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Buildings, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 18 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The seismic performance of some steel structure-foundation systems designed according to Eurocode 8 [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment on Embodied Energy of Non-Load Bearing Walls for Office Buildings
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040079 - 20 Apr 2020
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Abstract
Two important factors that have been put in the limelight in the current age are environmental concerns and sustainable future. The building sector has emerged as an important player in this matter due to their contribution into the large share of resources and [...] Read more.
Two important factors that have been put in the limelight in the current age are environmental concerns and sustainable future. The building sector has emerged as an important player in this matter due to their contribution into the large share of resources and energy consumption as well as harmful greenhouse gas emission. This paper discusses the percentage of embodied energy (EE) in two common building wall materials in Malaysia: steel and concrete. Concrete is used in concrete non-load bearing walls and steel is used to manufacture curtain walls. Although there are more materials used in the selected case studies, steel and concrete possess the high amount of embodied energy. Thus, the concrete wall and curtain wall in the lifecycle analysis (LCA) pre-use phase in high-rise office buildings in Malaysia are considered in this research. GaBi software is used to evaluate and calculate embodied energy in the case studies. The functional unit for this LCA study is determined as one cubic meter of concrete non-load bearing wall and curtain wall. In order to determine the components included in the analysis, input-output flowcharts are created for each process. The comparison of these walls shows that curtain wall has more embodied energy than concrete. The highest amount of embodied energy in curtain wall construction for case B is 4873.89 MJ, and for the case A is 4851.09 MJ approximately. The amount of EE in the concrete non-load bearing wall for both case studies are the lowest amount, with 278.85 MJ for case A and 280.66 MJ for case B. Results also show that the manufacturing of materials is the biggest contribution to the amount of EE at more than 50%, whereas transportation is between 1.83% and 3.77% only. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding Residential Occupant Cooling Behaviour through Electricity Consumption in Warm-Humid Climate
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040078 - 19 Apr 2020
Viewed by 836
Abstract
According to the India Energy Security Scenario 2047, the number of residential air conditioner (A/C) units may increase seven-fold by 2037 as compared to 2017. Also, the related energy consumption might increase four times in the next two decades, according to India’s National [...] Read more.
According to the India Energy Security Scenario 2047, the number of residential air conditioner (A/C) units may increase seven-fold by 2037 as compared to 2017. Also, the related energy consumption might increase four times in the next two decades, according to India’s National Cooling Action Plan. Therefore, the study of occupant cooling behaviour is essential to reduce and manage the significant electricity demand, helping to formulate and implement climate-specific cooling policies, and to adopt low-energy and low-cost technologies at mass-market scale. The study aims to analyse residential electricity consumption in order to investigate occupant behaviour, especially for thermal comfort by using space cooling and mechanical ventilation technologies. Among the five climate zones in India, this study focuses on the occupant behaviour in a warm-humid climate using Auroville as a case study, where climate analysis of the past 30 years demonstrated progression towards unprecedented warmer weather in the last five years. In this study, electricity consumption data from 18 households (flats) were monitored for seven months (November 2018–June 2019). The study also elaborated the limitations faced while monitoring and proposed a data filling methodology to create a complete daily profile for analysing occupant behaviour through electricity consumption. The results of the data-driven approach demonstrated the characteristics and complexities in occupant behaviour and insight on the operation of different technologies to attain thermal comfort in residential buildings in an increasingly warming climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Energy Consumption in the Global South)
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Open AccessArticle
Circular Building Design: An Analysis of Barriers and Drivers for a Circular Building Sector
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040077 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Circular building design could significantly reduce the environmental impact of buildings and the pressure on natural resources. However, most buildings today are not designed according to the principles of the circular economy. Most literature has focused on either methods for quantifying the lifecycle [...] Read more.
Circular building design could significantly reduce the environmental impact of buildings and the pressure on natural resources. However, most buildings today are not designed according to the principles of the circular economy. Most literature has focused on either methods for quantifying the lifecycle analysis of buildings and materials, or on innovative circular building materials, but not much is known about the design process of circular buildings and how architects are dealing with translating the principles of the circular economy to the building sector. A series of semi-structured interviews with architects and consultants that have engaged in circular building design has been conducted to identify the barriers and drivers of the transformation towards a circular building sector. Interviews were analysed using qualitative coding analysis. The conservativeness of the building industry, the lack of political priority and the dependency throughout the building industry were found to be the main barriers, while a supportive client with a well-defined assignment and idea was considered to be the main driver. The contribution of this paper to key actors in the building sector is to identify the main barriers and drivers for a circular building sector. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Floor Slabs Made from Topologically Interlocking Prefabs of Small Size
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040076 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 598
Abstract
In this article, the issue of constructing slabs from unified small elements, which are connected together into a stable structure by topological interlocking, is considered. The state-of-the-art methods in this topic are presented, as well as the results of the author’s original research. [...] Read more.
In this article, the issue of constructing slabs from unified small elements, which are connected together into a stable structure by topological interlocking, is considered. The state-of-the-art methods in this topic are presented, as well as the results of the author’s original research. The author has expanded the well-known concept of shaping square slabs from square prefabs by the aggregation of triangular and hexagonal slabs from prefabs in the shape of equilateral triangles, regular hexagons, and rhombuses. Each of the slabs can be modelled with upper and bottom surfaces, either both relief, both smooth, or one relief and the other smooth. The slabs can be modelled in different ways, and each one results in intriguing floor and ceiling patterns. All of the slabs can co-operate with grillages made of steel beams, which can be constructed before filling with the prefabricated slab, which is a novel idea. Reversing the assembly order, as compared to that used in the literature, is made possible thanks to division of these elements into parts, to form a keystone which is inserted into the slab as a final step. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Selection of Anchoring System for Floating Houses by Means of AHP Method
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040075 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 655
Abstract
This paper indicates and analyses the use of anchoring systems, such as mooring piles, booms, mooring cables, and deadweight anchors with additional elastic connectors, which are the most frequently applied by the producers of floating houses. The selection of the most advantageous anchoring [...] Read more.
This paper indicates and analyses the use of anchoring systems, such as mooring piles, booms, mooring cables, and deadweight anchors with additional elastic connectors, which are the most frequently applied by the producers of floating houses. The selection of the most advantageous anchoring system is complicated and requires the application of quantitative and qualitative data and methods. This publication presents the results of the calculations using one of the most common methods of multi-criteria analysis of decision-making, namely AHP (analytic hierarchy process). The anchoring system, which is the most beneficial for users, has been indicated with the use of the main criteria such as: cost, time, external risk factors, geospatial factors, and the sub-criteria of the first and second order. Due to the conducted analysis, it has been shown that the most significant factor of the anchoring system selection for the users of floating houses is the investment cost that needs to be borne during the usage, and the most favourable anchoring system is the use of mooring cables. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Methods for the Calculation of the Lost Profit in Construction Contracts
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040074 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 654
Abstract
The aim of each investor is to procure the construction work in an efficient and economical way. This goal can be achieved by managing costs from the beginning of the investment process. It is necessary to determine the estimated price of the construction [...] Read more.
The aim of each investor is to procure the construction work in an efficient and economical way. This goal can be achieved by managing costs from the beginning of the investment process. It is necessary to determine the estimated price of the construction work in all phases of the investment process and not to underestimate the importance of this activity. It is almost a rule that the contractor or investor does not allow sufficient time for the contractor to prepare the construction for good quality, which may lead to insufficient preparation. The consequences of poor construction preparation vary from poorly built construction to litigation over the lost profits of the contractor—and this is the topic we discuss in this paper. The issue of asserting lost profits on the contract by the contractor is the subject of legal disputes between the contractor and the customer of construction work. In such cases, the question becomes the design of a methodology suitable for its calculation. The article deals with the presentation of the existing methods of loss of profit calculation, two of which are applied to the example of litigation from construction practice, with the definition of their results and differences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Considering Urban Development Paths and Processes on Account of Adaptive Reuse Projects
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040073 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 778
Abstract
This article, as part of the ‘SUMcity’ research program, aims to give a comprehensive account of the regeneration that occurred in Athens by the adaptive reuse of the old FIX Brewery to house the new Hellenic National Museum of Contemporary Art (EMST). Adaptive [...] Read more.
This article, as part of the ‘SUMcity’ research program, aims to give a comprehensive account of the regeneration that occurred in Athens by the adaptive reuse of the old FIX Brewery to house the new Hellenic National Museum of Contemporary Art (EMST). Adaptive reuse is an urban sustainability development evolving process, used to manage assets and resources efficiently, resulting in economic development, increased local attraction, and revitalized community engagement. Other than that, modern societies experience the dynamic stream of social media and smart city initiatives, amid a long-discussed and complex cultural heritage preservation backdrop. Notwithstanding the value added to the city, the interaction of sustainable development with adaptive reuse projects, culture, tourism, social media use, and smart city initiatives, along with the impact of this intangible relationship, has yet to be set in a more tangible form. Methodologically, a newly developed conceptual framework is used in order to re-define the (cor)relations among the existent concepts of sustainable development, smart city and cultural heritage. Subsequently, a primary questionnaire-based research is conducted on Instagram users’ geotagging the Hellenic National Museum of Contemporary Art (EMST), analyzing their views in an attempt to demonstrate the arising local potential and sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Masonry Walls Retrofitted with Vertical FRP Rebars
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040072 - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 710
Abstract
The out-of-plane behaviour of the walls as a consequence of an earthquake is the main vulnerability of existing masonry structures. In the case of rigid in compression not tensile resistant material, incremental dynamic analyses may be employed to evaluate the effective strength of [...] Read more.
The out-of-plane behaviour of the walls as a consequence of an earthquake is the main vulnerability of existing masonry structures. In the case of rigid in compression not tensile resistant material, incremental dynamic analyses may be employed to evaluate the effective strength of a rocking element. When the seismic capacity of the wall is inadequate, retrofit interventions are required to assure an acceptable safety level. Conventional seismic retrofitting techniques on masonry walls influence the seismic performance of the element, which typically is modified in an out-of-plane bending behaviour. In this paper, analytical investigations are presented to investigate the possibility of a seismic retrofitting intervention able to increase the seismic strength of the wall without modifying its seismic behaviour. The analysed retrofitting technique consists in the application of composite vertical bars either in the middle section of the wall or at its external surfaces. The seismic behaviour of the retrofitted masonry wall is analytically evaluated by means of a parametric incremental dynamic analysis, carried out with an ad hoc in-house software. The effectiveness of the intervention is analysed in terms of level of seismic improvement, defined as the ratio between the seismic capacity of the reinforced and unreinforced walls. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Managerial Practitioners’ Perspectives on Quality Performance of Green-Building Projects
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040071 - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 693
Abstract
The quality performance of a green building will have an overarching effect on its objectives because of the high compliance needed to achieve superior performance expectations. Achieving sustainability objectives is challenging and requires the collaboration of diverse professionals that resume unique responsibilities. In [...] Read more.
The quality performance of a green building will have an overarching effect on its objectives because of the high compliance needed to achieve superior performance expectations. Achieving sustainability objectives is challenging and requires the collaboration of diverse professionals that resume unique responsibilities. In this study, the different managerial practitioners involved in green-building projects were investigated in terms of their awareness levels regarding the quality performance measures, their perceived abilities to influence quality failure consequences, the degree to which the cost-of-quality (CoQ) of components can be evaluated, and the effect the sustainability traits have on the quality performance. Accordingly, a survey approach was adopted, and the results were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-squared (χ2) test, the relative importance index (RII), Mann–Whitney U-Test, and Student’s T-test. According to the results, the priorities of the different managerial types and their overall impressions of cost computability were different, which needs to be considered when CoQ evaluations are done based on practitioners’ views. In addition, the sustainability traits of green buildings impact achieving quality metrics with the consequences of design rework occurring in the construction stage may lead to denouncing sustainability traits. The results of this research study reveal the need to consider the differences between managerial types when evaluating CoQ for projects and the increased sensitivity for such evaluation in a green building context. The paper contributes to underscoring the important connection between quality performance and sustainability traits of a green building project and calls for researchers to formulate methods with more rigor to reach a set structure for quality cost accounting as an industry standard. Intricate evaluation methods will enable strategic decision making on quality performance budgets to be more substantiated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Key Decision-Makers and Persuaders in the Selection of Energy-Efficient Technologies in EU Residential Buildings
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040070 - 02 Apr 2020
Viewed by 726
Abstract
With regard to residential energy use in the European Union (EU), most studies consider potential adopters of the technology (e.g., private owners) as being the sole decision-makers in the technology selection. However, during an integrated decision-making process (e.g., a construction project) multiple stakeholders [...] Read more.
With regard to residential energy use in the European Union (EU), most studies consider potential adopters of the technology (e.g., private owners) as being the sole decision-makers in the technology selection. However, during an integrated decision-making process (e.g., a construction project) multiple stakeholders will interact, influencing each other’s judgement, thereby making it difficult to discern who is affecting the final decision, and to what extent. The goal of this study is to outline the full network of stakeholders involved in the decision-making process, along with their degree of power and interaction in the technology choice. For this purpose, empirical evidence from a multi-country survey is examined using social network analysis (SNA). The information is compared across building typologies, project types and countries (i.e., Italy, Spain, Germany, Poland, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and the Netherlands). The results demonstrate that, in EU residential buildings, potential adopters of the technology are not the only stakeholders involved in the technology selection. They are in all instances in communication with multiple stakeholders, some of whom also hold a high level of power in the decision (i.e., key persuaders). Furthermore, their level of power and communication varies substantially across building typologies, project types and countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Testing Joints between Walls Made of AAC Masonry Units
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040069 - 02 Apr 2020
Viewed by 717
Abstract
Joints between walls are very important for structural analysis of each masonry building at the global and local level. This issue has often been neglected in the case of traditional joints and relatively squat walls. At present, the issue of wall joints is [...] Read more.
Joints between walls are very important for structural analysis of each masonry building at the global and local level. This issue has often been neglected in the case of traditional joints and relatively squat walls. At present, the issue of wall joints is becoming particularly important due to the continuous drive for simplifying structures, introducing new technologies and materials. Eurocode 6 and other standards (American, Canadian, Chinese, and Japanese) recommend inspecting joints between walls, but no detailed procedures have been specified. This paper presents our own tests on joints between walls made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) masonry units. Tests included reference models composed of two wall panels joined perpendicularly with a standard masonry bond (six models), with classic steel and modified connectors (twelve models). The shape and size of test models and the structure of a test stand were determined on the basis of the analysis of the current knowledge, pilot studies and numerical FEM (Finite Element Method) - based analyses. The analyses referred to the morphology and failure mechanism of models. Load-displacement relationships for different types of joints were compared and obtained results were related to results for reference models. The mechanisms of cracking and failure was found to vary, and clear differences in the behaviour and load capacity of each type of joint were observed. The individual working phases of joints were determined and defined, and an empirical approach was proposed for the determination of forces and displacement of wall joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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Open AccessArticle
Flexural Performance of Prefabricated Ultra-High-Strength Textile Reinforced Concrete (UHSTRC): An Experimental and Analytical Investigation
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040068 - 02 Apr 2020
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC) is a prefabricated novel lightweight high-performance composite material that can be used as a load-bearing or non-load-bearing component of prefabricated buildings. Making TRC with Ultra-High-Strength Concrete (UHSC) (≥100 MPa) can be considered as a potential improvement method to further [...] Read more.
Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC) is a prefabricated novel lightweight high-performance composite material that can be used as a load-bearing or non-load-bearing component of prefabricated buildings. Making TRC with Ultra-High-Strength Concrete (UHSC) (≥100 MPa) can be considered as a potential improvement method to further enhance its properties. This paper investigated the performance of Ultra-High-Strength Textile Reinforced Concrete (UHSTRC) under flexural loading. A detailed experimental program was conducted to investigate the behavior of UHSC on TRC. In the experimental program, a sudden drop in load was observed when the first crack appeared in the UHSTRC. A detailed analytical program was developed to describe and understand such behavior of UHSTRC found in experiments. The analytical program was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results and it was used to carry out an extensive parametric study covering the effects of the number of textile layers, textile material, textile mesh density, and UHSTRC thickness on the performance of UHSTRC. Using a high number of textile layers in thin UHSTRC was found to be more effective than using high-thickness UHSTRC. The high modulus textile layers effectively increase the performance of UHSTRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Concrete Materials in Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
Old Dumped Fly Ash as a Sand Replacement in Cement Composites
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040067 - 31 Mar 2020
Viewed by 766
Abstract
The use of industrial residues to replace natural resources for the production of building materials is economically and ecologically justified. Fly ash (FA) taken directly from electro-filters is commonly used as a cement replacement material. This is not the case, however, for old [...] Read more.
The use of industrial residues to replace natural resources for the production of building materials is economically and ecologically justified. Fly ash (FA) taken directly from electro-filters is commonly used as a cement replacement material. This is not the case, however, for old dumped fly ash (ODFA) that has been accumulating in on-site waste dumps for decades and currently has no practical use. It causes environmental degradation, which is not fully controlled by the governments of developed countries. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of using ODFA as a partial replacement for sand in cement composites. ODFA replaced part of the sand mass (20% and 30%) in composites with a limited amount of cement (a cement-saving measure) and sand (saving non-renewable raw material resources). ODFA was activated by the addition of different proportions of hydrated lime, the purposes of which was to trigger a pozzolanic reaction in ODFA. The quantitative composition of the samples was chosen in such a way as to ensure the maximum durability and longevity of composites with a limited amount of cement. The 28-day samples were exposed to seawater attack for 120 days. After this period, the compressive strength of each sample series was determined. The results suggest the possibility of using ODFA with hydrated lime to lay town district road foundations and bike paths of 3.5 to 5 MPA compressive strength. What is more, these composites can be used in very aggressive environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Building Material Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Impact of Building Information Modeling on the Labor Productivity of Construction Projects in Malaysia
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040066 - 30 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Globally, the construction sector suffers from low productivity levels due to a large proportion of the workforce consisting of low-skilled laborers. There is a significant need to move from traditional approaches to advanced methods, such as Building Information Modeling, in order to integrate [...] Read more.
Globally, the construction sector suffers from low productivity levels due to a large proportion of the workforce consisting of low-skilled laborers. There is a significant need to move from traditional approaches to advanced methods, such as Building Information Modeling, in order to integrate design and construction workflows with the aim of improving productivity. To encourage more organizations, especially small to medium enterprises (SME), to transition to building information modeling (BIM), clear and convincing benefits are key to ensuring the viability of the BIM implementation process. This study presents the findings obtained through a quantitative structured close-ended survey questionnaire distributed among BIM-pioneering construction companies in terms of the three factors of the project, organization, and individual. The results suggest that BIM factors related to the individual supervision category have the highest positive impact, while the Individual (Labor) factor has the most negative impact on labor productivity. The study concludes by recommending the incorporation of BIM in the Individual (Supervision) category to improve the low construction productivity. A practical recommendation for building regulatory bodies is to develop comprehensive credential training programs with the greater utilization of BIM-related design and construction management to diminish the negative impact of Individual (Labor) factors and thus improve labor productivity in the construction sector. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Construction History and the History of Construction Cultures: Between Architecture and Engineering in Portugal
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040065 - 28 Mar 2020
Viewed by 839
Abstract
This paper aims to debate the epistemological boundaries of construction history, in relation to the fields of history of architecture and the history of engineering, using Portugal as a case study. The concept of construction culture is used to broaden the analysis, avoiding [...] Read more.
This paper aims to debate the epistemological boundaries of construction history, in relation to the fields of history of architecture and the history of engineering, using Portugal as a case study. The concept of construction culture is used to broaden the analysis, avoiding the old dichotomy between architects and engineers. Instead, construction history (understood as the history of construction cultures) aims to integrate the contributions of all actors in this sector of activity, such as contractors, materials and machine producers, traders, and public and private institutions. The history of architecture and the history of engineering in Portugal serves to illustrate the extent to which the study of how a community built in a particular space, at a particular time, is fragmented in the present age. The conclusions highlight the limits of a history that has been interpreted mainly from the point of view of the activity of architects and engineers. This paper also explores the potential of a history of construction cultures as a constructum in constant transition and under constant discussion, capable of explaining the set of problems involved in this millennia-old human activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Spatial Layout of Tall Buildings Clustered in Circular, Rectangular, and Linear Geographical Areas and Impact on Skyline
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040064 - 28 Mar 2020
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Modern cities with tall building clusters can create powerful and distinctive features on the skyline more so than those with scattered tall buildings. In terms of their role in the city, tall building clusters can improve the image of the city, provide for [...] Read more.
Modern cities with tall building clusters can create powerful and distinctive features on the skyline more so than those with scattered tall buildings. In terms of their role in the city, tall building clusters can improve the image of the city, provide for high population density, and distinguish the urban centers. However, the planning of tall building clusters needs to be conducted using in-depth analysis in response to the spatial context to create an attractive skyline. This research attempts to compare different layouts of tall building clusters organized in circular, rectangular, and linear geographical areas. Their impact on the skyline was determined by analyzing the visibility and height transitions of these tall building clusters. Grasshopper was used to calculate the degree of surface visibility of these tall buildings from observers in urban spaces. To quantify the height transition of the cluster, the obstructed buildings were identified and mapped on the skyline viewed from a specific viewpoint. The results showed that the linear cluster had high visibility, followed by the circular and rectangular clusters. Decreasing the heights from the center to the periphery supported the focal point of the cluster. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seismic Performance of Steel Structure-Foundation Systems Designed According to Eurocode 8 Provisions: The Case of Near-Fault Seismic Motions
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040063 - 26 Mar 2020
Viewed by 796
Abstract
The seismic performance of steel structure-foundation systems subjected to near-fault earthquakes was assessed on the basis of response results from nonlinear time-history seismic analyses. The structural results included the maximum values for residual interstory drift ratios, base shears, and overturning moments of the [...] Read more.
The seismic performance of steel structure-foundation systems subjected to near-fault earthquakes was assessed on the basis of response results from nonlinear time-history seismic analyses. The structural results included the maximum values for residual interstory drift ratios, base shears, and overturning moments of the steel structures, as well as the maximum values for residual settlement and tilting of the foundations. In order to reveal the influence of soil-building-interaction on the aforementioned response results, the steel building-foundation systems were designed according to Eurocode 8 provisions, assuming initially fixed and then compliant base conditions. It was concluded that for the case of near-fault seismic motions, good seismic performance of steel building-foundation hybrid systems designed according to European Codes was not guaranteed. A particular thing to note for these systems under near-fault seismic motions was that the seismic performance of the steel structure was most likely unacceptable, while one of the foundations was always acceptable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Deploying Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing in Construction
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040062 - 26 Mar 2020
Viewed by 751
Abstract
No standardised approach appears to exist in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry for the communication of tolerance information on drawings. As a result of this shortcoming, defects associated with dimensional and geometric variability occur with potentially severe consequences. In contrast, in [...] Read more.
No standardised approach appears to exist in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry for the communication of tolerance information on drawings. As a result of this shortcoming, defects associated with dimensional and geometric variability occur with potentially severe consequences. In contrast, in mechanical engineering, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is a symbolic language widely used to communicate both the perfect geometry and the tolerances of components and assemblies. This paper prescribes the application of GD&T in construction with the goal of developing a common language called geometric dimensioning and tolerancing in construction (GD&TIC) to facilitate the communication of tolerance information throughout design and construction. design science research is the adopted methodological approach. Evidence was collated from direct observations in two construction projects and two group interviews. A focus group meeting was conducted to evaluate whether the developed solution (GD&TIC) fulfilled its aim. The contribution of this paper to designers, to organisations involved in developing AEC industry standards, and to the scholarly community is twofold: (1) It is an attempt to develop a standardised approach (GD&TIC) for the communication of tolerance information in AEC, and (2) it identifies discrepancies between GD&TIC rules and some of the commonly used American and British standards on tolerances. Full article
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