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Minerals, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2015) – 6 articles , Pages 1-116

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Article
The Thermal Damage Properties of Mudstone, Gypsum and Rock Salt from Yingcheng, Hubei, China
Minerals 2015, 5(1), 104-116; https://doi.org/10.3390/min5010104 - 12 Mar 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2996
Abstract
The impacts of temperature on the surface thermal damage of rock salt, gypsum and mudstone from the Yingcheng salt mine, China were investigated by the surface crack growth and propagation tests at different temperatures. We found that: (a) high temperature could strengthen the [...] Read more.
The impacts of temperature on the surface thermal damage of rock salt, gypsum and mudstone from the Yingcheng salt mine, China were investigated by the surface crack growth and propagation tests at different temperatures. We found that: (a) high temperature could strengthen the rock salt molecular thermal motion and weaken the cohesion among the rock salt grains, so that the grain boundaries were more prone to slip and thus develop into cracks; (b) high temperature could make the water molecules evaporate from rock specimens, which should change the physical properties of gypsum and mudstone; and (c) high temperature had a significant effect on the interface between rock salt and gypsum and mudstone, therefore it should be easy to produce cracks with white or light yellow cumulate powder here. The surface crack growth and propagation of the rock salt, gypsum and mudstone have a positive correlation with the temperature by stereo microscope and the method of binary images, which could observe the surface thermal damage properties. Finally, the fractal dimension of the rock salt surface cracks was calculated based on fractal theory, and the evolution of the surface thermal damage was found from 50 to 260 °C. Full article
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Article
Loading Capacity and Deformation Characteristics of Tailings Based on a Fractal Geometrical Analysis of the Particle Microstructure
Minerals 2015, 5(1), 86-103; https://doi.org/10.3390/min5010086 - 03 Feb 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
The failure of a tailing dam occurs due to damage to the particles’ micro-structure. Understanding the deformation characteristics of the particle’ micro-structure is important for understanding the mechanics of instability in tailing dams. In our study, a series of experiments was conducted using [...] Read more.
The failure of a tailing dam occurs due to damage to the particles’ micro-structure. Understanding the deformation characteristics of the particle’ micro-structure is important for understanding the mechanics of instability in tailing dams. In our study, a series of experiments was conducted using a testing apparatus for micro-mechanics and the deformation of tailings from the Huangcaoping tailing pond, Sichuan Province, China to investigate the loading capacity, micro-structure and deformation features of tailing particles. The latter two were analyzed quantitatively using concepts from fractal geometry. The results demonstrate that: (1) the structural loading capacity of tailings increases first and then decreases slightly with increasing particle size; (2) the particle micro-structure of the four tailing samples from the Huangcaoping tailing pond is described in terms of the fractal dimension based on the perimeter and area (D-value), which is between 1.288 and 1.533; (3) as the axial stress increases, the D-value gradually decreases along a wavy line with a decreasing rate of change; (4) under the same axial strain, the D-value first decreases and later increases slightly as the particle size increases; and (5) the number of fractured particles increases with the particle size. Full article
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Editorial
Mine Waste Characterization, Management and Remediation
Minerals 2015, 5(1), 82-85; https://doi.org/10.3390/min5010082 - 19 Jan 2015
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3881
Abstract
Mining is a vital part of the Global economy, but the extraction of metals, metalloids, and other mineral products generates vast quantities of liquid and solid waste. Currently the volume is estimated at several thousand million tons per annum, but is increasing [...] Read more.
Mining is a vital part of the Global economy, but the extraction of metals, metalloids, and other mineral products generates vast quantities of liquid and solid waste. Currently the volume is estimated at several thousand million tons per annum, but is increasing exponentially as demand and exploitation of lower-grade deposits increases. The high concentrations of potentially toxic elements in these wastes can pose risks to ecosystems and humans, but these risks can be mitigated by implementing appropriate management or remediation schemes. Although there are a large number of such schemes available, there is still a need to research the processes, products, and effectiveness of implementation, as well as the nature of the mine wastes themselves. This Special Issue is aimed at bringing together studies in the areas of mine waste characterization, management, and remediation, to review the current state of knowledge and to develop improvements in current schemes. Fourteen manuscripts are published for this Special Issue, and these are summarized below.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Waste Characterization, Management and Remediation)
Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Minerals in 2014
Minerals 2015, 5(1), 80-81; https://doi.org/10.3390/min5010080 - 08 Jan 2015
Viewed by 2089
Abstract
The editors of Minerals would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...] Full article
Article
Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting” of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar
Minerals 2015, 5(1), 61-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/min5010061 - 30 Dec 2014
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4908
Abstract
Mogok gem corundum samples from twelve localities were analyzed for trace element signatures (LA-ICP-MS method) and oxygen isotope values (δ18O, by laser fluorination). The study augmented earlier findings on Mogok gem suites that suggested the Mogok tract forms a high [...] Read more.
Mogok gem corundum samples from twelve localities were analyzed for trace element signatures (LA-ICP-MS method) and oxygen isotope values (δ18O, by laser fluorination). The study augmented earlier findings on Mogok gem suites that suggested the Mogok tract forms a high vanadium gem corundum area and also identified rare alluvial ruby and sapphire grains characterised by unusually high silicon, calcium and gallium, presence of noticeable boron, tin and niobium and very low iron, titanium and magnesium contents. Oxygen isotope values (δ18O) for the ruby and high Si-Ca-Ga corundum (20‰–25‰) and for sapphire (10‰–20‰) indicate typical crustal values, with values >20‰ being typical of carbonate genesis. The high Si-Ca-Ga ruby has high chromium (up to 3.2 wt % Cr) and gallium (up to 0. 08 wt % Ga) compared to most Mogok ruby (<2 wt % Cr; <0.02 wt % Ga). In trace element ratio plots the Si-Ca-Ga-rich corundum falls into separate fields from the typical Mogok metamorphic fields. The high Ga/Mg ratios (46–521) lie well within the magmatic range (>6), and with other features suggest a potential skarn-like, carbonate-related genesis with a high degree of magmatic fluid input The overall trace element results widen the range of different signatures identified within Mogok gem corundum suites and indicate complex genesis. The expanded geochemical platform, related to a variety of metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic sources, now provides a wider base for geographic typing of Mogok gem corundum suites. It allows more detailed comparisons with suites from other deposits and will assist identification of Mogok gem corundum sources used in jewelry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Recent Advances on Gemology)
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Review
Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources
Minerals 2015, 5(1), 1-60; https://doi.org/10.3390/min5010001 - 24 Dec 2014
Cited by 74 | Viewed by 5688
Abstract
This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to [...] Read more.
This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and complex ores. Developed biotechnologies that could be applied are briefly reviewed and some of the difficulties to be overcome highlighted. Examples of the bioleaching of polymetallic mineral resources using different combinations of those technologies are described for polymetallic sulfide concentrates, low-grade sulfide and oxidised ores. Three areas for further research are: (i) the development of sophisticated continuous vat bioreactors with additional controls; (ii) in situ and in stope bioleaching and the need to solve problems associated with microbial activity in that scenario; and (iii) the exploitation of sulfur-oxidising microorganisms that, under specific anaerobic leaching conditions, reduce and solubilise refractory iron(III) or manganese(IV) compounds containing multiple elements. Finally, with the successful applications of stirred tank bioleaching to a polymetallic tailings dump and heap bioleaching to a polymetallic black schist ore, there is no reason why those proven technologies should not be more widely applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biohydrometallurgy)
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