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Societies, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2015) , Pages 245-565

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Open AccessArticle Complexity and Volume: An Inquiry into Factors that Drive Principals’ Work
Societies 2015, 5(2), 537-565; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020537
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 15 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 2 June 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2909 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The work of contemporary school principals is intensifying in terms of its complexity and volume. Many factors moderate and drive such work intensification. This study aims to understand what and how factors interact to complicate principals’ work. Methods: Focus groups and an
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Background: The work of contemporary school principals is intensifying in terms of its complexity and volume. Many factors moderate and drive such work intensification. This study aims to understand what and how factors interact to complicate principals’ work. Methods: Focus groups and an online survey were used for data collection. Three focus group sessions with eight principals were conducted to help develop and refine the online survey. The survey covers 12 key areas in principals’ work and was distributed among the members of Ontario Principals’ Council. Descriptive statistics, correlation and factor analysis were conducted on survey results. Results: The study shows that there are many key areas that moderate principals’ work, such as administrative duties and responsibilities, jurisdictional policies, external influences, partnerships, and challenges and possibilities. School principals are experiencing increased expectations at work in terms of the number of tasks they are expected to undertake, the duration of time they are required to complete those tasks, and the many challenges they face at their work. Conclusions: Principals’ choice of leadership approaches and practices is subject to factors that exist within and beyond schools. Such factors moderate the way that principals carry out their work and limit their choices in exercising their professional autonomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How School Leadership Influences Student Learning)
Open AccessArticle The Coping with Cyberbullying Questionnaire: Development of a New Measure
Societies 2015, 5(2), 515-536; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020515
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 12 May 2015 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 28 May 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2669 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Victims of cyberbullying report a number of undesirable outcomes regarding their well-being, especially those who are not able to successfully cope with cyber victimization. Research on coping with cyberbullying has identified a number of different coping strategies that seem to be differentially adaptive
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Victims of cyberbullying report a number of undesirable outcomes regarding their well-being, especially those who are not able to successfully cope with cyber victimization. Research on coping with cyberbullying has identified a number of different coping strategies that seem to be differentially adaptive in cases of cyber victimization. However, knowledge regarding the effectiveness of these strategies is scarce. This scarcity is partially due to the lack of valid and reliable instruments for the assessment of coping strategies in the context of cyber victimization. The present study outlines the development of the Coping with Cyberbullying Questionnaire (CWCBQ) and tests of its reliability and construct validity over a total of five questionnaire development stages. The CWCBQ was developed in the context of a longitudinal study carried out in Switzerland and was also used with Italian and Irish samples of adolescents. The results of these different studies and stages resulted in a questionnaire that is composed of seven subscales (i.e., distal advice, assertiveness, helplessness/self-blame, active ignoring, retaliation, close support and technical coping) with a total of 36 items. The CWCBQ is still being developed, but the results obtained so far suggested that the questionnaire was reliable and valid among the countries where it was used at different stages of its development. The CWCBQ is a promising tool for the understanding of potential coping with experiences of cyber victimization and for the development of prevention and intervention programs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cyberbullying and Primary-School Aged Children: The Psychological Literature and the Challenge for Sociology
Societies 2015, 5(2), 492-514; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020492
Received: 4 March 2015 / Revised: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3414 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyberbullying is an international issue for schools, young people and their families. Whilst many research domains have explored this phenomenon, and bullying more generally, the majority of reported studies appear in the psychological and educational literatures, where bullying, and more recently, cyberbullying has
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Cyberbullying is an international issue for schools, young people and their families. Whilst many research domains have explored this phenomenon, and bullying more generally, the majority of reported studies appear in the psychological and educational literatures, where bullying, and more recently, cyberbullying has been examined primarily at the individual level: amongst adolescents and young people, with a focus on the definition, its prevalence, behaviours, and impact. There also is growing evidence that younger children are increasingly accessing technology and engaging with social media, yet there is limited research dedicated to this younger age group. The purpose of this paper is to report on a systematic literature review from the psychological and educational research domains related to this younger age group, to inform future research across the disciplines. Younger children require different methods of engagement. This review highlights the methodological challenges associated with this age group present in the psychological literature, and argues for a greater use of sociological, child-centred approaches to data collection. This review examined studies published in English, between 2009 and 2014, and conducted with children aged 5–12 years, about their experiences with cyberbullying. Searches were conducted on seven key databases using keywords associated with cyberbullying and age of children. A Google Scholar search also examined published and unpublished reports. A total of 966 articles and reports were retrieved. A random peer review process was employed to establish inter-rater reliability and veracity of the review. Findings revealed 38 studies reported specifically on children aged 5–12 years. The dominant focus of these articles was on prevalence of cyberbullying, established through survey methodology. Few studies noted impacts, understanding and behaviours or engaged children’s independent voice. This review highlights current gaps in our knowledge about younger children’s experiences with this form of bullying, and the importance of employing cross-disciplinary and developmentally appropriate methodologies to inform future research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire on Coping with Cyberbullying: The Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire
Societies 2015, 5(2), 460-491; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020460
Received: 19 January 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2602 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The negative effects and the continuation of cyberbullying seem to depend on the coping strategies the victims use. To assess their coping strategies, self-report questionnaires (SRQs) are used. However, these SRQs are often subject to several shortcomings: the (single and topological) categorizations used
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The negative effects and the continuation of cyberbullying seem to depend on the coping strategies the victims use. To assess their coping strategies, self-report questionnaires (SRQs) are used. However, these SRQs are often subject to several shortcomings: the (single and topological) categorizations used in SRQs do not always adequately differentiate among various coping responses, in addition the strategies of general SRQs fail to accurately measure coping with cyberbullying. This study is therefore aimed to develop a SRQ that specifically measures coping with cyberbullying (i.e., Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire; CCQ) and to discover whether other, not single and topological, categorizations of coping strategies can be found. Based on previous SRQs used in the (cyber)bullying (i.e., traditional and cyberbullying) literature (i.e., 49 studies were found with three different SRQs measuring coping with traditional bullying, cyberbullying or (cyber)bullying) items and categorizations were selected, compared and merged into a new questionnaire. In compliance with recommendations from the classical test-theory, a principal component analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis were done, and a final model was constructed. Seventeen items loaded onto four different coping categorizations: mental-, passive-, social-, and confrontational-coping. The CCQ appeared to have good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, good discriminant validity and the development of the CCQ fulfilled many of the recommendations from classical test-theory. The CCQ omits working in single and topological categorizations and measures cognitive, behavioral, approach and avoidance strategies. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Reimagining the Educational Field: Thoughts on a Critical Criminology of Education
Societies 2015, 5(2), 442-459; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020442
Received: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 14 May 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1632 | PDF Full-text (127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prompted by the need to expand the criminological enterprise, this paper makes a case for a critical criminology of education, one that takes a governance approach. It seeks to illustrate what such a criminology might entail by developing an analytic framework with which
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Prompted by the need to expand the criminological enterprise, this paper makes a case for a critical criminology of education, one that takes a governance approach. It seeks to illustrate what such a criminology might entail by developing an analytic framework with which to analyze the educational field. The framework is put to use to provide an analytic discussion of Ontario education policy reformations concerning student discipline. Education was conceptualized by policymakers as an institution for disciplining and governing students, specifically through the concept of “bullying”. From this analysis, the paper suggests it is possible to theorize education as a “security apparatus”, one that is increasingly concerned with the governance of social (in)security and public safety. The discussion suggests that education is an important institution for governing by identifying one regulatory project that concerns student behavior both within and beyond the school. In so doing, the paper illustrates the creative process in developing a criminology of education, and the value of imaginative thinking within criminology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaginative Criminology)
Open AccessArticle Documentary Criminology: Expanding the Criminological Imagination with “Mardi Gras—Made in China” as a Case Study (23 Minutes)
Societies 2015, 5(2), 425-441; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020425
Received: 25 February 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3443 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper explores the central role of documentary filmmaking as a methodological practice in contemporary criminology. It draws from cultural criminology to develop emerging, open-ended practices for conducting ethnographically inflected audiovisual research that crafts sensory knowledge from aesthetic experience. First, it demonstrates how
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This paper explores the central role of documentary filmmaking as a methodological practice in contemporary criminology. It draws from cultural criminology to develop emerging, open-ended practices for conducting ethnographically inflected audiovisual research that crafts sensory knowledge from aesthetic experience. First, it demonstrates how documentary criminology is an ethnographic practice that embraces audiovisual technologies to inflect, render, and depict the aesthetics of material, sensory, and corporeal experiences of crime and transgression as knowledge production. Second, it explores a particular type of lived experience that John Dewey terms “aesthetic” to demonstrate the sorts of tangible and intangible entities that documentary criminology can interpret, record and depict as knowledge. To demonstrate this approach, the article employs a variety of examples from cultural criminology and from the documentary Mardi Gras: Made in China. The final part of the paper turns to an analysis of Mardi Gras: Made in China itself to illustrate the overlap of theory, methods, and reflexive practices of documentary criminology within four broad aesthetic domains: temporality, topography, corporeality, and the personal. The inclusion of documentary within an open-ended methodological sensibility, both as a mode of analysis and as a means of producing sensory knowledge, can expand the criminological imagination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaginative Criminology)
Open AccessEditorial Social Media and Social Capital: Introduction to the Special Issue
Societies 2015, 5(2), 420-424; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020420
Received: 21 April 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 4 May 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2448 | PDF Full-text (142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Social media, especially social network sites (SNS) such as Facebook have grown rapidly in popularity in the last ten years. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Media and Social Capital)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Facebook Use on Micro-Level Social Capital: A Synthesis
Societies 2015, 5(2), 399-419; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020399
Received: 5 August 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2164 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between Facebook use and micro-level social capital has received substantial scholarly attention over the past decade. This attention has resulted in a large body of empirical work that gives insight into the nature of Facebook as a social networking site and
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The relationship between Facebook use and micro-level social capital has received substantial scholarly attention over the past decade. This attention has resulted in a large body of empirical work that gives insight into the nature of Facebook as a social networking site and how it influences the social benefits that people gather from having social relationships. Although the extant research provides a solid basis for future research into this area, a number of issues remain underexplored. The aim of the current article is twofold. First, it seeks to synthesize what is already known about the relationship between Facebook use and micro-level social capital. Second, it seeks to advance future research by identifying and analyzing relevant theoretical, analytical and methodological issues. To address the first research aim, we first present an overview and analysis of current research findings on Facebook use and social capital, in which we focus on what we know about (1) the relationship between Facebook use in general and the different subtypes of social capital; (2) the relationships between different types of Facebook interactions and social capital; and (3) the impact of self-esteem on the relationship between Facebook use and social capital. Based on this analysis, we subsequently identify three theoretical issues, two analytical issues and four methodological issues in the extant body of research, and discuss the implications of these issues for Facebook and social capital researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Media and Social Capital)
Open AccessArticle Mobile Technologies and the Incidence of Cyberbullying in Seven European Countries: Findings from Net Children Go Mobile
Societies 2015, 5(2), 384-398; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020384
Received: 22 February 2015 / Revised: 26 March 2015 / Accepted: 15 April 2015 / Published: 27 April 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3515 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The harmful effects of bullying and harassment on children have long been of concern to parents, educators, and policy makers. The online world presents a new environment in which vulnerable children can be victimized and a space where perpetrators find new ways to
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The harmful effects of bullying and harassment on children have long been of concern to parents, educators, and policy makers. The online world presents a new environment in which vulnerable children can be victimized and a space where perpetrators find new ways to perform acts of harassment. While online bullying is often considered to be an extension of persistent offline behavior, according to EU Kids Online (2011), the most common form of bullying is in person, face-to-face. With the rise in use of mobile Internet technologies, this balance is changing. Increased levels of use and more time spent online accessed through a variety of devices has increased children’s exposure to a range of online risks, including cyberbullying. This article presents the findings of the Net Children Go Mobile project, a cross-national study of children aged 9–16 in seven European countries. The research builds on the work of EU Kids Online and supports the identification of new trends in children’s online experiences of risk and safety. The study finds that while overall levels of bullying have remained relatively static, levels of online bullying have increased, particularly among younger teens. The relationship between cyberbullying and the use of mobile Internet technologies is examined and factors contributing to increased levels of cyberbullying are highlighted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle “Jihad Cool/Jihad Chic”: The Roles of the Internet and Imagined Relations in the Self-Radicalization of Colleen LaRose (Jihad Jane)
Societies 2015, 5(2), 354-383; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020354
Received: 25 January 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
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Abstract
The internet provides the means through which a “self-activating terrorist” may first self-radicalize through some imaginary or sympathetic connection with an organized terrorist network. Additionally, the internet allows such a self-activating terrorist to move into the stage of radical violent action. The internet
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The internet provides the means through which a “self-activating terrorist” may first self-radicalize through some imaginary or sympathetic connection with an organized terrorist network. Additionally, the internet allows such a self-activating terrorist to move into the stage of radical violent action. The internet serves both functions by providing the lone wolf with not only a rhetorical medium for self-justification and communication through the use of “monster talk” and its converse, the rhetoric about the “good citizen,” but it is also a source for relatively inexpensive and more unpredictable technologies of mass destruction. Crucial to this analysis is the distinction between radicalization of thought and radicalization of action, as a theoretical rhetoric of radicalization does not automatically convert into a rhetoric of radical action unless there are catalysts at work. The internet, as well as imagined relations cemented by the rhetorics of “jihadi cool” or “jihadi chic,” function as these crucial catalysts, galvanizing monster talk into monstrous action. The article focuses specifically on the case of self-activating terrorist Colleen LaRose to analyze how different factors—mental, psychological, social, and economic—interact with imaginative elements, such as surrogate father-mentor-lover relations for LaRose, and contribute to the formation of a self-activating terrorist, and what ultimately motivates and galvanizes her to move from a rhetoric of radical talk to a rhetoric of radical action, using Silber and Bhatt’s model of radicalization as an initial heuristic. In the case of Colleen LaRose, the romance of “jihadi chic” or “jihadi cool” (the converse of the rhetoric of the monstrous “infidel” or “lone wolf terrorist”) was an essential factor to her self-radicalization. It is this imagined status of “jihadi chic” or “jihadi cool” (that nevertheless must somehow have a look of “reality” or “authenticity” and command a response from its audience) that continues to be a crucial component of the success of recruitment strategies of radical jihadi groups, such as ISIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaginative Criminology)
Open AccessArticle Peer Attachment and Cyber Aggression Involvement among Chinese, Indian, and Japanese Adolescents
Societies 2015, 5(2), 339-353; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020339
Received: 30 December 2014 / Revised: 12 March 2015 / Accepted: 13 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2203 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Significant advancements have been made in cyber aggression literature, with many studies revealing the consequences associated with adolescents’ involvement in these behaviors. Few studies have focused on cyber aggression involvement in China, India, and Japan. The present study examined differences in cyber aggression
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Significant advancements have been made in cyber aggression literature, with many studies revealing the consequences associated with adolescents’ involvement in these behaviors. Few studies have focused on cyber aggression involvement in China, India, and Japan. The present study examined differences in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization among 1637 adolescents living in China, India, and Japan, while controlling for face-to-face bullying involvement, individualism, and collectivism. Another aim of the present study was to examine country of origin and cyber aggression involvement (i.e., the uninvolved, cyberaggressor-cybervictims, cyberaggressors, and cybervictims) differences in peer attachment. Findings revealed that adolescents from India had the highest levels of cyber aggression involvement when compared to adolescents from China or Japan. Chinese adolescents engaged in more cyber aggression perpetration and were victimized more by cyber aggression when compared to Japanese adolescents. No country of origin differences were found for peer attachment. However, uninvolved adolescents reported higher levels of peer attachment when compared to the other groups. Cyberaggressor-cybervictims had the lowest levels of peer attachment, followed by cybervictims and cyberaggressors. These results suggest that there should be concern about cyber aggression involvement among adolescents in these countries, especially in India, where cyber aggression research has been slow to develop. Full article
Open AccessArticle Balzac and the Crimes of the Powerful
Societies 2015, 5(2), 325-338; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020325
Received: 20 February 2015 / Revised: 3 April 2015 / Accepted: 7 April 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
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Abstract
This paper proposes a journey through some of the many novels written by Honoré de Balzac, through the mythic constitution of his world, his epic, which summons up the same recurrent circle of figures: his “human comedy” will offer surprising insights for a
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This paper proposes a journey through some of the many novels written by Honoré de Balzac, through the mythic constitution of his world, his epic, which summons up the same recurrent circle of figures: his “human comedy” will offer surprising insights for a better understanding of the crimes of the powerful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaginative Criminology)
Open AccessEssay This Side of the Fence: Some Remarks on the Animal Liberation of the Anthropos
Societies 2015, 5(2), 314-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020314
Received: 4 January 2015 / Revised: 3 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
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Abstract
Informed by body-phenomenology, pragmatism, and critical theory, this aphoristic essay comprises a consideration of some of the more dire consequences of human Empire-building among anthropic animals. The notion of human teleology, active beneath social class, gender, and other anthropic qualifiers, is theorized as
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Informed by body-phenomenology, pragmatism, and critical theory, this aphoristic essay comprises a consideration of some of the more dire consequences of human Empire-building among anthropic animals. The notion of human teleology, active beneath social class, gender, and other anthropic qualifiers, is theorized as a dead end, an abstraction translated into real power and propped up at the cost of actual bodyselves—fully corporeal living individuals—and attentiveness to their needs. In this context, animal liberation, usually referring to ending the domination of other animals at anthropic hands, is posited as pertinent to anthropic animality, especially under late modernity’s “desomatizing regime”. Animal liberation, it is held, speaks to each and every one of us, though in ways depending on the specificity of our lived situations, and unmasks the ultimate absurdity of attempts to overcome our animal condition, attempts historically coalescing precisely in human Empire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alimentary Relations, Animal Relations)
Open AccessArticle Performative Criminology and the “State of Play” for Theatre with Criminalized Women
Societies 2015, 5(2), 295-313; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020295
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 13 March 2015 / Accepted: 7 April 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
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Abstract
This article applies feminist theory with cultural criminology to explore the role of theatre in the lives of criminalized women. Theatre initiatives for criminalized populations are growing worldwide, and so we are seeking to better understand how these two realms intersect. This article
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This article applies feminist theory with cultural criminology to explore the role of theatre in the lives of criminalized women. Theatre initiatives for criminalized populations are growing worldwide, and so we are seeking to better understand how these two realms intersect. This article is based on a case study which was conducted at the Clean Break Theatre Company in London, England in the summer of 2013. We explore some of the emerging themes, which took shape from a thematic analysis. First we describe how theatre can be used as a lens into the experiences of criminalized women, and then as a tool for growth in their lives. The role of environment at Clean Break, and the role of voice from practicing theatre in a women-only environment are then discussed. Lastly, the roles of transformation and growth overall for the participants are explored in relation to their experiences with theatre practices. This article works to understand how theatre practices can elevate and adapt cultural criminology into a new form of imaginative criminology, and questions how we can embrace this form of engagement between theatre and criminology within a Canadian context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaginative Criminology)
Open AccessArticle Leadership and Learning: Conceptualizing Relations between School Administrative Practice and Instructional Practice
Societies 2015, 5(2), 277-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020277
Received: 9 February 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2657 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper I argue that one problem we face in understanding relations between school leadership and student learning is that core constructs in our work are often variably and weakly defined. Loose constructs pose problems because they contribute to fuzzy research, especially
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In this paper I argue that one problem we face in understanding relations between school leadership and student learning is that core constructs in our work are often variably and weakly defined. Loose constructs pose problems because they contribute to fuzzy research, especially if constructs such as school leadership, management, or even instruction are weakly (or never explicitly) defined and operationalized. Fuzzy conceptualization makes comparing across studies, essential to the development of a robust empirical knowledge base, difficult if not impossible. Arguing that a critical but often overlooked challenge in studying relations between school administration and student learning is conceptual in nature, I begin by conceptualizing school administration and instruction from what I refer to as a distributed perspective, using theoretical work in distributed and situated cognition, activity theory, and micro sociology. I show how conceptualizing phenomena under study in particular ways shapes how we might frame and hypothesize relations among these phenomena. I contrast a distributed conceptualization with more conventional, individually focused conceptualizations of both phenomena. I then consider the entailments of my conceptualization of the two core phenomena for framing relations between them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How School Leadership Influences Student Learning)
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Open AccessArticle Principals, Trust, and Cultivating Vibrant Schools
Societies 2015, 5(2), 256-276; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020256
Received: 17 February 2015 / Revised: 16 March 2015 / Accepted: 17 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2777 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although principals are ultimately held accountable to student learning in their buildings, the most consistent research results have suggested that their impact on student achievement is largely indirect. Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi proposed four paths through which this indirect influence would flow, and
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Although principals are ultimately held accountable to student learning in their buildings, the most consistent research results have suggested that their impact on student achievement is largely indirect. Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi proposed four paths through which this indirect influence would flow, and the purpose of this special issue is to examine in greater depth these mediating variables. Among mediating variables, we assert that trust is key. In this paper, we explore the evidence that points to the role that faculty trust in the principal plays in student learning and how principals can cultivate trust by attending to the five facets of trust, as well as the correlates of trust that mediate student learning, including academic press, collective teacher efficacy, and teacher professionalism. We argue that trust plays a role in each of the four paths identified by Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi. Finally, we explore possible new directions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How School Leadership Influences Student Learning)
Open AccessReview Cyberbullying or Cyber Aggression?: A Review of Existing Definitions of Cyber-Based Peer-to-Peer Aggression
Societies 2015, 5(2), 245-255; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5020245
Received: 11 January 2015 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 18 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
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Abstract
Due to the ongoing debate regarding the definitions and measurement of cyberbullying, the present article critically appraises the existing literature and offers direction regarding the question of how best to conceptualise peer-to-peer abuse in a cyber context. Variations across definitions are problematic as
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Due to the ongoing debate regarding the definitions and measurement of cyberbullying, the present article critically appraises the existing literature and offers direction regarding the question of how best to conceptualise peer-to-peer abuse in a cyber context. Variations across definitions are problematic as it has been argued that inconsistencies with regard to definitions result in researchers examining different phenomena, whilst the absence of an agreed conceptualisation of the behaviour(s) involved hinders the development of reliable and valid measures. Existing definitions of cyberbullying often incorporate the criteria of traditional bullying such as intent to harm, repetition, and imbalance of power. However, due to the unique nature of cyber-based communication, it can be difficult to identify such criteria in relation to cyber-based abuse. Thus, for these reasons cyberbullying may not be the most appropriate term. Rather than attempting to “shoe-horn” this abusive behaviour into the preconceived conceptual framework that provides an understanding of traditional bullying, it is timely to take an alternative approach. We argue that it is now time to turn our attention to the broader issue of cyber aggression, rather than persist with the narrow focus that is cyberbullying. Full article
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