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Diagnostics, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2015) – 10 articles , Pages 96-286

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Open AccessArticle
Unintended Consequences of not Specifying Exclusionary Illnesses for Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 272-286; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics5020272 - 23 Jun 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 6661
Abstract
The Institute of Medicine recently proposed a new case definition for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), as well as a new name, Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID). Contrary to the Fukuda et al.’s CFS case definition, there are few exclusionary illnesses specified for [...] Read more.
The Institute of Medicine recently proposed a new case definition for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), as well as a new name, Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID). Contrary to the Fukuda et al.’s CFS case definition, there are few exclusionary illnesses specified for this new SEID case definition. The current study explored this decision regarding exclusionary illnesses using the SEID criteria with four distinct data sets involving patients who had been identified as having CFS, as well as healthy controls, community controls, and other illness groups. The findings indicate that many individuals from major depressive disorder illness groups as well as other medical illnesses were categorized as having SEID. The past CFS Fukuda et al. prevalence rate in a community based sample of 0.42 increased by 2.8 times with the new SEID criteria. The consequences for this broadening of the case definition are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Adrenal Vein Sampling for Conn’s Syndrome: Diagnosis and Clinical Outcomes
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 254-271; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics5020254 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2948
Abstract
Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the gold standard test to determine unilateral causes of primary aldosteronism (PA). We have retrospectively characterized our experience with AVS including concordance of AVS results and imaging, and describe the approach for the PA patient in whom bilateral [...] Read more.
Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the gold standard test to determine unilateral causes of primary aldosteronism (PA). We have retrospectively characterized our experience with AVS including concordance of AVS results and imaging, and describe the approach for the PA patient in whom bilateral AVS is unsuccessful. We reviewed the medical records of 85 patients with PA and compared patients who were treated medically and surgically on pre-procedure presentation and post-treatment outcomes, and evaluated how technically unsuccessful AVS results were used in further patient management. Out of the 92 AVS performed in 85 patients, AVS was technically successful bilaterally in 58 (63%) of cases. Either unsuccessful AVS prompted a repeat AVS, or results from the contralateral side and from CT imaging were used to guide further therapy. Patients who were managed surgically with adrenalectomy had higher initial blood pressure and lower potassium levels compared with patients who were managed medically. Adrenalectomy results in significantly decreased blood pressure and normalization of potassium levels. AVS can identify surgically curable causes of PA, but can be technically challenging. When one adrenal vein fails to be cannulated, results from the contralateral vein can be useful in conjunction with imaging and clinical findings to suggest further management. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Circulating HMGB1 and RAGE as Clinical Biomarkers in Malignant and Autoimmune Diseases
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 219-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics5020219 - 16 Jun 2015
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3804
Abstract
High molecular group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved member of the HMG-box-family; abundantly expressed in almost all human cells and released in apoptosis; necrosis or by activated immune cells. Once in the extracellular space, HMGB1 can act as a danger associated [...] Read more.
High molecular group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved member of the HMG-box-family; abundantly expressed in almost all human cells and released in apoptosis; necrosis or by activated immune cells. Once in the extracellular space, HMGB1 can act as a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP), thus stimulating or inhibiting certain functions of the immune system; depending on the “combinatorial cocktail” of the surrounding milieu. HMGB1 exerts its various functions through binding to a multitude of membrane-bound receptors such as TLR-2; -4 and -9; IL-1 and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products); partly complex-bound with intracellular fragments like nucleosomes. Soluble RAGE in the extracellular space, however, acts as a decoy receptor by binding to HMGB1 and inhibiting its effects. This review aims to outline today’s knowledge of structure, intra- and extracellular functions including mechanisms of release and finally the clinical relevance of HMGB1 and RAGE as clinical biomarkers in therapy monitoring, prediction and prognosis of malignant and autoimmune disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Blood)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Assessment of Tissue Perfusion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Perflubutane Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography: A Preliminary Study
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 210-218; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics5020210 - 20 May 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2379
Abstract
Our purpose in this study was to assess the relationship between contrast signal intensity (CI) and concentration of perflubutane microbubbles in a phantom experiment, and to examine the feasibility of this technique for quantitative analysis of vascularity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Microbubble solutions [...] Read more.
Our purpose in this study was to assess the relationship between contrast signal intensity (CI) and concentration of perflubutane microbubbles in a phantom experiment, and to examine the feasibility of this technique for quantitative analysis of vascularity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Microbubble solutions of the perflubutane contrast agent were prepared by mixing with purified water. We examined the relationship between CI in dB units and the concentration. Moreover, seven HCC patients were examined using real-time dynamic contrast imaging. The perfusion index was calculated from time-intensity curves generated for both HCC and surrounding liver parenchyma. We observed a linear relationship between the CIdB and the concentration in the phantom study and a higher perfusion index in the HCC lesions relative to the surrounding liver parenchyma. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with perflubutane microbubbles, which exhibit linear and temporally stable characteristics under continuous ultrasound exposure, allows the collection of quantitative hemodynamic information regarding HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
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Open AccessCommentary
Diagnostics for Developing Countries
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 200-209; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics5020200 - 19 May 2015
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3893
Abstract
Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the [...] Read more.
Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro Diagnostics)
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Open AccessArticle
Chronic Liver Disease and the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by [18F]fluorocholine PET/CT
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 189-199; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics5020189 - 19 May 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2883
Abstract
Positron emission tomography (PET) using the radiopharmaceutical tracer fluorine-18 fluorocholine (FCh) can elucidate tumors based on differences in choline phospholipid metabolism between tumor and surrounding tissue. The feasibility of detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using FCh PET has been shown despite constitutively high parenchymal [...] Read more.
Positron emission tomography (PET) using the radiopharmaceutical tracer fluorine-18 fluorocholine (FCh) can elucidate tumors based on differences in choline phospholipid metabolism between tumor and surrounding tissue. The feasibility of detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using FCh PET has been shown despite constitutively high parenchymal choline metabolism in the liver. Since HCC frequently develops in the setting of chronic liver disease, we comparatively evaluated FCh PET/CT between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients with HCC to investigate the effects of hepatic dysfunction on tumor detection and the tumor-to-background ratio (TBR) of FCh uptake. FCh PET/CT was performed prospectively in 22 consecutive patients with HCC (7 newly diagnosed, 15 previously treated). Of these 22 patients, 14 were cirrhotic and 8 non-cirrhotic. Standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements were obtained by region of interest analysis of the PET images. Tumor FCh uptake and the TBR were compared between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. Liver lesions were confirmed to be HCC by biopsy in 10 patients and by Barcelona criteria in 4 patients. There was correspondingly increased liver tumor FCh uptake in 13/14 of those patients, and iso-intense tumor FCh uptake (TBR 0.94) in one non-cirrhotic patient with newly diagnosed HCC. FCh PET/CT also showed metastatic disease without local tumor recurrence in 2 previously treated patients, and was negative in 6 treated patients without tumor recurrence by radiographic and clinical follow-up. Tumor maximum SUV ranged from 6.4 to 15.3 (mean 12.1) and liver TBR ranged from 0.94 to 2.1 (mean 1.6), with no significant differences between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients (SUVmax 11.9 vs. 12.2, p = 0.83; TBR 1.71 vs. 1.51, p = 0.29). Liver parenchyma mean SUV was significantly lower in cirrhotic patients (6.4 vs. 8.7, p < 0.05). This pilot study supports the general feasibility of HCC detection by FCh PET/CT. However, a broad range of tumor FCh uptake was observed, and lower liver parenchymal uptake of FCh was noted in cirrhotic patients as compared to non-cirrhotic patients. Incorporating tissue profiling into future liver imaging trials of FCh PET may help determine the molecular basis of the observed variations in tumor and hepatic FCh uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Point-of-Care Biomarker Recognition Method: Validation by Detecting Marker for Diabetic Nephropathy
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 177-188; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics5020177 - 23 Apr 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2654
Abstract
Biological fluid collection to identify and analyze different disease markers is a routine and normal procedure in health care settings. Body fluids are as varied as urine, blood, mucus, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), tears, semen, etc. The volumes of the collected fluids range from [...] Read more.
Biological fluid collection to identify and analyze different disease markers is a routine and normal procedure in health care settings. Body fluids are as varied as urine, blood, mucus, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), tears, semen, etc. The volumes of the collected fluids range from micro liters (e.g., tears, CSF) to tens and hundreds of milliliters (blood, urine, etc.). In some manifestations, a disease marker (particularly protein markers) can occur in trace amounts, yet the fluids collected are in large volumes. To identify these trace markers, cumbersome methods, expensive instruments, and trained personnel are required. We developed an easy method to rapidly capture, concentrate, and identify protein markers in large volumes of test fluids. This method involves the utilization of two antibodies recognizing two different epitopes of the protein biomarker. Antibody-1 helps to capture and concentrate the biomarker and Antibody-2 adsorbed or conjugated to nanogold beads will detect the biomarker. This method was validated in capturing and detecting lipocalin type prostaglandin-D2 synthase, a marker in urine that implicates diabetic nephropathy. A one-step collection, concentration, and detection device was designed based on this method. This device can replace many of the normal body fluid collection devices such as tubes and containers. A one-step fluid collection and biomarker capture and concentration device for rapid diagnosis of diseases has tremendous advantage in terms of cost and providing timely results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro Diagnostics)
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Open AccessReview
Neuroendocrine Carcinomas of the Gastroenteropancreatic System: A Comprehensive Review
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 119-176; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics5020119 - 08 Apr 2015
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 4413
Abstract
To date, empirical literature has generally been considered lacking in relation to neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), the highly malignant subgroup of neuroendocrine neoplasms. NECs are often found in the lungs or the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system and can be of small or large cell type. [...] Read more.
To date, empirical literature has generally been considered lacking in relation to neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), the highly malignant subgroup of neuroendocrine neoplasms. NECs are often found in the lungs or the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system and can be of small or large cell type. Concentrating on GEP-NECs, we can conclude that survival times are poor, with a median of only 4–16 months depending on disease stage and primary site. Further, this aggressive disease appears to be on the rise, with incidence numbers increasing while survival times are stagnant. Treatment strategies concerning surgery are often undecided and second-line chemotherapy is not yet established. After an analysis of over 2600 articles, we can conclude that there is indeed more empirical literature concerning GEP-NECs available than previously assumed. This unique review is based on 333 selected articles and contains detailed information concerning all aspects of GEP-NECs. Namely, the classification, histology, genetic abnormalities, epidemiology, origin, biochemistry, imaging, treatment and survival of GEP-NECs are described. Also, organ-specific summaries with more detail in relation to disease presentation, diagnosis, treatment and survival are presented. Finally, key points are discussed with directions for future research priorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
A Diagnostic Model for Dementia in Clinical Practice—Case Methodology Assisting Dementia Diagnosis
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 113-118; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics5020113 - 02 Apr 2015
Viewed by 2160
Abstract
Dementia diagnosis is important for many different reasons. Firstly, to separate dementia, or major neurocognitive disorder, from MCI (mild cognitive impairment), mild neurocognitive disorder. Secondly, to define the specific underlying brain disorder to aid treatment, prognosis and decisions regarding care needs and assistance. [...] Read more.
Dementia diagnosis is important for many different reasons. Firstly, to separate dementia, or major neurocognitive disorder, from MCI (mild cognitive impairment), mild neurocognitive disorder. Secondly, to define the specific underlying brain disorder to aid treatment, prognosis and decisions regarding care needs and assistance. The diagnostic method of dementias is a puzzle of different data pieces to be fitted together in the best possible way to reach a clinical diagnosis. Using a modified case methodology concept, risk factors affecting cognitive reserve and symptoms constituting the basis of the brain damage hypothesis, can be visualized, balanced and reflected against test results as well as structural and biochemical markers. The model’s origin is the case method initially described in Harvard business school, here modified to serve dementia diagnostics. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pharmacokinetic Analysis of 64Cu-ATSM Dynamic PET in Human Xenograft Tumors in Mice
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 96-112; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics5020096 - 27 Mar 2015
Viewed by 2400
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility to perform voxel-wise kinetic modeling on datasets obtained from tumor-bearing mice that underwent dynamic PET scans with 64Cu-ATSM and extract useful physiological parameters. Methods: Tumor-bearing mice underwent 90-min dynamic PET scans with [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility to perform voxel-wise kinetic modeling on datasets obtained from tumor-bearing mice that underwent dynamic PET scans with 64Cu-ATSM and extract useful physiological parameters. Methods: Tumor-bearing mice underwent 90-min dynamic PET scans with 64Cu-ATSM and CT scans with contrast. Irreversible and reversible two-tissue compartment models were fitted to time activity curves (TACs) obtained from whole tumor volumes and compared using the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Based on voxel-wise pharmacokinetic analysis, parametric maps of model rate constants k1, k3 and Ki were generated and compared to 64Cu-ATSM uptake. Results: Based on the AIC, an irreversible two-tissue compartment model was selected for voxel-wise pharmacokinetic analysis. Of the extracted parameters, k1 (~perfusion) showed a strong correlation with early tracer uptake (mean spearman R = 0.88) 5 min post injection (pi). Moreover, positive relationships were found between late tracer uptake (90 min pi) and both k3 and the net influx rate constant, Ki (mean spearman R = 0.56 and R = 0.86; respectively). Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility to extract relevant parameters from voxel-wise pharmacokinetic analysis to be used for preclinical validation of 64Cu-ATSM as a hypoxia-specific PET tracer. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers)
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