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Lubricants, Volume 8, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 12 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Frictional contact surface geometry plays a critical role on brake squeal as recently highlighted [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
High Temperature Microtribological Studies of MoS2 Lubrication for Low Earth Orbit
Lubricants 2020, 8(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8040049 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Molybdenum disulfide is one of the most common lubricant coatings for space systems but it displays enormous susceptibility to environmental conditions making it hard to predict performance throughout the entire lifetime. The majority of mechanisms for space operate in low Earth orbit where [...] Read more.
Molybdenum disulfide is one of the most common lubricant coatings for space systems but it displays enormous susceptibility to environmental conditions making it hard to predict performance throughout the entire lifetime. The majority of mechanisms for space operate in low Earth orbit where temperatures typically reach 120 °C along with exposure to highly reactive atomic oxygen which can be detrimental to lubricant performance. In the present study, a MoS2 lubricant coating is tested using friction force microscopy under different environmental conditions including air and dry nitrogen environments with temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 120 °C. The increased temperature was found to be beneficial for friction behaviour in air up to 100 °C as ambient humidity is removed from the contact, but higher temperatures become detrimental as increased reactivity leads to oxidation. These competing effects resulted in a minimum coefficient of friction at 110 °C in the air environment. The high temperature also increases the wear of the coatings as the intrinsic shear strength decreases with thermal energy which in turn disrupts tribofilm formation leading to increased friction. The run-in duration and magnitude are both found to decrease with temperature as the energy barrier to optimal reconfiguration is reduced. Finally, contextualization of the present findings for mechanisms operating in low earth orbit is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology of Space Mechanisms)
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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial: Special Issue “Automotive Tribology”
Lubricants 2020, 8(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8040048 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 321
Abstract
The automotive industry faces new challenges and fast technological changes [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automotive Tribology)
Open AccessArticle
Tribolumen: A Tribometer for A Correlation Between AE Signals and Observation of Tribological Process in Real-Time—Application to A Dry Steel/Glass Reciprocating Sliding Contact
Lubricants 2020, 8(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8040047 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
This paper deals with the development of an original apparatus called TRIBOLUMEN designed specifically for friction experiments on transparent materials. The friction measurement is synchronized with an acoustic emission (AE) sensor and the device is also equipped with a high-speed camera offering a [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the development of an original apparatus called TRIBOLUMEN designed specifically for friction experiments on transparent materials. The friction measurement is synchronized with an acoustic emission (AE) sensor and the device is also equipped with a high-speed camera offering a direct view at the interface to gain a deeper understanding of tribological mechanisms. The TRIBOLUMEN device is in ball-on-flat contact configuration with a range of strokes from 5 to 500 µm and an oscillation frequency from 5 to 600 Hz. The experiments showed that this device has an adequate rigidity and can detect subtle friction modifications of the oscillating contacts. The observation of a steel-on-glass contact in real-time highlighted the initiation of Hertzian cracks followed by the formation of debris in the contact. Using the synchronous measurement, these mechanisms were clearly associated with different stages in the friction measurement and in the AE signals, which permitted to identify the AE signature of Hertzian cracks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustic Emission Techniques in Wear Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Innovative Meshing Strategies for Bearing Lubrication Simulations
Lubricants 2020, 8(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8040046 - 09 Apr 2020
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Efficiency improvement is the new challenge in all fields of design. In this scenario the reduction of power losses is becoming more and more a main concern also in the design of power transmissions. Appropriate models to predict power losses are therefore required [...] Read more.
Efficiency improvement is the new challenge in all fields of design. In this scenario the reduction of power losses is becoming more and more a main concern also in the design of power transmissions. Appropriate models to predict power losses are therefore required from the earliest stages of the design phase. The aim of this project is to carry out lubrication simulations of several variants of a cylindrical roller bearing to understand the lubricant distribution and the related churning power losses. Several strategies to reduce the computational effort were used. Among them the sectorial symmetry and three innovative meshing strategies (purely analytical with and without interfaces and analytical/subtractive) that were implemented in the OpenFOAM® environment. The results of the different approaches were compared among them and reasonable savings in terms of computational effort were shown. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ring-Shaped Surface Microstructures for Improved Lubrication Performance of Joint Prostheses
Lubricants 2020, 8(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8040045 - 09 Apr 2020
Viewed by 286
Abstract
The microstructuring of surfaces is a highly researched field that is aimed at enhancing the tribological behavior of sliding surfaces such as artificial joints, which are subject to wear. Lubrication of the joint interface plays a key role in the wear process, although [...] Read more.
The microstructuring of surfaces is a highly researched field that is aimed at enhancing the tribological behavior of sliding surfaces such as artificial joints, which are subject to wear. Lubrication of the joint interface plays a key role in the wear process, although the mechanisms of lubrication are quite complex. In order to improve the lubrication, the surfaces of the articulating components can be modified by pulsed femtosecond-laser microstructuring. Through microstructuring, the apparent dynamic viscosity of the synovial fluid between the artificial joint can be increased due to its non-Newtonian properties. This may lead to better hydrodynamic lubrication and, therefore, reduced particle abrasion. Femtosecond laser-induced microstructures were investigated in a modified rheometer setup featuring a reduced gap size in order to reproduce and measure the interface between fluid and implant surface more accurately. As a test fluid, a synovial fluid substitute was used. The study has shown that an increase in the viscosity of the synovial fluid substitute can be achieved by microstructuring. Compared to a smooth implant surface, the apparent viscosity of the synovial fluid substitute increased by over 30% when ring-shaped microstructures of 100 µm diameter with an aspect ratio of 0.66 were implemented. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Tribochemistry: A Review of Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Lubricants 2020, 8(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8040044 - 06 Apr 2020
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Tribochemistry, the study of chemical reactions in tribological interfaces, plays a critical role in determining friction and wear behavior. One method researchers have used to explore tribochemistry is “reactive” molecular dynamics simulation based on empirical models that capture the formation and breaking of [...] Read more.
Tribochemistry, the study of chemical reactions in tribological interfaces, plays a critical role in determining friction and wear behavior. One method researchers have used to explore tribochemistry is “reactive” molecular dynamics simulation based on empirical models that capture the formation and breaking of chemical bonds. This review summarizes studies that have been performed using reactive molecular dynamics simulations of chemical reactions in sliding contacts. Topics include shear-driven reactions between and within solid surfaces, between solid surfaces and lubricating fluids, and within lubricating fluids. The review concludes with a perspective on the contributions of reactive molecular dynamics simulations to the current understanding of tribochemistry, as well as opportunities for this approach going forward. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Scale Contact Localization and Dynamic Instability Related to Brake Squeal
Lubricants 2020, 8(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8040043 - 06 Apr 2020
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Friction-induced vibrations (brake squeal) produced during braking applications have been one of the major problems in the transportation for many years. It can be the most troublesome for passengers because of its high frequency and acoustic pressure. The role of frictional contact surface [...] Read more.
Friction-induced vibrations (brake squeal) produced during braking applications have been one of the major problems in the transportation for many years. It can be the most troublesome for passengers because of its high frequency and acoustic pressure. The role of frictional contact surface geometry on the occurrence of squeal was investigated recently by some researchers. However, it has never been systematically studied at different scales simultaneously. Contact localizations are induced on the one hand by macro effects such as thermal dilatation (macroscopic scale) and on the other hand, by the heterogeneity of third body (tribolayer) generated by friction (mesoscopic scale). The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of contact localization at both scales through stability analysis on a simplified pad on disc system. The model has been developed numerically by the finite element method (FEM) to introduce a non-uniform contact at macroscopic and mesoscopic scales. The results showed a strong dependency between squeal frequencies and effective contact zone at macroscopic and mesoscopic scales for the investigated configuration. Especially, it is found that squeal frequencies depend on the contact area at a macroscopic scale whereas the probability of occurrence of squeal frequency strongly relies on mesoscopic contact distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology and Contact Dynamics)
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Open AccessReview
Tribology of Natural Fibers Composite Materials: An Overview
Lubricants 2020, 8(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8040042 - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 410
Abstract
In the framework of green materials, in recent years, natural fiber composites attracted great attention of academia and industry. Their mechanical and tribological characteristics, such as high strength, elasticity, friction, and wear resistance, make them suitable for a wide range of industrial applications [...] Read more.
In the framework of green materials, in recent years, natural fiber composites attracted great attention of academia and industry. Their mechanical and tribological characteristics, such as high strength, elasticity, friction, and wear resistance, make them suitable for a wide range of industrial applications in which issues regarding a large amount of disposal are to be considered since their environmental friendliness gives them an advantage over conventional synthetic materials. Based on the recent and relevant investigations found in the scientific literature, an overview focused on the tribological characteristics of composite materials reinforced with different types of natural fibers is presented. The aim is to introduce the reader to the issues, exploring the actual knowledge of the friction and wear characteristics of the composites under the influence of different operating parameters, as well as the chemical treatment of fibers. The main experimental tribological techniques and the main used apparatus are also discussed, with the aim of highlighting the most appropriate future research directions to achieve a complete framework on the tribological behavior of many possible natural fiber composite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Composites Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Low-Friction Radial Shaft Seal: Using CFD Simulations to Optimise the Microstructured Sealing Lip
Lubricants 2020, 8(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8040041 - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 389
Abstract
The sealing of shaft interfaces in machine housings against oil leakage is commonly realized by radial shaft seals, hence they are used millions of times in technical systems. However, with increasing speed they cause significant friction losses, which reduce the efficiency of the [...] Read more.
The sealing of shaft interfaces in machine housings against oil leakage is commonly realized by radial shaft seals, hence they are used millions of times in technical systems. However, with increasing speed they cause significant friction losses, which reduce the efficiency of the system significantly. In addition, the prevailing trend towards higher speed levels in electrified drive trains is already pushing sealing technology to its performance limits. Therefore, friction reduction offers a chance to extend the current performance limits and increase efficiency within existing applications. In this paper, a methodology for friction reduction is proposed, which is based on microstructuring and surface treatment of the seal sliding surface. Since experimental structural design is linked to high costs and time, a simulation-based method is proposed. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to analyze the influence of the structural geometry on local fluid flow. It is shown that for increasing sliding speeds, the analysis and the subsequent optimization of deterministic microstructures require the numerical solution of the complete Navier–Stokes equation in order to take inertial effects into account. Based on these results, an optimal geometric shape for the microstructure is found depending on the operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology of Seals)
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Open AccessArticle
Profile Optimization of Hydraulic, Polymeric, Sliding Seals by Minimizing an Objective Function of Leakage, Friction and Abrasive Wear
Lubricants 2020, 8(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8040040 - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Hydraulic dynamic seals for reciprocating or alternating motion are machine elements with widespread applications in the automotive, aerospace, marine, pharmaceutical and several other industrial sectors. They have been under commercial development for many decades, and are often met in critical positions, consuming a [...] Read more.
Hydraulic dynamic seals for reciprocating or alternating motion are machine elements with widespread applications in the automotive, aerospace, marine, pharmaceutical and several other industrial sectors. They have been under commercial development for many decades, and are often met in critical positions, consuming a considerable amount of energy during operation. An objective function of mass leakage rate, friction force and an abrasive-wear representative term is proposed in the present study to evaluate the performance of hydraulic, polymeric sliding seals under suitable constraints. Using Variational Calculus, analytical and numerical techniques, the objective function is minimized, resulting in an optimal seal profile that maximizes sealing performance for given, steady-state operating conditions, in additional consideration of the structural integrity and manufacturability of the modified seal. The obtained seal shape and related pressure distribution are reminiscent of those for U-cup and step seals, designs that dominate the industry. In the course of the mathematical analysis, some major obstacles are documented that show how sensitive and complicated sealing performance really is. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology of Seals)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigations of the Friction Losses of Different Engine Concepts: Part 3: Friction Reduction Potentials and Risk Assessment at the Sub-Assembly Level
Lubricants 2020, 8(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8040039 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 318
Abstract
One of the biggest requirements of today’s engine development process for passenger cars is the need to reduce fuel consumption. A very effective and economic approach is the use of low-viscosity lubricants. In this work, sub-assembly resolved friction reduction potentials and risks are [...] Read more.
One of the biggest requirements of today’s engine development process for passenger cars is the need to reduce fuel consumption. A very effective and economic approach is the use of low-viscosity lubricants. In this work, sub-assembly resolved friction reduction potentials and risks are presented for three different engine concepts. By using a developed combined approach, the friction losses of the base engines are separated to the sub-assemblies piston group, crankshaft journal bearings, and valve train over the full operation range of the engines. Unique analyzing of boundary conditions makes it possible for the first time to compare friction reduction potentials and possible risks, not only between diesel and gasoline engines for passenger car applications, but also with particular focus on the power density of the three engines. Firstly, the engines have been specifically chosen regarding their specific power output. Secondly, one identical SAE 5W30 lubricant suitable for all engines is used to neglect influences from different lubricant properties. Thirdly, identical test programs have been conducted at the same thermal boundary conditions at engine media supply temperatures of 70 C and 90 C. For the crankshaft journal bearings, high reduction potentials are identified, while risks arising occur at the valve train and the piston group systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automotive Tribology)
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Open AccessArticle
Shear Thinning in the Prandtl Model and Its Relation to Generalized Newtonian Fluids
Lubricants 2020, 8(4), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8040038 - 25 Mar 2020
Viewed by 317
Abstract
The Prandtl model is certainly the simplest and most generic microscopic model describing solid friction. It consists of a single, thermalized atom attached to a spring, which is dragged past a sinusoidal potential representing the surface energy corrugation of a counterface. While it [...] Read more.
The Prandtl model is certainly the simplest and most generic microscopic model describing solid friction. It consists of a single, thermalized atom attached to a spring, which is dragged past a sinusoidal potential representing the surface energy corrugation of a counterface. While it was primarily introduced to rationalize how Coulomb’s friction law can arise from small-scale instabilities, Prandtl argued that his model also describes the shear thinning of liquids. Given its success regarding the interpretation of atomic-force-microscopy experiments, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the question how the Prandtl model relates to fluid rheology. Analyzing its Langevin and Brownian dynamics, we show that the Prandtl model produces friction–velocity relationships, which, converted to a dependence of effective (excess) viscosity on shear rate η ( γ ˙ ) , is strikingly similar to the Carreau–Yasuda (CY) relation, which is obeyed by many non-Newtonian liquids. The two dimensionless parameters in the CY relation are found to span a broad range of values. When thermal energy is small compared to the corrugation of the sinusoidal potential, the leading-order γ ˙ 2 corrections to the equilibrium viscosity only matter in the initial part of the cross-over from Stokes friction to the regime, where η obeys approximately a sublinear power law of 1 / γ ˙ . Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction Mechanisms)
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