Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Minerals, Volume 8, Issue 3 (March 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) We evaluated the capability of two commercial HSZs, ZSM-5 (MFI topology), and Y zeolite (FAU [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-43
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle The Use of Infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Quality of Carbonate-Rich Diatomite Ores
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030120
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 899 | PDF Full-text (1860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diatomite, a rock formed by the accumulation of opaline diatom frustules, is a preferred raw material for the manufacturing of filters. Its uniqueness relies on the high porosity and inertness of the frustules. The presence of carbonates in some diatomite ores hinders these
[...] Read more.
Diatomite, a rock formed by the accumulation of opaline diatom frustules, is a preferred raw material for the manufacturing of filters. Its uniqueness relies on the high porosity and inertness of the frustules. The presence of carbonates in some diatomite ores hinders these properties. The purpose of this study was to identify the type of carbonates and their association with the ore in a diatomite deposit, and to assess the suitability of determining the quality of the ore using techniques with potential for in-pit implementation. For this, run-of-mine samples were analysed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and infrared spectroscopy. The ESEM images showed that carbonate is present as cement and laminae. The infrared data revealed that the carbonate minerals correspond to aragonite and calcite, and that their occurrence is linked to the total amount of carbonate in the sample. By using a portable spectral instrument that uses diffuse reflectance, it was possible to classify the spectra of the ore samples based on the carbonate content. These results indicate that infrared technology could be used on-site for determining the quality of the ore, thus providing relevant information to assist the optimisation of mining and beneficiation activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy of Quartz and Silica Minerals) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of the Mineral Composition and Its Connection with Some Properties Important for the Sludge Flocculation Process-Examples from Omarska Mine
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030119
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Viewed by 731 | PDF Full-text (5997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studied sludge samples are composed of major goethite and quartz; less clay minerals; and minor magnetite, hematite, clinochlore and todorokite. They have quite similar qualitative, but different semi-quantitative compositions. There are similar particle size distributions between the samples, and the highest contents of
[...] Read more.
Studied sludge samples are composed of major goethite and quartz; less clay minerals; and minor magnetite, hematite, clinochlore and todorokite. They have quite similar qualitative, but different semi-quantitative compositions. There are similar particle size distributions between the samples, and the highest contents of ~50% belongs to the finest classes of <6 μm. Among size classes within the samples, almost identical iron contents are present; indicating their similar mineral compositions, which make these systems very complex for further separation processes. Sludge II has a higher natural settling rate, due to its higher density and mineral composition. With addition of the flocculant, settling rates increase significantly with the increase of the liquid component in both of the samples. The effect of flocculant on the settling rate is different between samples, and depends on their mineral composition. The time of settling does not play a role in selectivity, to the ratio of the mass of floating and sinking parts, and iron content does not change with time. The content of iron partially increases by flocculation; therefore, this method should be considered as an appropriate one. Zeta potential values for sludge are mostly between those for goethite and quartz, indicating their particle mixture and intricately association. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Near-Field Optical Examination of Potassium n-Butyl Xanthate/Chalcopyrite Flotation Products
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030118
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 883 | PDF Full-text (5445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The present study introduces scattering-type scanning near-field infrared optical nanospectroscopy (s-SNIM) as a valuable and well-suited tool for spectrally fingerprinting n-butyl xanthate (KBX) molecules adsorbed to chalcopyrite (CCP) sample surfaces. The collector KBX is well known to float CCP and is used
[...] Read more.
The present study introduces scattering-type scanning near-field infrared optical nanospectroscopy (s-SNIM) as a valuable and well-suited tool for spectrally fingerprinting n-butyl xanthate (KBX) molecules adsorbed to chalcopyrite (CCP) sample surfaces. The collector KBX is well known to float CCP and is used in beneficiation. We thus identified KBX reaction products both by IR optical far- and near-field techniques, applying attenuated total internal reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) in comparison to s-SNIM, respectively. The major KBX band around 880 cm−1 was probed in s-SNIM using both the tunable free-electron laser FELBE at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf facility, Germany, and table-top CO2 laser illumination. We then were able to monitor the KBX agglomeration in patches <500 nm in diameter at the CCP surface, as well as nanospectroscopically identify the presence of KBX reaction products down to the 10−4 M concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Atomic Force Microscopy in Mineral Flotation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Experimental Study of CO2-Water-Mineral Interactions and Their Influence on the Permeability of Coking Coal and Implications for CO2-ECBM
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030117
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 825 | PDF Full-text (8778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coal permeability is one of the most critical parameters affecting gas flow behavior during coalbed methane (CBM) production. However, little research has been conducted on how permeability evolves after CO2 injection in coking coal. Hence, examining possible chemical interactions between coal minerals,
[...] Read more.
Coal permeability is one of the most critical parameters affecting gas flow behavior during coalbed methane (CBM) production. However, little research has been conducted on how permeability evolves after CO2 injection in coking coal. Hence, examining possible chemical interactions between coal minerals, water, and injected CO2 can be very helpful to better characterize coking coal. In this study, coking coal specimens obtained from the Malan and Tunlan mines located in the Gujiao block of the Qinshui basin were treated with water and CO2 to achieve a better understanding of their dissolution kinetics, pore structure, and permeability. It was found that the relative carbonate mineral content decreases with time, while the relative clay mineral content increases after the reaction with CO2 and water. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed these mineral alteration phenomena. Carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite) dissolve faster than clay minerals (montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite). In particular, the dissolution rates of Ca2+ in carbonate minerals increases with decreasing temperature (25–45 °C) and pH (4.3–6.3), and the dissolution rate of Ca2+ ions in the calcite reaction solution is higher than that in the dolomite solution. In addition, the results of low-pressure nitrogen adsorption analysis showed that CO2 injection can enlarge smaller size pores into larger size pores and change the overall pore size distribution. Therefore, CO2 injection can increase the porosity of coal beds and ultimately their permeability, which in turn facilitates CBM production. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Zeolite Synthesized from Coal Fly Ash Produced by a Gasification Process for Ni2+ Removal from Water
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030116
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
Viewed by 835 | PDF Full-text (3497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There are increasing demands and great potential of coal gasification in China, but there is a lack of studies focused on the disposal and utilization of coal fly ash produced by the gasification process. In this study, a coal fly ash sample derived
[...] Read more.
There are increasing demands and great potential of coal gasification in China, but there is a lack of studies focused on the disposal and utilization of coal fly ash produced by the gasification process. In this study, a coal fly ash sample derived from a gasifier in Jincheng, China, was utilized as raw material for the synthesis of zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatments. The effects of operation conditions on the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of synthesized zeolite were investigated. The synthesized zeolite with the highest CEC (270.4 meq/100 g), with abundant zeolite X and small amount of zeolite A, was produced by 1.5 h alkali fusion under 550 °C with NaOH/coal fly ash ratio 1.2 g/g followed by 15 h hydrothermal treatment under 90 °C with liquid/solid ratio 5 mL/g and applied in Ni2+ removal from water. The removal rate and the adsorption capacity of Ni2+ from water by the synthesized zeolite were determined at the different pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial Ni2+ concentration. The experimental data of adsorption were interpreted in terms of Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The adsorption of Ni2+ by the synthesized zeolite was found to fit sufficient using the Langmuir isotherm. More than 90% of Ni2+ in water could be removed by synthesized zeolite under the proper conditions. We show that the coal fly ash produced by the gasification process has great potential to be used as an alternative and cheap source in the production of adsorbents. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Fundamental Flotation Behaviors of Chalcopyrite and Galena Using O-Isopropyl-N-Ethyl Thionocarbamate as a Collector
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030115
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
Viewed by 889 | PDF Full-text (2483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Copper and lead are two important and widely used metals in industry. Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is associated with galena (PbS) in ore, and it has been a research hotspot in separating galena from chalcopyrite by flotation. In this study, the flotation behaviors
[...] Read more.
Copper and lead are two important and widely used metals in industry. Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is associated with galena (PbS) in ore, and it has been a research hotspot in separating galena from chalcopyrite by flotation. In this study, the flotation behaviors of chalcopyrite and galena were studied through flotation tests, adsorption measurements, solution chemistry calculation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results show that the floatability of chalcopyrite is better than that of galena in the presence of O-isopropyl-N-ethyl thionocarbamate (IPETC), and the recovery difference between chalcopyrite and galena is about 20% when IPETC is 7 × 10−4 mol/L at pH 9.5, while the floatability difference between the two minerals is significant. Competitive adsorption of OH and IPETC on mineral surfaces leads to lower floatability of galena than that of chalcopyrite. IPETC is able to remove the hydration layer on mineral surfaces and then adsorb on active sites. The floatability of minerals is enhanced with the increase of their hydrophobicity. This study provides a reference to separate galena from chalcopyrite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flotation Chemistry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Analysis of External Dependency in Terms of Material Criticality by Employing Total Material Requirement: Sulfuric Acid Production in Japan as a Case Study
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030114
Received: 14 January 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 901 | PDF Full-text (2870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Securing stable material supply is of paramount importance since materials are fundamental to the economy and human well-being. The domestic production to consumption ratio has conventionally been utilized as a main index for external dependency in terms of material supply security and its
[...] Read more.
Securing stable material supply is of paramount importance since materials are fundamental to the economy and human well-being. The domestic production to consumption ratio has conventionally been utilized as a main index for external dependency in terms of material supply security and its criticality. However, the conventional approach confines its application to raw materials, which potentially risks reaching short-sighted conclusions in the policy-making process. Beyond the conventional analysis of external dependency, the development of a more applicable approach for every material is of paramount importance to consider the diversification of external dependency more comprehensively and to aid the analysis of overall material criticality. As such, this paper establishes a new methodology for analyzing external dependency related to every material and product by using the concept of total material requirement (TMR). Applying the methodology, the external dependency of sulfuric acid production in Japan is evaluated as a case study. Previously unexamined elements associated with external dependency in the conventional approach are revealed by this new comprehensive approach. The new approach may be of use to policymakers in designing more sophisticated and well-grounded material securement policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Minerals: Methodologies and Case Studies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Microwave Intensified Vanadium Bearing-High Carbonaceous Shale Acid Extraction Process
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030113
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 732 | PDF Full-text (6870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The microwave assisted leaching of the vanadium bearing-high carbonaceous shale process was investigated using surface response methodology (RSM) based on Box–Behnken design (BBD). The effect of important factors such as CaF2 usage, H2SO4 concentration, leaching time and microwave power,
[...] Read more.
The microwave assisted leaching of the vanadium bearing-high carbonaceous shale process was investigated using surface response methodology (RSM) based on Box–Behnken design (BBD). The effect of important factors such as CaF2 usage, H2SO4 concentration, leaching time and microwave power, as well as the interactive coefficients, the signification of the model and factors were analyzed. With the condition of 9.8 wt % CaF2, 23.0 vol % H2SO4, 170.6 min and 350 W, the actual values of vanadium (V) leaching efficiency in microwave heating (MH) and conventional heating (CH) were 85.43% and 79.64%, which agreed well with the predicted values. Meanwhile, the influence order of the factors in MH and CH was CaF2 dosage > H2SO4 concentration > leaching time. Microwave was an efficacious impetus for V extraction, but the microwave power itself was not a significant factor when the temperature of leaching system was high enough. The further characterization of mineral components before and after leaching confirmed that the prior dissolving of muscovite and pyrite in MH was intensified, while both minerals were in fine grains and filled with black carbon. The selective heating of carbon and pyrite sequenced the large temperature gradient between solids and liquids, which accelerated the dissolving reaction of muscovite with CaF2 present in MH condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainability in Extractive Metallurgy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Intercalation and Exfoliation of Kaolinite with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030112
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
Viewed by 1004 | PDF Full-text (2020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Kaolinite (Kaol) was intercalated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subsequently methanol (MeOH) to prepare intercalation compounds Kaol-DMSO and Kaol-MeOH. Kaol-MeOH was used as an intermediate to synthesize Kaol-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) intercalation compound (Kaol-SDS) via displacement reaction. The ultrasonic exfoliation of Kaol-SDS produced
[...] Read more.
Kaolinite (Kaol) was intercalated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subsequently methanol (MeOH) to prepare intercalation compounds Kaol-DMSO and Kaol-MeOH. Kaol-MeOH was used as an intermediate to synthesize Kaol-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) intercalation compound (Kaol-SDS) via displacement reaction. The ultrasonic exfoliation of Kaol-SDS produced a resultant Kaol-SDS-U. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle size analysis. The results revealed that the intercalation of sodium dodecyl sulfate into kaolinite layers caused an obvious increase of the basal spacing from 0.72–4.21 nm. The dehydroxylation temperature of Kaol-SDS was obviously lower than that of original kaolinite. During the intercalation process of sodium dodecyl sulfate, a few kaolinite layers were exfoliated and curled up from the edges of the kaolinite sheets. After sonication treatment, the kaolinite layers were further transformed into nanoscrolls, and the exfoliated resultant Kaol-SDS-U possessed a smaller particle size close to nanoscale. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Geochronology and Genesis of the Xitian W-Sn Polymetallic Deposit in Eastern Hunan Province, South China: Evidence from Zircon U-Pb and Muscovite Ar-Ar Dating, Petrochemistry, and Wolframite Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopes
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030111
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1087 | PDF Full-text (11563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The recently explored Xitian tungsten-tin (W-Sn) polymetallic ore field, located in Hunan province, South China, is one of the largest ore fields in the Nanling Range (NLR). Two major metallogenic types appeared in this ore field, skarn- and quartz vein-type. They are distributed
[...] Read more.
The recently explored Xitian tungsten-tin (W-Sn) polymetallic ore field, located in Hunan province, South China, is one of the largest ore fields in the Nanling Range (NLR). Two major metallogenic types appeared in this ore field, skarn- and quartz vein-type. They are distributed within Longshang, Heshuxia, Shaiheling, Hejiangkou, Goudalan, and so on. Hydrothermal zircons from two altered granites yielded U-Pb ages of 152.8 ± 1.1 Ma, and 226.0 ± 2.8 Ma, respectively. Two muscovite samples from ore-bearing quartz vein yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 156.6 ± 0.7 Ma, 149.5 ± 0.8 Ma, respectively. Combined with the geological evidence, two metallogenic events are proposed in the Xitian ore field, with skarn-type W-Sn mineralization in Late Triassic (Indosinian) and quartz vein/greisen type W-Sn mineralization in Late Jurassic (Yanshanian). The relatively low Ce/Ce* ratios and high Y/Ho ratios in zircons from two altered granites indicate that the hydrothermal fluids of two metallogenic events are characterized by low oxygen fugacities and enrichment in F. The similar chondrite-normalized patterns between the skarn and Xitian Indosinian granites and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of wolframite suggest that the metal sources for both types W-Sn mineralization are derived from a crustal source. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Predicting Cyanide Consumption in Gold Leaching: A Kinetic and Thermodynamic Modeling Approach
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030110
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1301 | PDF Full-text (3527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The consumption of cyanide during processing operations is a major economic cost in the extraction of gold from its ores, while the discharge of cyanide wastes may result in significant environmental pollution. Many factors influence the levels of consumption and discharge of cyanide,
[...] Read more.
The consumption of cyanide during processing operations is a major economic cost in the extraction of gold from its ores, while the discharge of cyanide wastes may result in significant environmental pollution. Many factors influence the levels of consumption and discharge of cyanide, including ore mineralogy and lixiviant solution chemistry. This paper proposes a robust methodology to estimate leaching cyanide consumption due to oxidation and reactions with gold, chalcopyrite and pyrite minerals forming various cyanide complexes, cyanate, thiocyanate and hydroxide precipitates of copper and iron. The method involves concurrent modelling of both the oxidation and leaching kinetics of minerals and the chemical speciation of the lixiviant solutions. The model was calibrated by conducting cyanide leaching experiments on pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrite + chalcopyrite, pyrite + chalcopyrite + gold and pyrite + chalcopyrite + gold + quartz systems and determining the total Cu, Fe, Au and CN concentrations in solution. We show that this model can successfully estimate the formation of cyanide complexes and, hence, the consumption of cyanide. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle New Mineral with Modular Structure Derived from Hatrurite from the Pyrometamorphic Rocks of the Hatrurim Complex: Ariegilatite, BaCa12(SiO4)4(PO4)2F2O, from Negev Desert, Israel
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030109
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 924 | PDF Full-text (4227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ariegilatite, BaCa12(SiO4)4(PO4)2F2O (R3¯m, a = 7.1551(6) Å, c = 41.303(3) Å, V = 1831.2(3) Å3, Z = 3), is a new member of the
[...] Read more.
Ariegilatite, BaCa12(SiO4)4(PO4)2F2O (R 3 ¯ m, a = 7.1551(6) Å, c = 41.303(3) Å, V = 1831.2(3) Å3, Z = 3), is a new member of the nabimusaite group exhibiting a modular intercalated antiperovskite structure derived from hatrurite. It was found in a few outcrops of pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex located in the territories of Israel, Palestine and Jordan. The holotype specimen is an altered spurrite marble from the Negev Desert near Arad city, Israel. Ariegilatite is associated with spurrite, calcite, brownmillerite, shulamitite, CO3-bearing fluorapatite, fluormayenite-fluorkyuygenite and a potentially new mineral, Ba2Ca18(SiO4)6(PO4)3(CO3)F3O. Ariegilatite is overgrown and partially replaced by stracherite, BaCa6(SiO4)2[(PO4)(CO3)]F. The mineral forms flat disc-shaped crystals up to 0.5 mm in size. It is colorless, transparent, with white steaks and vitreous luster. Optically, ariegilatite is uniaxial, negative: ω = 1.650(2), ε = 1.647(2) (λ = 589 nm). The mean composition of the holotype ariegilatite, (Ba0.98K0.01Na0.01)Σ1(Ca11.77Na0.08Fe2+0.06Mn2+0.05Mg0.04)Σ12(Si3.95Al0.03Ti0.02)Σ4(P1.70C0.16Si0.10S6+0.03V0.01)Σ2F2.04O0.96, is close to the end-member formula. The structure of ariegilatite is described as a stacking of the two modules {F2OCa12(SiO4)4}4+ and {Ba(PO4)2}4− along (001). Ariegilatite, as well as associated stracherite, are high-temperature alteration products of minerals of an early clinker-like association. These alterations took place under the influence of pyrometamorphism by-products, such as gases and fluids generated by closely-spaced combustion foci. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Mineral Species and Their Crystal Structures)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Mineralogy and Physico-Chemical Data of Two Newly Discovered Halloysite in China and Their Contrasts with Some Typical Minerals
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030108
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 933 | PDF Full-text (3871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report in this article the systematical acquisition of physico-chemical parameters for two newly discovered halloysite (Hal) minerals from Shiyan and Tongling in China. As the comparative reference, the data from Hal in Linfen, Chenxi, and the salt lake in Australia (samples were
[...] Read more.
We report in this article the systematical acquisition of physico-chemical parameters for two newly discovered halloysite (Hal) minerals from Shiyan and Tongling in China. As the comparative reference, the data from Hal in Linfen, Chenxi, and the salt lake in Australia (samples were abbreviated as Hal-AU, Hal-SY, Hal-LF, Hal-CX and Hal-TL, respectively) were also investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry (DSC-TG), X-ray fluorescence, surface zeta potential measurements and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The newly found minerals were probably formed in hydrothermal leaching and sedimentary circumstances. The Hal-SY contains 7 Å-halloysite and dickite, while Hal-TL contains 10 Å-halloysite with some alunite (similar with Hal-CX). Other impurities found in the samples include quartz, gibbsite, iron oxide and anatase. All of them showed tubular morphology with diameter in the range of 30–90 nm and a length of 300–2500 nm, while the Hal-SY has the largest inner diameter to about 150 nm. Specific surface areas varied from 26.0~59.0 m2·g−1. In addition, maximum CEC (cation exchange capacity) of the newly found Hal was about 40 cmol/kg, while that of Hal-AU was relatively low (8 cmol/kg) due to the sedimentary nature of Salt Lake circumstances. The surface charge was predominantly negative over most of the relevant pH range (>2.0). It can be concluded that the different morphology and impurity content of halloysite will greatly affect the surface area, pore volume, and cationic exchange capacity (CEC) of the minerals. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Fossilized Bacteria in Fe-Mn-Mineralization: Evidence from the Legrena Valley, W. Lavrion Mine (Greece)
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030107
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
Viewed by 943 | PDF Full-text (12595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The primary mineralization in the famous Lavrion mine in the Lavreotiki area, Attica (Greece), associated with a granodiorite intrusion of Upper Miocene age and composed of massive sulphide Pb-Zn-Ag ores [sphalerite, pyrite and galena (B.P.G)], has been extensively studied. The present study is
[...] Read more.
The primary mineralization in the famous Lavrion mine in the Lavreotiki area, Attica (Greece), associated with a granodiorite intrusion of Upper Miocene age and composed of massive sulphide Pb-Zn-Ag ores [sphalerite, pyrite and galena (B.P.G)], has been extensively studied. The present study is focused on thin, hard, dark brown to black Fe-Mn crusts (a few mm to cm in thickness) in the Legrena valley, SW Lavreotiki, aiming to provide new insights on that type of Fe-Mn-mineralization. The scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) data presented revealed the presence of fine rounded fragments, resembling nodules (up to 200 μm) and fossilized bacteriomorphic Fe-Mn-oxides/hydroxides, within brecciated and foliated zones of carbonate rocks. They exhibit unusual features when compared to the common massive Fe-Mn mineralization with regards the following: (a) the extensive occurrence of bacteriomorphic Fe-oxides/hydroxides and their micro-textures; and (b) the minor elements (K, Na, P, S, Ca, As and Cl). The occurrence of abundant bacteriomophic Fe-Mn-oxides/hydroxides in the samples from the Legrena valley may reflect their catalytic role in the redox reactions during ore-forming processes. The characteristic features of that type of Fe-Mn mineralization seems to be the result of multistage supergene processes superimposed over initial hydrothermal stages. Such a multistage remobilization and precipitation of metals along open space surfaces on karstified carbonates during a subsequent stage of their initial precipitation may be widespread in the Attica region, Greece. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Trends in Structure and Thermodynamic Properties of Normal Rare Earth Carbonates and Rare Earth Hydroxycarbonates
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030106
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1066 | PDF Full-text (5277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A general overview of the trends in structural and thermodynamic properties that have been identified within the hydrated normal rare earth carbonates and the rare earth hydroxycarbonates is presented. Based upon available literature, we demonstrate the trends in crystallographic unit cell parameters, thermal
[...] Read more.
A general overview of the trends in structural and thermodynamic properties that have been identified within the hydrated normal rare earth carbonates and the rare earth hydroxycarbonates is presented. Based upon available literature, we demonstrate the trends in crystallographic unit cell parameters, thermal stability, aqueous solubility, and thermochemical properties. These trends can be attributed to both the unique chemistry and strong similarity of the rare earth elements. There are also inconsistent trends that signal research needs to better understand the structure–energy relationships of the rare earth carbonates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare-Earth Carbonates)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle C14–22 n-Alkanes in Soil from the Freetown Layered Intrusion, Sierra Leone: Products of Pt Catalytic Breakdown of Natural Longer Chain n-Alkanes?
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030105
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 765 | PDF Full-text (5294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil above a platinum-group element (PGE)-bearing horizon within the Freetown Layered Intrusion, Sierra Leone, contains anomalous concentrations of n-alkanes (CnH2n+2) in the range C14 to C22 not readily attributable to an algal or lacustrine origin. Longer chain
[...] Read more.
Soil above a platinum-group element (PGE)-bearing horizon within the Freetown Layered Intrusion, Sierra Leone, contains anomalous concentrations of n-alkanes (CnH2n+2) in the range C14 to C22 not readily attributable to an algal or lacustrine origin. Longer chain n-alkanes (C23 to C31) in the soil were derived from the breakdown of leaf litter beneath the closed canopy humid tropical forest. Spontaneous breakdown of the longer chain n-alkanes to form C14–22 n-alkanes without biogenic or abiogenic catalysts is unlikely as the n-alkanes are stable. In the Freetown soil, the catalytic properties of the PGE (Pt in particular) may lower the temperature at which oxidation of the longer chain n-alkanes can occur. Reaction between these n-alkanes and Pt species, such as Pt2+(H2O)2(OH)2 and Pt4+(H2O)2(OH)4 can bend and twist the alkanes, and significantly lower the Heat of Formation. Microbial catalysis is a possibility. Since a direct organic geochemical source of the lighter n-alkanes has not yet been identified, this paper explores the theoretical potential for abiogenic Pt species catalysis as a mechanism of breakdown of the longer n-alkanes to form C14–22 alkanes. This novel mechanism could offer additional evidence for the presence of the PGE in solution, as predicted by soil geochemistry. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Mineralogical and Geochemical Compositions of the Lopingian Coals in the Zhongliangshan Coalfield, Southwestern China
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030104
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 25 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 723 | PDF Full-text (27349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Lopingian coals from an exploratory drill core (ZK4-1) in the Zhongliangshan Coalfield, southwestern China are reported in this paper. The Zhongliangshan coals are medium volatile bituminous in rank (random vitrinite reflectance, average 1.38%), characterized by a
[...] Read more.
The mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Lopingian coals from an exploratory drill core (ZK4-1) in the Zhongliangshan Coalfield, southwestern China are reported in this paper. The Zhongliangshan coals are medium volatile bituminous in rank (random vitrinite reflectance, average 1.38%), characterized by a medium-ash yield (26.84%) and high sulfur content (3.38%). Minerals in the Zhongliangshan coals are mainly composed of clay assemblages (kaolinite, the illite/smectite mixed layer (I/S) and chamosite), pyrite, quartz, carbonate minerals (calcite, marcasite, ankerite, and dolomite), and anatase, followed by rutile, jarosite, natrojarosite, bassanite, gypsum and K-feldspar, with traces of apatite, rhabdophane and barite. Compared with the average concentrations of the world hard coals, some trace elements including Li, V, Co, Cu, Se, Y, Zr, Nb, rare earth elements (REE), Cd, Ta, Hf and Hg, are enriched in the Zhongliangshan coals. The modes of occurrence of chamosite, barite, rhabdophane, quartz and calcite in the Zhongliangshan coals indicate that the coals have probably been affected by the injection of low-temperature hydrothermal fluids. Based on the concentrations of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, the ratios of Al2O3/TiO2 and the upper continental crust-normalized rare earth element and yttrium (REY) distribution patterns of the Zhongliangshan coals, the dominant sediment source regions are the Leshan–Longnvsi Uplift, Hannan Upland, and Dabashan Uplift, with a small proportion of terrigenous materials from the Kangdian Upland. The K7 and the upper portion of K1 coals have the potential as raw materials for the recovery of REY. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Mineral Matter in Coal and Coal Combustion Products)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Froth Image Acquisition and Enhancement on Optical Correction and Retinex Compensation
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030103
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 732 | PDF Full-text (3456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To well monitor and optimize the flotation production, a computer vision and image analysis system is used. In such a system, the first important step is to acquire the froth surface images in high quality. Froth imaging quality is hard to control, and
[...] Read more.
To well monitor and optimize the flotation production, a computer vision and image analysis system is used. In such a system, the first important step is to acquire the froth surface images in high quality. Froth imaging quality is hard to control, and the industrial field noise, froth 3D properties, complex textures, and mixed colors can also cause the flotation image to be difficult to segment and process. To acquire high quality images, a new system for image acquisition of the lead flotation is studied. The system constructs the free-form surface lens based on the non-imaging optics theory, which can improve the optical efficiency of the lens and the uniformity of light sources, and can reduce flare effects. For the compensation, an improved MSR (Multi-Scale Retinex) adaptive image algorithm is proposed to increase the brightness and intensity contrast for small bubbles, and to enhance texture details and froth weak edges by analyzing the Retinex output characteristics of the shaded area and improving the gain function. Under the condition of the optimal parameters, the image acquisition system can obtain uniform illumination and reduce different noises. Experiments show that the new froth image acquisition system increases Signal/Noise by 14%, contrast by 21%, and image segmentation accuracy by 26% in an image. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Large-Scale Consumption and Zero-Waste Recycling Method of Red Mud in Steel Making Process
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030102
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
Viewed by 1161 | PDF Full-text (5545 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To release the environmental pressure from the massive discharge of bauxite residue (red mud), a novel recycling method of red mud in steel making process was investigated through high-temperature experiments and thermodynamic analysis. The results showed that after the reduction roasting of the
[...] Read more.
To release the environmental pressure from the massive discharge of bauxite residue (red mud), a novel recycling method of red mud in steel making process was investigated through high-temperature experiments and thermodynamic analysis. The results showed that after the reduction roasting of the carbon-bearing red mud pellets at 1100–1200 °C for 12–20 min, the metallic pellets were obtained with the metallization ratio of ≥88%. Then, the separation of slag and iron achieved from the metallic pellets at 1550 °C, after composition adjustment targeting the primary crystal region of the 12CaO·7Al2O3 phase. After iron removal and composition adjustment, the smelting-separation slag had good smelting performance and desulfurization capability, which meets the demand of sulfurization flux in steel making process. The pig iron quality meets the requirements of the high-quality raw material for steel making. In virtue of the huge scale and output of steel industry, the large-scale consumption and zero-waste recycling method of red mud was proposed, which comprised of the carbon-bearing red mud pellets roasting in the rotary hearth furnace and smelting separation in the electric arc furnace after composition adjustment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainability in Extractive Metallurgy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Interaction of Freshwater Diatom with Gold Nanoparticles: Adsorption, Assimilation, and Stabilization by Cell Exometabolites
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030099
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 721 | PDF Full-text (5823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rising concern about the potential toxicity of synthetic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aquatic environments requires a rigorous estimation of physico-chemical parameters of reactions between AuNPs and major freshwater microorganisms. This study addresses the interaction of 10-nm size, positively charged AuNPs
[...] Read more.
The rising concern about the potential toxicity of synthetic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aquatic environments requires a rigorous estimation of physico-chemical parameters of reactions between AuNPs and major freshwater microorganisms. This study addresses the interaction of 10-nm size, positively charged AuNPs with periphytic freshwater diatoms (Eolimna minima). The adsorption experiments on viable cells were performed in 10 mM NaCl and 5 mM NaCl + 5 mM NaHCO3 solution at a variable pH (3–10), at an AuNPs concentration from 1 µg/L to 10,000 µg/L, and an exposure time from a few minutes to 55 days. Three types of experiments, adsorption as a function of time (kinetics), pH-dependent adsorption edge, and constant-pH “Langmuirian” type isotherms, were conducted. In addition, long-term interactions (days to weeks) of live diatoms (under light and in the darkness) were performed. The adsorption was maximal at a pH from 3 to 6 and sizably decreased at a pH of 6 to 10. Results of adsorption experiments were modeled using a second order kinetic model, a Linear Programming Model, Freundlich isotherm, and a ligand binding equation for one site competition. The adsorption of AuNPs(+) most likely occurred on negatively-charged surface sites of diatom cell walls such as carboxylates or phosphorylates, similar to previously studied metal cations. Under light exposure, the AuNPs were stabilized in aqueous solution in the presence of live cells, probably due to the production of exometabolites by diatoms. The adsorbed amount of AuNPs decreased after several days of reaction, suggesting some AuNPs desorption. In the darkness, the adsorption and assimilation were stronger than under light. Overall, the behavior of positively charged AuNPs at the diatom–aqueous solution interface is similar to that of metal cations, but the affinity of aqueous AuNPs to cell exometabolites is higher, which leads to the stabilization of nanoparticles in solution in the presence of diatoms and their exudates. During photosynthetic activity and the pH rising above 9 in the vicinity of diatom cells, the adsorption of AuNPs strongly decreases, which indicates a decreasing potential toxicity of AuNPs for photosynthesizing cells. The present study demonstrates the efficiency of a thermodynamic and kinetic approach for understanding gold nanoparticles interaction with aquatic freshwater peryphytic microorganisms. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Dissolved Silica Effects on Adsorption and Co-Precipitation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) with Ferrihydrite
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030101
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 840 | PDF Full-text (2345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Elevated antimony concentrations in aqueous environments from anthropogenic sources are becoming of global concern. In this respect iron oxides are known to strongly adsorb aqueous antimony species with different oxidation states, but the effect of silica on the removal characteristics is not well
[...] Read more.
Elevated antimony concentrations in aqueous environments from anthropogenic sources are becoming of global concern. In this respect iron oxides are known to strongly adsorb aqueous antimony species with different oxidation states, but the effect of silica on the removal characteristics is not well understood despite being a common component in the environment. In this study, ferrihydrite was synthesized at various Si/Fe molar ratios to investigate its adsorption and co-precipitation behaviors with aqueous antimony anionic species, Sb(III) and Sb(V). The X-ray diffraction analyses of the precipitates showed two broad diffraction features at approximately 35° and 62° 2θ, which are characteristics of 2-line ferrihydrite, but no significant shifts in peak positions in the ferrihydrite regardless of the Si/Fe ratios. The infrared spectra showed a sharp band at ~930 cm−1, corresponding to asymmetric stretching vibrations of Si–O–Fe bonds which increased in intensity with increasing Si/Fe molar ratios. Further, the surface charge on the precipitates became more negative with increasing Si/Fe molar ratios. The adsorption experiments indicated that Sb(V) was preferentially adsorbed under acidic conditions which decreased dramatically with increasing pH while the adsorption rate of Sb(III) ions was independent of pH. However, the presence of silica suppressed the adsorption of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) ions. The results showed that Sb(III) and Sb(V) ions were significantly inhibited by co-precipitation with ferrihydrite even in the presence of silica by isomorphous substitution in the ferrihydrite crystal structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Mineralogy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Reflectance Spectral Features and Significant Minerals in Kaishantun Ophiolite Suite, Jilin Province, NE China
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030100
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
Viewed by 669 | PDF Full-text (11686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study used spectrometry to determine the spectral absorption of five types of mafic-ultramafic rocks from the Kaishantun ophiolite suite in Northeast China. Absorption peak wavelengths were determined for peridotite, diabase, basalt, pyroxenite, and gabbro. Glaucophane, actinolite, zoisite, and epidote absorption peaks were
[...] Read more.
This study used spectrometry to determine the spectral absorption of five types of mafic-ultramafic rocks from the Kaishantun ophiolite suite in Northeast China. Absorption peak wavelengths were determined for peridotite, diabase, basalt, pyroxenite, and gabbro. Glaucophane, actinolite, zoisite, and epidote absorption peaks were also measured, and these were used to distinguish such minerals from other associated minerals in ophiolite suite samples. Combined with their chemical compositions, the blueschist facies (glaucophane + epidote + chlorite) and greenschist facies (actinolite + epidote + chlorite) mineral assemblage was distinct based on its spectral signature. Based on the regional tectonic setting, the Kaishantun ophiolite suite probably experienced the blueschist facies metamorphic peak during subduction and greenschist facies retrograde metamorphism during later slab rollback. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Biosynthesis of Schwertmannite and Goethite in a Bioreactor with Acidophilic Fe(II)-Oxidizing Betaproteobacterium Strain GJ-E10
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030098
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 4 March 2018
Viewed by 759 | PDF Full-text (5612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Iron oxide minerals, schwertmannite and goethite, which are naturally occurring in acidic environments are attractive nanostructured materials because of the potential diverse applications. Although the biosynthesis of schwertmannite by acidophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms has been investigated, little is known about goethite biosynthesis under acidic
[...] Read more.
Iron oxide minerals, schwertmannite and goethite, which are naturally occurring in acidic environments are attractive nanostructured materials because of the potential diverse applications. Although the biosynthesis of schwertmannite by acidophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms has been investigated, little is known about goethite biosynthesis under acidic conditions. To examine a biological approach to the synthesis of these minerals, bioreactor experiments were conducted with a newly isolated acidophilic betaproteobacterium. The bioproducts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, cryogenic Mössbauer spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. The cultures growing at 25 °C and pH 3.0 or at 37 °C and pH 2.5 oxidized Fe(II) and precipitated schwertmannite rapidly. Increasing pH at each temperature resulted in the concomitant production of goethite, and 90% pure goethite was obtained at 37 °C and pH 3.5. The goethite phase was nano-sized and had relatively large specific surface area (133 m2·g−1), leading to high sorption capacity for metal oxyanions. Schwertmannite was also a good adsorbent for oxyanions, regardless of the smaller specific surface area. Our results indicate that these acidophilic microbial cultures serve as a simple rapid system for the synthesis of nanostructured goethite as well as schwertmannite. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Role of ε-Fe2O3 Nano-Mineral and Domains in Enhancing Magnetic Coercivity: Implications for the Natural Remanent Magnetization
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030097
Received: 27 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 887 | PDF Full-text (4552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A natural ε-Fe2O3 nano-mineral (luogufengite) has been discovered in young basaltic rocks around the world. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observed euhedral or subhedral luogufengite nano-minerals with crystal sizes ranging from 10 to 120 nm in the basaltic rocks. The magnetic
[...] Read more.
A natural ε-Fe2O3 nano-mineral (luogufengite) has been discovered in young basaltic rocks around the world. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observed euhedral or subhedral luogufengite nano-minerals with crystal sizes ranging from 10 to 120 nm in the basaltic rocks. The magnetic property of treated scoria sample (containing 75.3(5) wt % luogufengite) showed a saturation remanence of 11.3 emu g−1 with a coercive field of 0.17 tesla (T) at room temperature. Luogufengite-like nano-domains were also observed in natural permanent magnets (lodestone) and Fe-Ti oxides (ilmenite-magnetite series) with strong remanent magnetization. The structure of luogufengite-like domains (double hexagonal close-packing) is associated with the interfaces between the (111) plane of cubic magnetite and the (0001) plane of rhombohedral hematite or ilmenite. Stacking faults and twin boundaries of magnetite/maghemite can also produce the luogufengite-like domains. The nano-domains oriented along the magnetic easy axis play an essential role in enhancing the magnetic coercivity of lodestone and Fe-Ti oxide. We conclude that the luogufengite nano-minerals and nano-domains provide an explanation for coercivity and strong remanent magnetization in igneous, metamorphic rocks and even some reported Martian rocks. These nano-scaled multilayer structures extend our knowledge of magnetism and help us to understand the diverse magnetic anomalies occurring on Earth and other planetary bodies. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Micropore Structure of Cement-Stabilized Gold Mine Tailings
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030096
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
Viewed by 700 | PDF Full-text (1812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mine tailings have often to be stabilized by mixing them with cementing agents. In this study, the pore structure of gold tailings stabilized with Portland cement was evaluated by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry. The investigation was conducted on samples prepared with different
[...] Read more.
Mine tailings have often to be stabilized by mixing them with cementing agents. In this study, the pore structure of gold tailings stabilized with Portland cement was evaluated by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry. The investigation was conducted on samples prepared with different fractions of tailings and cement as well as on samples activated with elevated temperature curing and chemical (CaCl2) addition. It was observed that all mixed samples exhibit a mono-modal pore size distribution, indicating that the cement-stabilized tailings are characterized by a single-porosity structure. The results also showed that the higher fraction of tailings and cement leads to a dense and finer pore structure. The total porosity of mixture samples decreases with increasing curing temperature and CaCl2 concentration due to the acceleration of hydration reaction. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Fossilization History of Fossil Resin from Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia) Based on Physico-Chemical Studies
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030095
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
Viewed by 857 | PDF Full-text (16283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A unique specimen of fossil resin originating from the Dipterocarpaceae tree family found in Miocene brown coal deposits in Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia) was investigated via microscopic observations, microhardness testing and infrared and Raman spectroscopic methods. Its form is rare in nature, being
[...] Read more.
A unique specimen of fossil resin originating from the Dipterocarpaceae tree family found in Miocene brown coal deposits in Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia) was investigated via microscopic observations, microhardness testing and infrared and Raman spectroscopic methods. Its form is rare in nature, being an aggregate of three varieties of resin differing in colour, transparency and internal structure. This suggests the formation of the resins at different stages. Further alteration processes, including fossilization and maturation of the resin in a swamp environment resulted in stepwise aromatization of the cyclohexane ring in steroids and cross-linking through formation of ester bonds as well as carbon–carbon bonds between steroid molecules. The various environmental and geological conditions affecting the formation processes of the resins were recorded in their physico-chemical properties. Additionally, heating conditions accelerated by volcanism were proposed as a factor determining the maturation grade of the resin. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Preliminary Investigation into Separating Performance and Magnetic Field Characteristic Analysis Based on a Novel Matrix
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030094
Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
Viewed by 877 | PDF Full-text (7140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The matrix is the agglomeration carrier of magnetic mineral particles in high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS). Its structural parameters have a great influence on the distribution of the magnetic field in the separation space, and therefore affect the separation effect. This paper introduces a
[...] Read more.
The matrix is the agglomeration carrier of magnetic mineral particles in high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS). Its structural parameters have a great influence on the distribution of the magnetic field in the separation space, and therefore affect the separation effect. This paper introduces a novel matrix called a screw thread rod matrix, which has the dual advantages of the rod matrix and the grooved magnetic plate, i.e., the advantages of better slurry fluidity through the matrix and higher magnetic field gradient at the sharp corners. This research on the novel matrix was performed from the following three aspects: the description of components of the matrix, the effect of structural parameters of the matrix on separation performance of fine hematite ore tailings in Northeast China, and the numerical analysis of the magnetic induction properties of different kinds of magnetic matrices based on three-dimensional structural characteristics. Compared with the smooth rod matrix, the proposed screw thread rod matrix enhances the inhomogeneity of the axial magnetic induction intensity on the surface of the matrix. Accordingly, the recovery of fine-grained iron minerals is improved through the resulting combined effect of the radial curvature of the rod and the inhomogeneous magnetic field in the axial direction. Furthermore, the best moderate distance between equidistant ring-shaped bulges (ERB) as well as the best column gap between adjacent rod elements were determined, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mineral Processing Technologies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Platy Galena from the Viburnum Trend, Southeast Missouri: Character, Mine Distribution, Paragenetic Position, Trace Element Content, Nature of Twinning, and Conditions of Formation
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030093
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
Viewed by 923 | PDF Full-text (6672 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Viburnum Trend of southeast Missouri is one of the world’s largest producers of lead. The lead occurs as galena, predominantly in two crystallographic forms, octahedrons and cubes. Many studies have shown that octahedral galena is paragentically early, the more abundant of the
[...] Read more.
The Viburnum Trend of southeast Missouri is one of the world’s largest producers of lead. The lead occurs as galena, predominantly in two crystallographic forms, octahedrons and cubes. Many studies have shown that octahedral galena is paragentically early, the more abundant of the two crystal forms, and is commonly modified in the cube. Those studies also have shown that the cubic form is paragenetically later, less abundant than the octahedrons, and may exhibit minor octahedral modifications. Viburnum Trend galena crystals that exhibit a platy form have received almost no study. The reason for their lack of study is the rarity of their occurrence. This communication discusses their character, mine distribution, paragenetic position, trace element contents, nature of twinning, and speculated conditions of formation. It also compares their character to similar platy galena occurrences in Germany, Bulgaria, Russia, Mexico, and notes their occurrence at the Pine Point District in the Northwest Territories of Canada and at the Black Cloud mine in Colorado. Flat, platy galena crystals have been recognized to occur in very small amounts in the Magmont, Buick, Fletcher, Brushy Creek, and Sweetwater mines in the Viburnum Trend. In contrast, platy galena has never been observed to occur at the Casteel, West Fork, #27, #28, and #29 mines in the Trend. The platy crystals have formed early in the paragenetic sequence of the ores, prior to and coated by subsequently deposited druzy quartz and cubic galena. Spinel twinning of the octahedron produces flat platy crystals. The platy galena crystals of the Viburnum Trend are very similar in crystal morphology to platy galena crystals interpreted to be spinel twins in the Gonderbach Ag mine in NW Germany, the Dalnegorsk Pb-Zn (skarn deposit) mine in SE Russia, the Madan ore field of skarn Pb-Zn-Ag deposits of southern Bulgaria, and the large Naica skarn Pb mine of northern Mexico. The crystallization of certain crystal forms of galena has been ascribed to the incorporation of elevated contents of trace elements in some lead districts. Analysis of Viburnum platy galena crystals shows that they contain very low levels of trace elements: 3.1 ppm Ag, <2 ppm Bi, <2 ppm Sb, and <2 ppm As. Thus, elevated trace element content is not the cause for the development of Viburnum platy galena. It is speculated that the Viburnum spinel-twinned galena crystals were the result of rapid crystallization from oversaturated hydrothermal ore fluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fundamentals and Frontiers in Mineralogy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Fluid Inclusion Study of the Brookbank Deposit, Northwestern Ontario: A Transition from Mesothermal to Epithermal Gold Deposition
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030092
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 879 | PDF Full-text (3194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Brookbank and Cherbourg Zone gold deposits are located in the Beardmore–Geraldton greenstone belt of the Wabigoon Subprovince of the Archean Superior Province of the Canadian Shield. Brookbank is a shear zone deposit, whereas the Cherbourg Zone, joined by a shear zone to
[...] Read more.
The Brookbank and Cherbourg Zone gold deposits are located in the Beardmore–Geraldton greenstone belt of the Wabigoon Subprovince of the Archean Superior Province of the Canadian Shield. Brookbank is a shear zone deposit, whereas the Cherbourg Zone, joined by a shear zone to the Brookbank, is a fissure vein deposit, presumably formed by the same ore-depositing fluid. A total of 375 fluid inclusions, all with low salinity (generally <1 °C freezing point depression) and presence of CO2, from the two deposits were studied. Cross-cutting relationships delineated three stages of vein formation: (1) pre-ore, (2) ore stage and (3) post-ore. Stage 1 inclusions homogenized at ca. 230 °C with low salinity, although at Brookbank a high temperature episode at ca. 360 °C was noted. Stage 2 homogenized at ca. 266 °C at the Cherbourg Zone and over a range 258–269 °C with somewhat higher salinity. Eutectic temperatures indicate that the fluid composition was within the MgCl2-NaCl-H2O system. Fluid immiscibility was prominent in that inclusions homogenized to liquid and vapor at the same temperature were observed. The majority of inclusions from Brookbank homogenized to vapor, whereas those from the Cherbourg Zone homogenized to liquid, marking the transition from mesothermal to epithermal lode gold deposition. Stage 3 fluid inclusions from the Cherbourg Zone homogenized at slightly elevated temperatures and contained fluid possibly representing metastable hydrates of KCl. These post-ore fluids may have been the source of potassium feldspar alteration that overprinted earlier alteration assemblages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Hydrothermal Metallic Mineral Deposits)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Density Functional Theory Study of Arsenate Adsorption onto Alumina Surfaces
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030091
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1221 | PDF Full-text (12570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Atomistic modeling of mineral–water interfaces offers a way of confirming (or refuting) experimental information about structure and reactivity. Molecular-level understanding, such as orbital-based descriptions of bonding, can be developed from charge density and electronic structure analysis. First-principles calculations can be used to identify
[...] Read more.
Atomistic modeling of mineral–water interfaces offers a way of confirming (or refuting) experimental information about structure and reactivity. Molecular-level understanding, such as orbital-based descriptions of bonding, can be developed from charge density and electronic structure analysis. First-principles calculations can be used to identify weaknesses in empirical models. This provides direction on how to propose more robust representations of systems of increasing size that accurately represent the underlying physical factors governing reactivity. In this study, inner-sphere complex geometries of arsenate on hydrated alumina surfaces are modeled at the density functional theory (DFT)–continuum solvent level. According to experimental studies, arsenate binds to alumina surfaces in a bidentate binuclear (BB) fashion. While the DFT calculations support the preference of the BB configuration, the optimized geometries show distortion from the ideal tetrahedral geometry of the arsenic atom. This finding suggests that steric factors, and not just coordination arguments, influences reactivity. The Osurf–As–Osurf angle for the more favorable arsenate configurations is closest to the ideal tetrahedral angle of 109.5°. Comparing the results of arsenate adsorption using a small cluster model with a periodic slab model, we report that the two model geometries yield results that differ qualitatively and quantitatively. This relates the steric factors and rigidity of the surface models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Simulation of Mineral-Solution Interfaces)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top