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Societies, Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Open AccessCommunication
Could 79 People Solarize the U.S. Electric Grid?
Societies 2019, 9(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010026
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Although wealth inequality has many established negatives, this study investigates a potential positive, unprecedented wealth concentration makes it possible for solutions to large and seemingly intractable problems to be deployed by convincing a relatively small number of individuals to invest. In order to [...] Read more.
Although wealth inequality has many established negatives, this study investigates a potential positive, unprecedented wealth concentration makes it possible for solutions to large and seemingly intractable problems to be deployed by convincing a relatively small number of individuals to invest. In order to probe this potential outcome of inequality, this study quantifies the number of people necessary to radically reduce the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for global climate destabilization from the U.S. electric grid, which is one of the largest sources of emissions. Specifically, this study determined that 1544 GW of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology must be deployed to eliminate the use of fossil fuels on the U.S. electric grid, if PV is conservatively deployed as a function of population density. The results showed that only 79 American multi-billionaires would need to invest in PV. This investment would still leave each investor with a billion dollars of liquid assets as well as substantial long-term profits from PV. The analysis also concluded that 79 people is a conservative upper estimate of those that would need to be convinced of the usefulness of moving to a solar U.S. grid and that this estimate is likely to decrease further in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cui Bono? Assessing Community Engagement in San Francisco Community Benefit Agreements
Societies 2019, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010025
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
A community benefit agreement (CBA) that provides tax breaks to a company often has provisions to help uplift the area where the business resides. A number of San Francisco companies, especially those in the technology sector, have received tax relief, a tangible benefit [...] Read more.
A community benefit agreement (CBA) that provides tax breaks to a company often has provisions to help uplift the area where the business resides. A number of San Francisco companies, especially those in the technology sector, have received tax relief, a tangible benefit granted in exchange for operating in designated blighted areas, the details of which are delineated in publicly available CBAs. One CBA requirement for the tax break—community engagement—defies easy measurement. This paper assesses whether San Francisco companies were held accountable for fulfilling this unclear but core CBA requirement, namely, engagement with disenfranchised community members, an important part of their corporate social responsibility. To assess the community engagement stipulation of CBAs, this paper presents background on CBAs followed by interview data from two anonymous community liaisons who were formerly or are currently responsible for community engagement at companies that received the tax break. Themes found in the interview data highlight the limitations of CBAs that result from the unequal social exchange between companies and the indigent residents of blighted areas where the businesses are located. The study concludes that the benefits of the vague and unenforceable community engagement provision of CBAs do not justify the companies’ payroll tax exclusion. The disproportionality of this quid pro quo risks aggravating impoverished residents’ resentment of companies and their employees. The relevance of this study’s low participation rate among community liaisons is also discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Globalization and the Transformation of Political Attitude Structures at the Party Level in the Arab World: Insights from the Cases of Egypt and Jordan
Societies 2019, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010024
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, the outline, design, and findings of an ongoing research project on the effects of globalization on the transformation of political ideology in the Arab world at the political party level are presented. It is argued that globalization has altered the [...] Read more.
In this paper, the outline, design, and findings of an ongoing research project on the effects of globalization on the transformation of political ideology in the Arab world at the political party level are presented. It is argued that globalization has altered the dimensionality, type, and structuration of political ideology in the Arab world. The structure of preferences among political actors in the region shifted from a unidimensional one in the post-independence era to become multidimensional in the contemporary period, defined by high rates of economic, cultural, and political globalization. Arab political parties no longer organize their platforms based on the Islamic–liberal, Islamist–secular, or cultural divides. An economic values-based dimension has emerged to divide party programs, adding a second, distinct and statistically independent dimension to the already existing classic church versus state cleavage. Further, a new family of Islamist parties has emerged due to the economic, cultural, and political gains from globalization. This project argues that globalization causes political ideological shifts in attitudes through formulating new groups, schedules of preferences, and political/economic opportunities. This research contributes to the ongoing debate on the influence of globalization and any other social transformation process on changing political actors’ preferences across time and space. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Physical Culture
Societies 2019, 9(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010023
Received: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
Johnston and Klandermans [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Culture)
Open AccessArticle
Keeping It in the Family: Intersectionality and ‘Class A’ Drug Dealing by Females in the West of Scotland
Societies 2019, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010022
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
Post-industrial urban landscapes connected with neo-liberalism may provide novel opportunities for the emancipation of working-class women who were traditionally, like women of other social classes, largely subjugated to men socially and economically in the period of collective male-led unionization and manufacturing. Based on [...] Read more.
Post-industrial urban landscapes connected with neo-liberalism may provide novel opportunities for the emancipation of working-class women who were traditionally, like women of other social classes, largely subjugated to men socially and economically in the period of collective male-led unionization and manufacturing. Based on qualitative data, our interpretative study locates itself in an international field of criminality and illuminates the criminal practices of women connected with the criminal world of illicit drugs. Our contribution extends this field of scholarship into the culture of the West of Scotland. We identify through an intersectional sensibility of ‘doing femininity’ on the street and the nexus of a familial domicile, the ways in which women’s agency remains restricted, contrary to an emancipation argument. We conclude that their ‘liberation’ is negatively truncated for two reasons: firstly, criminality necessarily distorts freedoms and secondly, subtle ties with an overarching violent masculinity were retained. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Sedanthropocene: Nomadism, Ecology, Hypernormalization: Toward Reimagining the Holocene
Societies 2019, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010021
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
The various (s)cenes of Anthropocene discourse are attempts to conceptualize the problem of anthropogenic global warming and to better understand the problem with a view to possible solutions. This paper explores, in a series of theoretic vignettes, ways that these attempts are too [...] Read more.
The various (s)cenes of Anthropocene discourse are attempts to conceptualize the problem of anthropogenic global warming and to better understand the problem with a view to possible solutions. This paper explores, in a series of theoretic vignettes, ways that these attempts are too myopic and narrow, and tend to ignore the possibility that the most fundamental levels of social organization might be the very conditions under which other ‘cenes’ can function at all. Specifically, Jason Moore’s Capitalocene describes and explains many symptoms of a world enraptured by capital. However, the beginning of the Holocene marks an historical stage wherein humans changed their thoughts and behaviours in such a way as to make something like capitalism possible at all. The dualism that Moore cites as fundamental to the Capitalocene did not begin with Descartes, it began with anatomically modern humans circa 10,000 years ago. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Justice at the End of Our World)
Open AccessArticle
Female Brass Musicians Address Gender Parity, Gender Equity, and Sexual Harassment: A Preliminary Report on Data from the Brass Bodies Study
Societies 2019, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010020
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
The Brass Bodies Study is an exploratory cross-sectional study designed to describe and understand the experience of female brass players. This report discusses selected data from close-ended and open-ended responses to questions regarding gender equity, parity, and sexual harassment within a web-based survey [...] Read more.
The Brass Bodies Study is an exploratory cross-sectional study designed to describe and understand the experience of female brass players. This report discusses selected data from close-ended and open-ended responses to questions regarding gender equity, parity, and sexual harassment within a web-based survey that launched the first phase of the study. The survey queried subjects’ physical changes to their brass playing due to various catalysts: life-cycle events; injury, illness, harassment, mental health, racism, and homophobia. The survey instrument further queried whether subjects received support about these changes and the effectiveness of support. The following report discusses survey responses to questions about gender parity and changes to brass playing due to sexual harassment. Additional qualitative data were generated from open-ended questions in the survey and were qualitatively coded and thematically presented to supplement the descriptive statistics provided. The information presented explores and defines salient items and themes of a population that is under researched with the hopes of generating hypotheses for continued research. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Policy Coherence and Social Protection in Ethiopia: Ensuring No One Is Left Behind
Societies 2019, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010019
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
Ethiopia has made a strong commitment to strengthen its social protection system. However, resource constraints pose significant challenges in seeking to meet the basic needs of all people. We employ a qualitative research design to identify issues of policy incoherence, within the social [...] Read more.
Ethiopia has made a strong commitment to strengthen its social protection system. However, resource constraints pose significant challenges in seeking to meet the basic needs of all people. We employ a qualitative research design to identify issues of policy incoherence, within the social protection policy and in relation to other sectoral policies. Policy incoherence has high costs. Strengthening policy coherence is necessary to improve the utilization of limited resources and set a pathway through which the government can ensure no one is left behind. We also present examples of implementation coherence, which provide insight into viable means through which improved policy coherence might be pursued. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Digitalization on the Tasks of Employees with Disabilities in Germany (1979–2006)
Societies 2019, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010018
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
The deployment of technology in the workplace is increasingly replacing routine tasks and creating more non-routine tasks. In this article, we investigate the influence of computer technology on tasks carried out by employees with disabilities compared to employees without disabilities. We assume significant [...] Read more.
The deployment of technology in the workplace is increasingly replacing routine tasks and creating more non-routine tasks. In this article, we investigate the influence of computer technology on tasks carried out by employees with disabilities compared to employees without disabilities. We assume significant differences between both groups and stronger substitutive and complementary effects of computer technology in the case of a higher degree of disability. We use four waves of the German BIBB-IAB (BIBB: Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training- IAB: Institute of Employment Research) and BIBB-BauA (BIBB: Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training- BauA: German Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Employment surveys (1976–2006) to investigate the development of tasks and the influence of computer technology carried out by employees with disabilities compared to employees without disabilities. The results show a development of tasks carried out by employees with disabilities that is very similar to that of employees without disabilities. In line with the assumptions of the task-based approach, we find that computer technology in the workplace has a complementary effect on routine tasks and a substitutive effect on non-routine tasks carried out by employees with disabilities. Against our theoretical assumptions, we find no systematic differences in the effects of computer technology on the tasks of employees with and without a disability. Moreover, we do not find systematic differences with regard to the degree of disability. Full article
Open AccessEssay
Integration of African Customary Legal Concepts into Modern Law: Restorative Justice: A Kenyan Example
Societies 2019, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010017
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
African societies have been governed according to known norms, customs, and practices that together constitute African customary law. These societies have placed emphasis on communal as opposed to individual identity, and this has extended to their justice systems. African customary law therefore has [...] Read more.
African societies have been governed according to known norms, customs, and practices that together constitute African customary law. These societies have placed emphasis on communal as opposed to individual identity, and this has extended to their justice systems. African customary law therefore has placed emphasis on the concept of restorative justice based on the understanding of restoring the societal balance that has been disrupted by crime. This has fostered offender accountability, reparation to the victim, and full participation by the affected community members. This essay examines the resurgence of African legal philosophy and its subsequent integration into modern African formal legal systems. In particular, it interrogates the recent Kenyan example of integrating traditional dispute resolution mechanisms as one of the guiding principles for the exercise of judicial authority by Kenyan courts under the 2010 Constitution. It argues for the development of structures to properly utilize such mechanisms within the Kenyan context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Access to Justice: Historical Approaches to Victims of Crime)
Open AccessArticle
Exploring Women’s Experiences: Embodied Pathways and Influences for Exercise Participation
Societies 2019, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010016
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
It has been well-documented that women face pressures to conform to a slim, toned, and athletic body, becoming “tyrannised” by beauty ideals. Under these contemporary ideologies of perfectionism, women are placed under constant surveillance, evaluation and, objectification and are thus reduced to “being” [...] Read more.
It has been well-documented that women face pressures to conform to a slim, toned, and athletic body, becoming “tyrannised” by beauty ideals. Under these contemporary ideologies of perfectionism, women are placed under constant surveillance, evaluation and, objectification and are thus reduced to “being” their bodies. However, there is little known about the potential relationships between different types of exercise, body image, and exercise motivation. With this in mind, this paper contributes towards a small but developing body of research that utilises feminist phenomenology to reveal twelve women’s early embodied motivations for exercising and draws upon material gathered from a three-year ethnography into the embodied experiences of women in fitness cultures. This paper delves into the influences on their continued participation over time and explores how these experiences shape their understandings of the embodied self and the broader constructions of the gendered body. The discussion provided illuminates how early influences on exercise participation and how pressures on women to conform to dominant notions of the “feminine” body are imposed by structural, cultural, historical, and localised forces in ways that affect and shape future physical activity participation, and the physical cultures where these tensions are played out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Socio-cultural and Critical Approaches to Health and the Body)
Open AccessArticle
Bullying and Work-Related Stress in the Irish Workplace
Societies 2019, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010015
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
Work-related stress is increasing in prevalence, with important consequences for employees, employers, the economy, and wider society. While previous research has identified a link between work-related stress and bullying, gaps remain in our understanding of the nature of the relationship. This article uses [...] Read more.
Work-related stress is increasing in prevalence, with important consequences for employees, employers, the economy, and wider society. While previous research has identified a link between work-related stress and bullying, gaps remain in our understanding of the nature of the relationship. This article uses ordered logistic regression and nationally representative data on 5110 employees from Ireland to empirically analyse the distribution of subjective work-related stress and its relationship with bullying (self-reported). We also consider the role and importance of gender and the presence of a formal policy on respect and dignity at work, as well as the degree to which relationships between management and staff and between staff themselves are related to work-related stress. Amongst the main findings are that employees who reported that they were bullied were considerably more likely to report that they were often or always stressed, while bad and very bad relationships between management and staff were also significantly associated with greater stress, particularly for female employees. Overall, our findings have a range of implications for employees, employers, and policymakers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Subjective Well-being Under the Scope of Public Policies)
Open AccessConcept Paper
The Intertwined Relationship between Power and Patriarchy: Examples from Resource Extractive Industries
Societies 2019, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010014
Received: 16 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
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Abstract
This study examines the relationships between extractive industries, power and patriarchy, raising attention to the negative social and environmental impacts these relationships have had on communities globally. Wealth accumulation, gender and environment inequality have occurred for decades or more as a result of [...] Read more.
This study examines the relationships between extractive industries, power and patriarchy, raising attention to the negative social and environmental impacts these relationships have had on communities globally. Wealth accumulation, gender and environment inequality have occurred for decades or more as a result of patriarchal structures, controlled by the few in power. The multiple indirect ways these concepts have evolved to function in modern day societies further complicates attempts to resolve them and transform the social and natural world towards a more sustainable model. Partly relying on queer ecology, this paper opens space for uncovering some hidden mechanisms of asserting power and patriarchal methods of domination in resource-extractive industries and impacted populations. I hypothesize that patriarchy and gender inequality have a substantial impact on power relations and control of resources, in particular within the energy industry. Based on examples from the literature used to illustrate these processes, patriarchy-imposed gender relations are embedded in communities with large resource extraction industries and have a substantial impact on power relations, especially relative to wealth accumulation. The paper ends with a call for researchers to consider these issues more deeply and conceptually in the development of case studies and empirical analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Justice at the End of Our World)
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Open AccessArticle
Women Quazi in a Minority Context: An Overview of Sri Lankan Experience
Societies 2019, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010013
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
A woman’s eligibility to be appointed as a judge in Shariah courts in Muslim societies has been a debated issue for decades. Although some Muslim majority countries, including Arab countries, have allowed women judges (Qudath) in Shariah courts, the Muslim Religious [...] Read more.
A woman’s eligibility to be appointed as a judge in Shariah courts in Muslim societies has been a debated issue for decades. Although some Muslim majority countries, including Arab countries, have allowed women judges (Qudath) in Shariah courts, the Muslim Religious Leadership in Sri Lanka, namely All Ceylon Jamiyathul Ulama (ACJU) is opposed to such appointment to administrate Muslim matrimonial law on the basis of classical Muslim scholars’ discussion on the qualification of a judge (Qadi in Arabic), particularly referring to their debate on gender; however, women activists in Sri Lanka argue for women Quazi on the basis of women’s privacy and fair hearing. This article, therefore, explores the Islamic standpoint regarding women Quazi in Sri Lanka. Hence, this research studies the classical scholars’ discussions on the qualification of a judge (Qadi) critically and uses textual and document analysis to bring out the dynamic interpretations of the verses of the Quran and Hadiths that they used for their arguments. The contextual analysis was carried out to understand the various applications of these verses of the Quran and Hadiths in history, particularly in connection with the present situation for women in Sri Lanka. This research found no explicit verses of the Quran and Hadiths to allow or deny women Quazi. The positive and negative approach to women judges (Qudath) has been founded throughout history on the basis of Islamic scholars’ understanding of a few verses of the Quran and Hadith that are related to women leadership. This study recommends women Quazi for Sri Lankan Quazi courts by highlighting differences of context and insignificance of classical Muslim scholars’ debate on gender as a qualification of a judge (Qadi). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Islam)
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Open AccessArticle
Text–Image Relationships in Tweets: Shaping the Meanings of an Epidemic
Societies 2019, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010012
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
1. Background: While many studies analyze the functions that images can fulfill during humanitarian crises or catastrophes, an understanding of how meaning is constructed in text–image relationships is lacking. This article explores how discourses are produced using different types of text–image interactions. It [...] Read more.
1. Background: While many studies analyze the functions that images can fulfill during humanitarian crises or catastrophes, an understanding of how meaning is constructed in text–image relationships is lacking. This article explores how discourses are produced using different types of text–image interactions. It presents a case study focusing on a humanitarian crisis, more specifically the sexual transmission of Ebola. 2. Methods: Data were processed both quantitatively and qualitatively through a keyword-based selection. Tweets containing an image were retrieved from a database of 210,600 tweets containing the words “Ebola” and “semen”, in English and in French, over the course of 12 months. When this first selection was crossed with the imperative of focusing on a specific thematic (the sexual transmission of Ebola) and avoiding off-topic text–image relationships, it led to reducing the corpus to 182 tweets. 3. Results: The article proposes a four-category classification of text–image relationships. Theoretically, it provides original insights into how discourses are built in social media; it also highlights the semiotic significance of images in expressing an opinion or an emotion. 4. Conclusion: The results suggest that the process of signification needs to be rethought: Content enhancement and dialogism through images have a bearing on Twitter’s use as a public sphere, such as credibilization of discourses or politicization of events. This opens the way to a new, more comprehensive approach to the rhetorics of users on Twitter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Perceptual Knots and Black Identity Politics: Linked Fate, American Heritage, and Support for Trump Era Immigration Policy
Societies 2019, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010011
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
Since the 2016 U.S. presidential election, much ado has been made about how racial anxiety fueled White vote choice for Donald Trump. Far less empirical attention has been paid to whether the 2016 election cycle triggered black anxieties and if those anxieties led [...] Read more.
Since the 2016 U.S. presidential election, much ado has been made about how racial anxiety fueled White vote choice for Donald Trump. Far less empirical attention has been paid to whether the 2016 election cycle triggered black anxieties and if those anxieties led blacks to reevaluate their communities’ standing relative to Latinos and immigrants. Employing data from the 2016 Collaborative Multiracial Post-Election Survey, we examine the extent to which race consciousness both coexists with black perceptions of Latinos and shapes black support for anti-immigrant legislation. Our results address how the conflation of Latino with undocumented immigrant may have activated a perceptional and policy backlash amongst black voters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Consumer Demographics and Risk Factors on Online Purchase Behaviour in Malaysia
Societies 2019, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010010
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
It is evident that there has been a rapid growth of electronic commerce and online shopping. Hence, this study examined the effect of selected antecedents and risk factors on online purchase behaviour in Malaysia under the premise of an adapted stimulus–organism–response (SOR) model. [...] Read more.
It is evident that there has been a rapid growth of electronic commerce and online shopping. Hence, this study examined the effect of selected antecedents and risk factors on online purchase behaviour in Malaysia under the premise of an adapted stimulus–organism–response (SOR) model. This study used a cross-sectional design to collect data from 330 selected respondents from Peninsular Malaysia. The findings revealed that the age of consumers, as well as perceived after-sales risk, financial risk, psychological risk, and social risk, had a significant effect on the online purchase behaviour in Malaysia. Apart from enriching the existing body of knowledge, this study offers several significant practical implications. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the government and online businesses should focus on Generation Y, who are known to be more tech-savvy, through policies and programmes in order to reduce the various types of perceived risks associated with online transactions. It is believed that this effort could enhance online consumerism among the residents of Malaysia. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Community Knowledge about Tuberculosis and Perception about Tuberculosis-Associated Stigma in Pakistan
Societies 2019, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010009
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
Tuberculosis- (TB) associated stigma is a well-documented phenomenon with various factors, both individual and societal, manifesting its role in shaping health-seeking behavior and contributing to suboptimal TB care in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess TB-related knowledge and perceived stigma [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis- (TB) associated stigma is a well-documented phenomenon with various factors, both individual and societal, manifesting its role in shaping health-seeking behavior and contributing to suboptimal TB care in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess TB-related knowledge and perceived stigma among community members. This was a cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample of 183 individuals recruited between October and December 2017. A validated stigma measurement tool developed by Van Rie et al. was adapted. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A clear majority was aware that TB is curable disease and that it is transmitted by coughing. However, respondents also thought that TB spread through contaminated food, sharing meals, sharing utensils, and by having sexual intercourse with a TB patient. In addition, females, unemployed, and persons having less than six years of education were also more likely to associate stigma with TB. We found an association between the lack of knowledge about TB and perceived stigma. This study highlights the need for improved TB-related education among communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identity, Stigma, and Social Reaction)
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Open AccessArticle
Women’s Wrestling: A ‘Fight’ for the Transformation of Cultural Schemas in Relation to Gender
Societies 2019, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010008
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
This article reports on the findings from a social anthropological ethnographic study conducted within the area of women’s freestyle wrestling in Barcelona. The study focused on exploring female wrestlers’ experiences of the connection between their participation and visibility in this sport and the [...] Read more.
This article reports on the findings from a social anthropological ethnographic study conducted within the area of women’s freestyle wrestling in Barcelona. The study focused on exploring female wrestlers’ experiences of the connection between their participation and visibility in this sport and the hegemonic gendered cultural schemas established within our society in relation to gender. The ethnography comprised participant interviews and observations which enabled an exploratory thematic analysis of the relevant experiences of female wrestlers and situates these in the context of gender relations in the sport and in society. The preliminary findings are that freestyle wrestling in this context remains a sexist environment and wrestling shows still include stereotyped discourses when it comes to the staging of women’s matches. While there has been some development in terms of female participation in this environment, male dominated discourses, practices and infrastructures still represent a significant barrier for the development of women’s wrestling in Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Culture)
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Open AccessArticle
In Transition … Where to? Rethinking Life Stages and Intergenerational Relations of Italian Youth
Societies 2019, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010007
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
This article wants to contribute to the ongoing debate within youth studies about the frameworks and concepts that inform research on the meanings of and transitions into adulthood. It aims to contribute to debates about the changing nature of life stages and the [...] Read more.
This article wants to contribute to the ongoing debate within youth studies about the frameworks and concepts that inform research on the meanings of and transitions into adulthood. It aims to contribute to debates about the changing nature of life stages and the need for new conceptual categories and definitions of adulthood and of intergenerational relations. Thus, the first question that drives our reflections is: How do the radical transformations implied in the transition to adulthood pathway change the metaphors used to describe it, the ways of defining adulthood itself, and the scope for mutual recognition amongst different generations? Indeed, intergenerational relationships acquire more complexity in a framework in which a) structural factors like the precarisation of the labour market and the aging population heighten reciprocal interdependence and b) changes in the life-course patterns distance the different generations, especially in terms of biographical sense-making. These theoretical reflections arise from empirical work done in Northern Italy, with thirty-something people who are struggling with a prolonged and de-standardised transition process, negotiating “new adult roles”, particularly in the field of parenthood). This complex transition is significant and widespread in Italian context that, as part of the group of Southern welfare states, has low levels of welfare provision and high reliance on the family as a form of support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Studies: Values, Practices and Discourses on Generations)
Open AccessEssay
Historically Illustrating the Shift to Neoliberalism in the U.S. Home Mortgage Market
Societies 2019, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010006
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
This article takes a long view of the U.S. housing market; from its inception as locally owned and operated Building Societies, through one of the first major U.S. housing crises in the early 1930s, as well as through the prosperous and surprisingly stable [...] Read more.
This article takes a long view of the U.S. housing market; from its inception as locally owned and operated Building Societies, through one of the first major U.S. housing crises in the early 1930s, as well as through the prosperous and surprisingly stable post-WWII era the so-called “Long Boom” during Keynesianism. As labor shortages became more severe, accompanied by stagflation and the simultaneous urban, fiscal, and oil crises of the late 60s and early 70s, key sectors of the U.S. economy rallied to dismantle established Keynesian policies. While the new policies associated with laissez–faire economic liberalism certainly aided in the mobility of capital, the overall economy as a result of this neoliberal turn became increasingly unstable and inequitable. This article seeks to add knowledge to the neoliberalism theory. The author concludes, based on a historical case study of the Savings and Loans industry, that neoliberalism was not a deterministic overthrow of neoliberal ideologues but a haphazard response to the contradictions of Keynesian logic. It is only from a historical approach that we may be able to understand the current housing crisis, foster policy innovation, and allow for institutional change within the U.S. mortgage market sector. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Societies in 2018
Societies 2019, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010005
Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer review is the cornerstone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Is Sadeem Legally Married to Waleed? Islamic Feminism and the Intersection of Culture, Religion, and Gender in Banāt al-Riyāḍ
Societies 2019, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010004
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 16 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
Rajāʾ al-Ṣāniʿ’s Banāt al-Riyāḍ (2005, Girls of Riyadh) is unique not just for depicting globalization and local culture vis-à-vis the woman issue in Saudi Arabia, but for heralding a new trend of ‘e-epistolary narratives’ in the Saudi Arabian novel. The novel explores [...] Read more.
Rajāʾ al-Ṣāniʿ’s Banāt al-Riyāḍ (2005, Girls of Riyadh) is unique not just for depicting globalization and local culture vis-à-vis the woman issue in Saudi Arabia, but for heralding a new trend of ‘e-epistolary narratives’ in the Saudi Arabian novel. The novel explores issues related to Islamic religious precepts versus Saudi socio-cultural practices and ideologies, especially those related to love and marital relationships as well as the concepts of femininity and masculinity. Most of the reviews and scholarly studies in English have focused more on the novel’s innovative narrative style or medium and its portrayal of the taboos of Saudi Arabia rather than on—and oftentimes, ignoring—its Islamic content and persuasion. This article reads Banāt al-Riyāḍ as an ‘Islamic feminist’ text that represents the extent to which al-Ṣāniʿ has internalized the other—modern western culture and civilization—while at the same time seeking to externalize and highlight the authentic Islamic teachings on women’s rights and gender relations, which have always been both misinterpreted locally and misrepresented globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Islam)
Open AccessArticle
Experiences and Strategies of Young, Low-Income, African-American Men and Families Who Navigate Violent Neighborhoods and Low-Performing Schools
Societies 2019, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010003
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Violent neighborhoods and low-performing schools continue to devastate young, low-income, African-American men and their families, despite individual and family use of kin and peer network navigation strategies. To learn more, interviews were conducted with 40 young African-American men, ages 18 to 22, from [...] Read more.
Violent neighborhoods and low-performing schools continue to devastate young, low-income, African-American men and their families, despite individual and family use of kin and peer network navigation strategies. To learn more, interviews were conducted with 40 young African-American men, ages 18 to 22, from Baltimore City enrolled in a general equivalency diploma (GED) and job training program, and analyzed with modified grounded theory. Young men identified unsafe neighborhoods, chaotic schools, and disengaged teaching. Young men used safety and success strategies such as avoiding trouble and selecting positive peers to navigate unsafe environments. African-American families utilized kin network strategies such as messaging and modeling success, and mobilization for safety. Limits of unrecognized and unsupported strategies were related to: mobilization, limited educational partnership, and disproportionate family loss. Results indicate the continued urgent need for: (1) targeted violence reduction in high-violence neighborhoods, (2) calm and effective learning environments, (3) higher ratios of teachers to students to reduce chaos and improve learning, and (4) genuine teacher partnerships with families to improve access to positive role models, academic supports, and positive peer network development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Development for Equity and Empowerment)
Open AccessArticle
An Ethnographic Study of Deaf Refugees Seeking Asylum in Finland
Societies 2019, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010002
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 23 December 2018 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
Deaf asylum seekers are a marginalized group of people in refugee and forced migration studies. The aim of this paper is to explore and highlight the experiences of deaf asylum seekers in the asylum procedure in Finland. The data come from linguistic ethnographic [...] Read more.
Deaf asylum seekers are a marginalized group of people in refugee and forced migration studies. The aim of this paper is to explore and highlight the experiences of deaf asylum seekers in the asylum procedure in Finland. The data come from linguistic ethnographic methods, interviews, and ethnographic observation with 10 deaf asylum seekers. While living in the reception centers, the study participants have faced a range of linguistic and social challenges. The findings show that language barriers appeared from day one after the participants’ arrival in Finland. The investment and initiatives of deaf volunteers played a crucial role for deaf asylum seekers in their access to and participation in Finnish society. In addition, receiving formal Finnish sign language instruction had a positive effect on their well-being. Drawing on content analysis of deaf asylum seekers’ experiences, I argue that greater awareness, recognition, and support of deaf asylum seekers are needed in the Finnish asylum system. I conclude this paper with a discussion of and suggestions for a better asylum system for deaf individuals. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Role of Military Service in the Integration/Segregation of Muslims, Christians and Druze within Israel
Societies 2019, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9010001
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
This study applies the negative peace/positive peace approach to internal nation-state relations between the majority and ethnic minority. This approach focuses on the policies implemented by the state. In order to understand the social system from its formation, an important focus should be [...] Read more.
This study applies the negative peace/positive peace approach to internal nation-state relations between the majority and ethnic minority. This approach focuses on the policies implemented by the state. In order to understand the social system from its formation, an important focus should be given to the period of establishment of a new state, whereas physical borders are defined along with the borders of society, which determines who is included in the new nation and who is excluded. The conclusions are based on the case of the Israeli Druze, an ethnic minority with whom the state of Israel and its Jewish majority have achieved positive peace. This study suggests that the positive peace with the Druze was achieved following their integration in the army—as a decision of the state of Israel—that lead to their integration in the Israeli society. Conversely to the Israeli Muslims, where a negative peace is maintained, following the early year’s state policy to exclude them. Full article
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