Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 212109

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Architecture, Poznań University of Technology, ul. Jacka Rychlewskiego 2, 60-965 Poznań, Poland
Interests: project engineering and management; decision making; integral design and management; sustainability; research methods in CE and architecture
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Architecture, Poznań University of Technology, Poznań, Poland
Interests: requirements engineering in architectural design; BIM technology in architectural design; sustainable architecture and infrastructure; prefabrication and modular building; research methods and techniques applied in architecture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The dynamically changing reality entails the emergence of new design paradigms. There is a new important dimension to the European Union Directives, including, for example, the Directive on the energy performance of buildings, which has introduced the notion itself, and commitment to design and implement nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB), applicable in particular to new buildings. Close attention is given to operating costs as part of the building life cycle analysis. The pricing formula gives way to the cost formula.

New architectural, functional, and technological solutions are constantly sought for with a view to (inter alia) ensuring a good indoor climate while, at the same time, achieving energy and economic efficiency.

These searches coincide with the paradigms of sustainable development which have not yet become a permanent element of our overall awareness.

New, broadly understood technologies also include changes in the organization of the designer’s work, and the functioning of all players of the investment process, which is manifested in the integrated project delivery (IPD) as well as in integrated management. Such concepts as architect–engineer–contractor–user have become inseparable.

Internal and external environments of the building are now clearly distinguished. An intelligently designed house uses the conditions of its location, such as wind, light, natural heat, which, for example, is returned to the interiors at night; such a house blocks excessive warming on hot days. And the building’s ability to adapt to changes in the environment is the basis of its "Architectural IQ".

Thus, the importance of knowledge has increased, as well as knowledge-based design, building physics, HVAC, and technical equipment of the building.

Modeling and digitization in architecture and civil engineering have become an everyday reality in research and designing. This applies to parametric design, augmented reality, as well as BIM and building life cycle modeling (BLCM).

The echo of discussions on flexible design has not yet faded, and we are already beginning to use emotional design, intelligence-based design, neuro-design, and neutrosophic design in architecture.

All this introduces new challenges that architects and engineers must face. There are some interesting solutions in this area. For designers and researchers, there is an opportunity to share their creative, scientific, and engineering successes in this Special Issue.

The issues are vast and open, e.g., what is important is both bionic engineering, bioextensive, and kinetic architecture, as well as architects’ and engineers’ attitude towards sustainable development or towards the fourth industrial revolution.

Prof. Oleg Kapliński
Prof. Wojciech Bonenberg
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Design paradigms
  • Sustainability
  • The building and the environment
  • Explicit and tacit knowledge
  • Costs in the building's life cycle
  • Building energy consumption
  • Digitization in architecture and civil engineering
  • The architect in the investment process
  • Multicriterial evaluation of design solutions

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

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6 pages, 2458 KiB  
Editorial
Architecture and Engineering: The Challenges—Trends—Achievements
by Oleg Kapliński and Wojciech Bonenberg
Buildings 2020, 10(10), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10100181 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3668
Abstract
The current Special Issue is addressed to architects and engineers. Design and research are areas connecting their activities. A review of 17 published articles confirms the fact that the interface between architecture and engineering is multidimensional. The ways of finding points of contact [...] Read more.
The current Special Issue is addressed to architects and engineers. Design and research are areas connecting their activities. A review of 17 published articles confirms the fact that the interface between architecture and engineering is multidimensional. The ways of finding points of contact between the two industries are highlighted. This is favoured by the dynamically changing reality, supported by new design paradigms and new research techniques. The multi-threaded subject matter of the articles is reduced to six blocks: research scopes, methods, design aspects, context, nature of research, and economy and cost calculation. Each of the articles in these six blocks has its weight, and so, in the “Nature of research” block, the following areas have been underscored: laboratory tests, in situ research, field investigations, and street perception experiments. The “Design aspects” block includes design-oriented thinking, geometrical forms, location of buildings, cost prediction, attractor and distractor elements, and shaping spatial structures. The new design and research tools are an inspiration and a keystone bonding architects and engineers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

21 pages, 1324 KiB  
Article
BIM Management Measure for an Effective Green Building Project
by Reuven Maskil-Leitan, Ury Gurevich and Iris Reychav
Buildings 2020, 10(9), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10090147 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 11626
Abstract
In light of the gap in research and practice, with regard to achieving the sustainability goals of green building, while maximizing combination with building-information-modeling (BIM) as a social system—a gap that is expressed in the absence of integration of all stakeholders—a managerial measure [...] Read more.
In light of the gap in research and practice, with regard to achieving the sustainability goals of green building, while maximizing combination with building-information-modeling (BIM) as a social system—a gap that is expressed in the absence of integration of all stakeholders—a managerial measure is proposed to integrate them and promote sustainable green building. By using a framework for implementing BIM as a social system, and through network analysis, an index is developed to assess its integration into the green building—the Green BIM Index. This measure consists of comparing a social benchmark for optimal implementation with the actual implementation, in a given project. The index is intended to help score the BIM integration level in a green building. Comparing the BIM management measure results with social benefit assessments, and the effectiveness of BIM in nine case-studies enables to understand project outcomes in terms of schedules, budgets, and quality. The paper demonstrates the index applicability, pointing to possible significant economic improvements through the implementation of BIM social capabilities. BIM management benchmarking is helpful for the comparative evaluation of similar projects incorporating green building with BIM, indicating the level of integration to improve benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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20 pages, 8379 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Effective Use of Photovoltaic Modules in Architecture
by Waclaw Celadyn and Pawel Filipek
Buildings 2020, 10(9), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10090145 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4667
Abstract
The application of photovoltaic systems is becoming a dominant feature in contemporary buildings. They allow for the achievement of zero-energy constructions. However, the principles of this strategy are not yet sufficiently known among architects. The purpose of this study is to enhance their [...] Read more.
The application of photovoltaic systems is becoming a dominant feature in contemporary buildings. They allow for the achievement of zero-energy constructions. However, the principles of this strategy are not yet sufficiently known among architects. The purpose of this study is to enhance their expertise, which cannot be widened due to the shortage of targeted publications. The issue presentation was structured in a way that follows the typical design stages, beginning with large-scale urban problems up to the scale of building forms and components. Different types of photovoltaic (PV) systems are considered, based on their efficiency, relations with building fabrics, potential for thermally protecting buildings and their impact on esthetic values. The focus was mainly on the most popular PV modules. The application of these systems requires in-depth analyses which should be carried out by designers at the initial stage and through the next stages of the design. A method to analyze zoning plan regulations and site planning in view of PV modules’ efficiency is novel. This paper also contains considerations with regard to some other untypical applications of these systems. There is need for changing attitudes in architects and investors regarding the issue of promoting the systems through further elucidations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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20 pages, 1338 KiB  
Article
Research and Development Directions for Design Support Tools for Circular Building
by Charlotte Cambier, Waldo Galle and Niels De Temmerman
Buildings 2020, 10(8), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10080142 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 6117
Abstract
To support the construction sector in its transition to a circular economy, many design instruments and decision support tools have been and are still being developed. This development is uncoordinated and raises confusion among building designers and advising engineers, slowing down the tools’ [...] Read more.
To support the construction sector in its transition to a circular economy, many design instruments and decision support tools have been and are still being developed. This development is uncoordinated and raises confusion among building designers and advising engineers, slowing down the tools’ adoption in practice. Moreover, it is unclear if the available design tools are able to fulfil the needs of design professionals at all. Therefore, this research identifies the knowledge challenges for the “supply and demand” of design tools for a circular construction practice. It focuses on Flanders, given the importance the topic receives in the region’s policy programme and among practitioners. This study builds on a thorough literature review, and on inventorying and categorising instruments and ongoing developments. By comparing that review with the needs that were identified during interviews with a focus group, it was possible to pinpoint designers’ needs for support tools and outline three urgent research tracks. More generally, it was found that the needs of our focus group are only partially reflected by the available design tools and the ongoing developments. This identified mismatch advocates for a more participatory and practice-oriented research approach when developing design support tools for circular building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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24 pages, 8104 KiB  
Article
Testing Joints between Walls Made of AAC Masonry Units
by Radosław Jasiński and Iwona Galman
Buildings 2020, 10(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040069 - 2 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4305
Abstract
Joints between walls are very important for structural analysis of each masonry building at the global and local level. This issue has often been neglected in the case of traditional joints and relatively squat walls. At present, the issue of wall joints is [...] Read more.
Joints between walls are very important for structural analysis of each masonry building at the global and local level. This issue has often been neglected in the case of traditional joints and relatively squat walls. At present, the issue of wall joints is becoming particularly important due to the continuous drive for simplifying structures, introducing new technologies and materials. Eurocode 6 and other standards (American, Canadian, Chinese, and Japanese) recommend inspecting joints between walls, but no detailed procedures have been specified. This paper presents our own tests on joints between walls made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) masonry units. Tests included reference models composed of two wall panels joined perpendicularly with a standard masonry bond (six models), with classic steel and modified connectors (twelve models). The shape and size of test models and the structure of a test stand were determined on the basis of the analysis of the current knowledge, pilot studies and numerical FEM (Finite Element Method) - based analyses. The analyses referred to the morphology and failure mechanism of models. Load-displacement relationships for different types of joints were compared and obtained results were related to results for reference models. The mechanisms of cracking and failure was found to vary, and clear differences in the behaviour and load capacity of each type of joint were observed. The individual working phases of joints were determined and defined, and an empirical approach was proposed for the determination of forces and displacement of wall joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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17 pages, 9146 KiB  
Article
Living Environment Quality Determinants, Including PM2.5 and PM10 Dust Pollution in the Context of Spatial Issues—The Case of Radzionków
by Rafał Blazy
Buildings 2020, 10(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10030058 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4507
Abstract
This article discusses living environment determinants in Central and Eastern Europe. It is based on a case study of the city of Radzionków, which has 16 thousand inhabitants and is located in the Silesian agglomeration in southern Poland. Hard coal has been mined [...] Read more.
This article discusses living environment determinants in Central and Eastern Europe. It is based on a case study of the city of Radzionków, which has 16 thousand inhabitants and is located in the Silesian agglomeration in southern Poland. Hard coal has been mined in this area for almost two hundred years, and it is the main fuel used for central heating. A total of 360 buildings, divided into groups of 60 buildings each, were investigated in the selected city. Three distinct areas were distinguished in terms of living environment quality, depending on building technical condition, heating method and location. These qualities were found to be largely determined by site-specific spatial and geophysical conditions. A significant portion of the literature was found to ignore the spatial factors mentioned in this paper, instead focusing primarily on statistical data concerning pollution. This study examines site-specific variables and presents differences in air pollution levels as examined in relation to the morphological structure of development, the degree of building modernisation and heating system types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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27 pages, 10601 KiB  
Article
A Concept of the Development of Riverside Embankment in the Context of Cracow (A Local Centre)
by Beata Majerska-Pałubicka and Elżbieta Latusek
Buildings 2020, 10(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10030056 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6411
Abstract
The subject of this article is the presentation of site conditions and the authors’ concept of the development of the degraded riverside area located in the city of Cracow-Kraków Zabłocie. The concept transforms the above-named area into a multifunctional complex including museum, coworking, [...] Read more.
The subject of this article is the presentation of site conditions and the authors’ concept of the development of the degraded riverside area located in the city of Cracow-Kraków Zabłocie. The concept transforms the above-named area into a multifunctional complex including museum, coworking, business and hotel functions. The area subject to development borders three important districts of Cracow: Old Town (Stare Miasto), Grzegórzki and Podgórze on the bank of the Vistula (Wisła) river. In the land development and urban planning documents of the city of Cracow this area has been marked as the public space which is to become a local focal point or a local centre. The main objective of this work was to find answers to the posed research questions concerning the historic context, formal and legal state, significance for the community as well as economic and ecological implications of the area to be developed. The main purpose was to properly develop the degraded riverside embankment in the downtown environment. The research method was based on own mixed method which encompassed the studies of historical literature and the legal–formal status as well as in situ examinations, including the analyses of the condition of the built and natural environment, traffic and circulation as well as photographic documentation. The authors also familiarised themselves with the activities undertaken by the local community with a view to the area’s regeneration. On the grounds of initial investigations, the SWOT analysis was performed and the evaluation of groups of prospective users was conducted. Comparative studies were conducted including selected examples of European riverside development projects. In its assumptions, the proposed concept of the riverside development in Kraków-Zabłocie is to meet the needs of the local community, enable further development of tourism, which is very important to Cracow, and satisfy the paradigm of sustainable development. The effect is a multi-functional complex that becomes an inherent part of the existing context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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19 pages, 3740 KiB  
Article
Welds Assessment in K-Type Joints of Hollow Section Trusses with I or H Section Chords
by Miroslaw Broniewicz and Filip Broniewicz
Buildings 2020, 10(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10030043 - 3 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4834
Abstract
The use of hollow section structures has received considerable attention in recent years. Since the first publication of CIDECT (International Committee for the Development and Study of Tubular Structures), additional research results became available, especially concerning the design of welds between members of [...] Read more.
The use of hollow section structures has received considerable attention in recent years. Since the first publication of CIDECT (International Committee for the Development and Study of Tubular Structures), additional research results became available, especially concerning the design of welds between members of trusses joints. To assess the capacity of welded joints of trusses between braces made of hollow sections and I-beam chords, the effective lengths of the welds should be estimated and their location around the braces and the forces acting on individual weld’s sections. The objective of this paper is to present the most up-to-date information to designers, teachers, and researchers according to the design of welds for certain K and N overlapped joints between rectangular hollow section (RHS) braces and I- or H-section chord. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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14 pages, 2886 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Optimizing Curvilinear Steel Bar Structures of Hyperbolic Paraboloid Canopy Roofs
by Jolanta Dzwierzynska
Buildings 2020, 10(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10030039 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4950
Abstract
The paper concerns shaping curvilinear steel bar structures that are hyperbolic paraboloid canopy roofs by means of parametric design software Rhinoceros/Grasshopper and Karamba 3D. Hyperbolic paraboloid shape has found applications in various solutions of building roofs, mainly as reinforced concrete or steel coverings [...] Read more.
The paper concerns shaping curvilinear steel bar structures that are hyperbolic paraboloid canopy roofs by means of parametric design software Rhinoceros/Grasshopper and Karamba 3D. Hyperbolic paraboloid shape has found applications in various solutions of building roofs, mainly as reinforced concrete or steel coverings made of bent sheets. The hyperbolic paraboloid as a ruled surface can be a good base surface for forming bar grids. However, there are few studies on the effect of its division and the obtained topology of bar structures on their load-bearing capacity. In order to fill this gap, the aim of the presented research was to compare the effectiveness of various curvilinear steel bar structures of hyperbolic paraboloid canopy roofs covering the same plane, as well as defining both the most effective pattern of their structural grids and the optimal supporting system. This analysis was carried out thanks to the application of genetic algorithms enabling the free flow of information between geometrical and structural models, as well as thanks to the obtained result of multi-objective optimizations of the shaped structures for given boundary conditions. Minimal mass of the structure as well as minimal deflection of the structural members were assumed as the optimization criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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20 pages, 5359 KiB  
Article
Computer Aided Assembly of Buildings
by Roman Marcinkowski and Maciej Banach
Buildings 2020, 10(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10020028 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3632
Abstract
This article presents an interactive method of computer-aided assembly planning. It is estimated that such planning will be more and more desirable due to the increasing use of prefabrication in construction. Prefabrication meets the trends of sustainable development and digitization as it enables [...] Read more.
This article presents an interactive method of computer-aided assembly planning. It is estimated that such planning will be more and more desirable due to the increasing use of prefabrication in construction. Prefabrication meets the trends of sustainable development and digitization as it enables the application of intelligent control systems at the stage of highly specialized production, assembly and facility maintenance. The presented planning method is based on the Monte Carlo simulations and logical algorithms for assembly work planning. It was determined on the basis of the literature studied and our own observations. The paper introduces a detailed model of assembly works planning and is an example of using a computer application developed on the basis of the described model. The example confirms the correctness of the algorithm and indicates its usefulness in the scope of analyzing many decision variants. Further research on labor productivity rates for assembly works, implementation of digital databases of assembly machines and prefabricated elements, as well as integration of the proposed application with the BIM environment should make it easier to commercialize the developed application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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23 pages, 2854 KiB  
Article
Suitability of Eye Tracking in Assessing the Visual Perception of Architecture—A Case Study Concerning Selected Projects Located in Cologne
by Małgorzata Lisińska-Kuśnierz and Michał Krupa
Buildings 2020, 10(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10020020 - 26 Jan 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 7984
Abstract
This article discusses the visual perception of selected buildings located in the historic centre of Cologne, Germany, that have been designed by outstanding architects. It presents eye-tracking research, both from a theoretical perspective and that of its application potential in, among other fields, [...] Read more.
This article discusses the visual perception of selected buildings located in the historic centre of Cologne, Germany, that have been designed by outstanding architects. It presents eye-tracking research, both from a theoretical perspective and that of its application potential in, among other fields, psychology, management, architecture and urban planning. It also presents an experiment which was performed to evaluate the suitability of eye tracking in the assessment of the visual perception of architecture and its surroundings, utilising the case study method and members of Generation Z as the subject population. Analysis of the experiment’s results enabled the authors to formulate commentary on findings concerning typically observed attractors and distractors in the perception of architecture and its surroundings depending on context-specific conditions. The study provided evidence of the suitability of eye tracking in the assessment of the visual perception of works of architecture and indicated the possibility of continuing research concerning the assessment and shaping of the state of awareness and knowledge of architecture and urban planning, which can significantly affect public participation in urban governance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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13 pages, 1115 KiB  
Article
A SWOT Analysis of the Use of BIM Technology in the Polish Construction Industry
by Krzysztof Zima, Edyta Plebankiewicz and Damian Wieczorek
Buildings 2020, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10010016 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 15915
Abstract
The present paper presents a SWOT analysis, the aim of which is to evaluate the strategic implementation of BIM technology in the construction industry in Poland. The authors created a SWOT matrix presenting strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and risks associated with the use of [...] Read more.
The present paper presents a SWOT analysis, the aim of which is to evaluate the strategic implementation of BIM technology in the construction industry in Poland. The authors created a SWOT matrix presenting strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and risks associated with the use of BIM. Using literature analyses, own experience, and market reports, all elements of the SWOT matrix are described in detail. Basic indicators characterizing the strategic position of BIM on the Polish construction market are calculated. Finally, the matrix of strategic tasks and actions that should be applied in order to promote and develop BIM in Poland are defined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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9 pages, 1332 KiB  
Article
Value of Technical Wear and Costs of Restoring Performance Characteristics to Residential Buildings
by Beata Nowogońska and Jacek Korentz
Buildings 2020, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10010009 - 8 Jan 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4004
Abstract
Each building, over the course of subsequent years of use, undergoes wear, with a deterioration of its technical condition. As a result of this, the performance characteristics of a building decrease with the passing of time, with their complete or partial restoration requiring [...] Read more.
Each building, over the course of subsequent years of use, undergoes wear, with a deterioration of its technical condition. As a result of this, the performance characteristics of a building decrease with the passing of time, with their complete or partial restoration requiring repair and renovation works to be carried out. It is the task of real estate managers or owners to maintain the building in a non-deteriorating technical and functional condition. In order to preserve the technical and functional condition of a building at an adequate level, methodological support of decision-making processes pertaining to the conducting of rational maintenance management is necessary. The present article presents a proposal of a model allowing for the accurate assessment of the costs of renovation and repair works on a building at a given stage of its use, and their relationship with the value of the technical wear of the building in the same time period. Residential buildings constructed using traditional technology were subjected to analysis. In the carried out analysis, temporal methods applied for calculating the level of technical wear were applied, with the PRRD (prediction of reliability according to Rayleigh distribution) model of changes in the performance characteristics applied to determine the costs of renovation works necessary for restoring performance characteristics to the building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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17 pages, 1724 KiB  
Article
On the Search of Models for Early Cost Estimates of Bridges: An SVM-Based Approach
by Michał Juszczyk
Buildings 2020, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10010002 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4443
Abstract
The completion of a bridge construction project within budget is one of the project’s key factors of success. This prerequisite is more likely to be achieved if the cost estimates, especially those provided in the early stage of a project, are realistic and [...] Read more.
The completion of a bridge construction project within budget is one of the project’s key factors of success. This prerequisite is more likely to be achieved if the cost estimates, especially those provided in the early stage of a project, are realistic and close to the actual costs. The paper presents the research results on the development of a cost prediction model based on machine learning, namely the support vector machines (SVM) method, for which the input represents basic information and parameters of bridges, available in the early stage of projects. Several SVM-based regression models were investigated with the use of data collected for a number of bridge construction projects completed in Poland. Having finished the machine learning and testing processes, five of the models, of satisfying knowledge generalization ability and comparable performance, were preselected. The final selection of the best model was based on the comparison and analysis ability to predict bridge construction costs with accuracy appropriate for the early stage of projects. The general testing metrics of the finally selected model, named BCCPMSVR2, were as follows: root mean square error: 1.111; correlation coefficient of real-life bridge construction costs and costs predicted by the model: 0.980; and mean absolute percentage error: 10.94%. The research resulted in the development and introduction of an original model capable of providing early estimates of bridge construction costs with satisfactory accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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14 pages, 786 KiB  
Article
Holistic Analysis of Waste Copper Slag Based Concrete by Means of EIPI Method
by Wojciech Kubissa, Roman Jaskulski, Damian Gil and Iwona Wilińska
Buildings 2020, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10010001 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4140
Abstract
The aim of the research is a comprehensive evaluation of concrete using the EIPI method. In the evaluation the compressive strength of concrete and its durability properties represented by sorptivity and air permeability are taken into account. Since waste copper slag with increased [...] Read more.
The aim of the research is a comprehensive evaluation of concrete using the EIPI method. In the evaluation the compressive strength of concrete and its durability properties represented by sorptivity and air permeability are taken into account. Since waste copper slag with increased natural radioactivity is used in the assessed concrete, additional evaluation is carried out taking into account the influence of natural radioactivity within the performance index. Additionally, the reference concrete, which is made without the use of waste copper slag, is evaluated for comparative purposes. In order to make the evaluation as comprehensive as possible, the concrete made with the use of three types of cement is subjected to CEM I, CEM II and CEM III assessments. If natural radioactivity is not taken into account in the evaluation, the best result of the most favourable value of Gross Ecological and Performance Indicator (GEPI) is obtained by the concrete made with waste copper slag, and if radioactivity is considered, the most favourable value of GEPI is obtained with concrete without addition of the waste. The results show that in both approaches the best result is achieved by concrete with CEM III cement. It follows from the above that although natural radioactivity has a significant impact on the EIPI evaluation result, the decisive factor is still the type of cement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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17 pages, 1007 KiB  
Article
Multi-Criteria Analysis of Design Solutions in Architecture and Engineering: Review of Applications and a Case Study
by Karolina Ogrodnik
Buildings 2019, 9(12), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9120244 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 6841
Abstract
The primary goal of this paper is to present the application potential of MCDM/MCDA (multi-criteria decision-making/multi-criteria decision analysis) methods in the field of architecture and urban planning and in energy efficient construction, especially in the context of sustainable development paradigm. The first part [...] Read more.
The primary goal of this paper is to present the application potential of MCDM/MCDA (multi-criteria decision-making/multi-criteria decision analysis) methods in the field of architecture and urban planning and in energy efficient construction, especially in the context of sustainable development paradigm. The first part of this paper is devoted to literature studies pertaining to multi-criteria decision-making support in the selected fields. On the basis of the delivered review, it was demonstrated that the most popular methods belonging to the MCDM/MCDA group that have been used so far for the purpose of resolving selected decision-making challenges, is the AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method with modifications, TOPSIS (technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution) method, as well the up-and-coming COPRAS (complex proportional assessment) method. In addition, by reviewing the literature, it was found that MCDM/MCDA methods constitute an effective support tool at the stage of evaluating and selecting project solutions, and are especially helpful in framing various social, economic, environmental criteria that are permanently linked to the rule of sustainable development. The empirical section of this paper, through a case study, presents a comparative analysis of the classical AHP method with its extension onto fuzzy sets. The case study pertained to the criteria for the location of single-family residential buildings with solar installations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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25 pages, 10167 KiB  
Article
The Role of an Architect in Creating the Image of an Elderly-Friendly Sustainable Smart City
by Joanna Tymkiewicz
Buildings 2019, 9(10), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9100223 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 8759
Abstract
The idea of sustainable smart city has extensive scientific literature where the architects’ role in designing built environments, being a physical platform for implementing “elderly-friendly” solutions, is poorly referenced. The main objective of the article is to define the role of architects in [...] Read more.
The idea of sustainable smart city has extensive scientific literature where the architects’ role in designing built environments, being a physical platform for implementing “elderly-friendly” solutions, is poorly referenced. The main objective of the article is to define the role of architects in creating the image of sustainable smart cities, focusing on senior citizens. The paper surveys the available literature on the subject and describes pilot studies carried out at the indicative level among the students of one of architecture faculties in Poland, based on the design thinking method. The studies demonstrate how students imagine intelligent elderly-friendly cities in the future from the architects’ perspective. In addition, examples of other studies with the students of that faculty are presented. Following the analyses combining the conclusions of research and pilot studies with the students, a tabular summary of the architects’ tasks and roles were provided—these were divided into six building blocks of a smart city and as a reference to the elements shaping the image of cities, districts and buildings. This is a new, innovative classification of architectural issues. The perspectives for further desk research and field participatory research were indicated, which should, in the future, translate into a novel holistic approach to the problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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32 pages, 12239 KiB  
Article
Technological Advances and Trends in Modern High-Rise Buildings
by Jerzy Szolomicki and Hanna Golasz-Szolomicka
Buildings 2019, 9(9), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9090193 - 26 Aug 2019
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 101716
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to provide structural and architectural technological solutions applied in the construction of high-rise buildings, and present the possibilities of technological evolution in this field. Tall buildings always have relied on technological innovations in engineering and scientific progress. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to provide structural and architectural technological solutions applied in the construction of high-rise buildings, and present the possibilities of technological evolution in this field. Tall buildings always have relied on technological innovations in engineering and scientific progress. New technological developments have been continuously taking place in the world. It is closely linked to the search for efficient construction materials that enable buildings to be constructed higher, faster and safer. This paper presents a survey of the main technological advancements on the example of selected tall buildings erected in the last decade, with an emphasis on geometrical form, the structural system, sophisticated damping systems, sustainability, etc. The famous architectural studios (e.g., for Skidmore, Owings and Merill, Nikhen Sekkei, RMJM, Atkins and WOHA) that specialize, among others, in the designing of skyscrapers have played a major role in the development of technological ideas and architectural forms for such extraordinary engineering structures. Among their completed projects, there are examples of high-rise buildings that set a precedent for future development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
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