Biomineralization Patterns of Intracellular Carbonatogenesis in Cyanobacteria: Molecular Hypotheses
AbstractThe recent discovery of intracellular carbonatogenesis in several cyanobacteria species has challenged the traditional view that this process was extracellular and not controlled. However, a detailed analysis of the size distribution, chemical composition and 3-D-arrangement of carbonates in these cyanobacteria is lacking. Here, we characterized these features in Candidatus Gloeomargarita lithophora C7 and Candidatus Synechococcus calcipolaris G9 by conventional transmission electron microscopy, tomography, ultramicrotomy, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Both Ca. G. lithophora C7 and Ca. S. calcipolaris G9 formed numerous polyphosphate granules adjacent or engulfing Ca-carbonate inclusions when grown in phosphate-rich solutions. Ca-carbonates were scattered within Ca. G. lithophora C7 cells under these conditions, but sometimes arranged in one or several chains. In contrast, Ca-carbonates formed at cell septa in Ca. S. calcipolaris G9 and were segregated equally between daughter cells after cell division, arranging as distorted disks at cell poles. The size distribution of carbonates evolved from a positively to a negatively skewed distribution as particles grew. Conventional ultramicrotomy did not preserve Ca-carbonates explaining partly why intracellular calcification has been overlooked in the past. All these new observations allow discussing with unprecedented insight some nucleation and growth processes occurring in intracellularly calcifying cyanobacteria with a particular emphasis on the possible involvement of intracellular compartments and cytoskeleton. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
Supplementary (ZIP, 21763 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Li, J.; Margaret Oliver, I.; Cam, N.; Boudier, T.; Blondeau, M.; Leroy, E.; Cosmidis, J.; Skouri-Panet, F.; Guigner, J.-M.; Férard, C.; Poinsot, M.; Moreira, D.; Lopez-Garcia, P.; Cassier-Chauvat, C.; Chauvat, F.; Benzerara, K. Biomineralization Patterns of Intracellular Carbonatogenesis in Cyanobacteria: Molecular Hypotheses. Minerals 2016, 6, 10.
Li J, Margaret Oliver I, Cam N, Boudier T, Blondeau M, Leroy E, Cosmidis J, Skouri-Panet F, Guigner J-M, Férard C, Poinsot M, Moreira D, Lopez-Garcia P, Cassier-Chauvat C, Chauvat F, Benzerara K. Biomineralization Patterns of Intracellular Carbonatogenesis in Cyanobacteria: Molecular Hypotheses. Minerals. 2016; 6(1):10.Chicago/Turabian Style
Li, Jinhua; Margaret Oliver, Isabel; Cam, Nithavong; Boudier, Thomas; Blondeau, Marine; Leroy, Eric; Cosmidis, Julie; Skouri-Panet, Feriel; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Férard, Céline; Poinsot, Melanie; Moreira, David; Lopez-Garcia, Purificacion; Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Chauvat, Franck; Benzerara, Karim. 2016. "Biomineralization Patterns of Intracellular Carbonatogenesis in Cyanobacteria: Molecular Hypotheses." Minerals 6, no. 1: 10.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.