,
[...] Read more.
The UBC Brock Commons building in Vancouver, which comprises of 18 stories and stands 53 m in height, was at the time of completion in 2016 the world’s tallest hybrid wood-based building. The building’s 17 stories of mass-timber superstructure, carrying all gravity loads, rest on a concrete podium with two concrete cores that act as both the wind and seismic lateral load-resisting systems. Whereas the construction of the concrete cores took fourteen weeks in time, the mass-timber superstructure took only ten weeks from initiation to completion. A substantial reduction in the project timeline could have been achieved if mass-timber had been used for the cores, leading to a further reduction of the building’s environmental footprint and potential cost savings. The objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of designing the UBC Brock Commons building using mass-timber cores. The results from a validated numerical structural model indicate that applying a series of structural adjustments, that is, configuration and thickness of cores, solutions with mass-timber cores can meet the seismic and wind performance criteria as per the current National Building Code of Canada. Specifically, the findings suggest the adoption of laminated-veneer lumber cores with supplementary ‘C-shaped’ walls to reduce torsion and optimize section’s mechanical properties. Furthermore, a life cycle analysis showed the environmental benefit of these all-wood solutions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Development of an Innovative Modular Foam-Filled Panelized System for Rapidly Assembled Postdisaster Housing
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 28 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the development process of a deployable modular sandwich panelized system for rapid-assembly building construction is presented, and its structural performance under some different action effects is investigated. This system, which includes an innovative sandwich panel and its integrated connections, can
[...] Read more.
In this paper, the development process of a deployable modular sandwich panelized system for rapid-assembly building construction is presented, and its structural performance under some different action effects is investigated. This system, which includes an innovative sandwich panel and its integrated connections, can be used as structural walls and floors in quickly-assembled postdisaster housing, as well as load-bearing panels for prefabricated modular construction and semipermanent buildings. Panels and connections are composed of a pneumatic fabric formwork, and two 3D high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets as the skins, filled with high-density rigid polyurethane (PU) foam as the core. HDPE sheets manufactured with a studded surface considerably enhance stress distribution, buckling performance, and delamination strength of the sandwich panel under various loading conditions. The load-carrying behavior of the system in accordance with some American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards is presented here. The results show the system satisfies the codes’ criteria regarding semipermanent housing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Prefabricated Buildings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Impact of Outdoor Views on Students’ Seat Preference in Learning Environments
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
PDF Full-text (5507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A Good learning environment should support students’ choices and attract them to stay. Focusing on outdoor views, this research explores two questions: How important outdoor views are in seat selection in learning environments? How do the view elements influence students’ seating behaviors in
[...] Read more.
A Good learning environment should support students’ choices and attract them to stay. Focusing on outdoor views, this research explores two questions: How important outdoor views are in seat selection in learning environments? How do the view elements influence students’ seating behaviors in learning environments? A seat preference survey and view elements and occupancy rate measurements were conducted in a university library building in Gold Coast, Australia. This study not only echoes the previous research indicating that territory and privacy are important factors for choosing seats in a learning environment; more importantly, this study contributes to the literature with evidence that outdoor views might be an important factor for seat preference. Specifically, sky views and shading views were found positively related to occupancy rate. Based on this point, open views with appropriate shading were found as an optimal outdoor view composition. The singularity of greenery views would less likely be attractive to building occupants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Factors in Green Building)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Potential of Thermal Energy Storage Using Coconut Oil for Air Temperature Control
Received: 17 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The role of thermal mass in indoor air-cooling during the day is a common area of study, which is particularly relevant for an era characterized by energy crises. Thermal energy storage (TES) technologies for application in rooms and buildings are not well developed.
[...] Read more.
The role of thermal mass in indoor air-cooling during the day is a common area of study, which is particularly relevant for an era characterized by energy crises. Thermal energy storage (TES) technologies for application in rooms and buildings are not well developed. This study focuses on the use of coconut oil (co_oil) as a temperature control agent for room air conditioning systems in tropical countries such as Indonesia, given its capability to store large amounts of heat at temperatures around its melting point. Heat exchange studies between co_oil and the air environment were performed by considering three factors: Temperature difference between co_oil and the air environment, the heat absorption behavior and the release of co_oil, and the mass of co_oil required to have a significant effect. The co_oil cell sizes were formulated as responses to natural day and night air temperature profiles, while the performance of the co_oil mass for decreasing room air temperature was predicted using a thermal chamber. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Daylight Discomfort Glare Evaluation with Evalglare: Influence of Parameters and Methods on the Accuracy of Discomfort Glare Prediction
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
PDF Full-text (15313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, discomfort glare indices are frequently calculated by using evalglare. Due to the lack of knowledge on the implications of the methods and parameters of evalglare, the default settings are often used. But wrong parameter settings can lead to inappropriate glare source detection
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, discomfort glare indices are frequently calculated by using evalglare. Due to the lack of knowledge on the implications of the methods and parameters of evalglare, the default settings are often used. But wrong parameter settings can lead to inappropriate glare source detection and therefore to invalid glare indices calculations and erroneous glare classifications. For that reason, this study aims to assess the influence of several glare source detection methods and parameters on the accuracy of discomfort glare prediction for daylight. This analysis uses two datasets, representative of the two types of discomfort glare: saturation and contrast glare. By computing three different statistical indicators to describe the accuracy of discomfort glare prediction, 63 different settings are compared. The results suggest that the choice of an evalglare method should be done when considering the type of glare that is most likely to occur in the visual scene: the task area method should be preferred for contrast glare scenes, and the threshold method for saturation glare scenes. The parameters that should be favored or avoided are also discussed, although a deeper understanding of the discomfort glare mechanism and a clear definition of a glare source would be necessary to reliably interpret these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Discomfort Glare Research)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top