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Open AccessArticle

Prediction of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Using Noninvasive and Non-Imaging Procedures in Japanese Health Checkup Examinees

1
Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga 849-8501, Japan
2
Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatology, Saga Medical Center Koseikan, Saga 840-8571, Japan
3
Liver Center, Saga University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga 849-8501, Japan
4
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, JA Hiroshima General Hospital, Hatsukaichi 738-8503, Japan
5
Tokyo Women’s Medical University Medical Center East, Internal Medicine, Tokyo 116-8567, Japan
6
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume 830-0011, Japan
7
Department of Clinical Gastroenterology, Eguchi Hospital, Ogi 845-0032, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2021, 11(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010132
Received: 9 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 13 January 2021 / Published: 16 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Liver Disease: Diagnostic, Predictive and Prognostic Markers)
Access to imaging is limited for diagnosing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in general populations. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of noninvasive and nonimaging indexes to predict NAFLD in the general Japanese population. Health checkup examinees without hepatitis virus infection or habitual alcohol drinking were included. Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasonography. The hepatic steatosis index (HSI), Zhejiang University (ZJU) index, and fatty liver index (FLI) were determined, and risk of advanced liver fibrosis was evaluated by the fibrosis-4 index. NAFLD was diagnosed in 1935 (28.0%) of the 6927 subjects. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of the HSI, ZJU index, and FLI was 0.874, 0.886, and 0.884, respectively. The AUROC of the ZJU index (p < 0.001) and FLI (p = 0.002) was significantly greater than that for the HSI. In subjects with a high risk of advanced fibrosis, the sensitivity of the HSI, ZJU index, and FLI were 88.8%, 94.4%, and 83.3% with a low cut-off value and the specificity was 98.5%, 100%, and 100% with a high cut-off value. In conclusion, all indexes were useful to diagnose NAFLD in the general Japanese population and in subjects with potentially advanced liver fibrosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; ultrasonography; hepatic steatosis index; fatty liver index; fibrosis-4 index; ROC; health checkup nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; ultrasonography; hepatic steatosis index; fatty liver index; fibrosis-4 index; ROC; health checkup
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MDPI and ACS Style

Murayama, K.; Okada, M.; Tanaka, K.; Inadomi, C.; Yoshioka, W.; Kubotsu, Y.; Yada, T.; Isoda, H.; Kuwashiro, T.; Oeda, S.; Akiyama, T.; Oza, N.; Hyogo, H.; Ono, M.; Kawaguchi, T.; Torimura, T.; Anzai, K.; Eguchi, Y.; Takahashi, H. Prediction of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Using Noninvasive and Non-Imaging Procedures in Japanese Health Checkup Examinees. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 132. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010132

AMA Style

Murayama K, Okada M, Tanaka K, Inadomi C, Yoshioka W, Kubotsu Y, Yada T, Isoda H, Kuwashiro T, Oeda S, Akiyama T, Oza N, Hyogo H, Ono M, Kawaguchi T, Torimura T, Anzai K, Eguchi Y, Takahashi H. Prediction of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Using Noninvasive and Non-Imaging Procedures in Japanese Health Checkup Examinees. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(1):132. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010132

Chicago/Turabian Style

Murayama, Kenichiro; Okada, Michiaki; Tanaka, Kenichi; Inadomi, Chika; Yoshioka, Wataru; Kubotsu, Yoshihito; Yada, Tomomi; Isoda, Hiroshi; Kuwashiro, Takuya; Oeda, Satoshi; Akiyama, Takumi; Oza, Noriko; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Ono, Masafumi; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Torimura, Takuji; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Hirokazu. 2021. "Prediction of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Using Noninvasive and Non-Imaging Procedures in Japanese Health Checkup Examinees" Diagnostics 11, no. 1: 132. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010132

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