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Antibodies, Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 10 articles

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Open AccessReview
IgA: Structure, Function, and Developability
Antibodies 2019, 8(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib8040057 - 05 Dec 2019
Viewed by 950
Abstract
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a key role in defending mucosal surfaces against attack by infectious microorganisms. Such sites present a major site of susceptibility due to their vast surface area and their constant exposure to ingested and inhaled material. The importance of IgA [...] Read more.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a key role in defending mucosal surfaces against attack by infectious microorganisms. Such sites present a major site of susceptibility due to their vast surface area and their constant exposure to ingested and inhaled material. The importance of IgA to effective immune defence is signalled by the fact that more IgA is produced than all the other immunoglobulin classes combined. Indeed, IgA is not just the most prevalent antibody class at mucosal sites, but is also present at significant concentrations in serum. The unique structural features of the IgA heavy chain allow IgA to polymerise, resulting in mainly dimeric forms, along with some higher polymers, in secretions. Both serum IgA, which is principally monomeric, and secretory forms of IgA are capable of neutralising and removing pathogens through a range of mechanisms, including triggering the IgA Fc receptor known as FcαRI or CD89 on phagocytes. The effectiveness of these elimination processes is highlighted by the fact that various pathogens have evolved mechanisms to thwart such IgA-mediated clearance. As the structure–function relationships governing the varied capabilities of this immunoglobulin class come into increasingly clear focus, and means to circumvent any inherent limitations are developed, IgA-based monoclonal antibodies are set to emerge as new and potent options in the therapeutic arena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Function of Antibodies)
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Open AccessReview
Understanding Inter-Individual Variability in Monoclonal Antibody Disposition
Antibodies 2019, 8(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib8040056 - 04 Dec 2019
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently the largest and most dominant class of therapeutic proteins. Inter-individual variability has been observed for several mAbs; however, an understanding of the underlying mechanisms and factors contributing to inter-subject differences in mAb disposition is still lacking. In this [...] Read more.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently the largest and most dominant class of therapeutic proteins. Inter-individual variability has been observed for several mAbs; however, an understanding of the underlying mechanisms and factors contributing to inter-subject differences in mAb disposition is still lacking. In this review, we analyze the mechanisms of antibody disposition and the putative mechanistic determinants of inter-individual variability. Results from in vitro, preclinical, and clinical studies were reviewed evaluate the role of the neonatal Fc receptor and Fc gamma receptors (expression and polymorphism), target properties (expression, shedding, turnover, internalization, heterogeneity, polymorphism), and the influence of anti-drug antibodies. Particular attention is given to the influence of co-administered drugs and disease, and to the physiological relevance of covariates identified by population pharmacokinetic modeling, as determinants of variability in mAb pharmacokinetics. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Antibody Structure and Function: The Basis for Engineering Therapeutics
Antibodies 2019, 8(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib8040055 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1224
Abstract
Antibodies and antibody-derived macromolecules have established themselves as the mainstay in protein-based therapeutic molecules (biologics). Our knowledge of the structure–function relationships of antibodies provides a platform for protein engineering that has been exploited to generate a wide range of biologics for a host [...] Read more.
Antibodies and antibody-derived macromolecules have established themselves as the mainstay in protein-based therapeutic molecules (biologics). Our knowledge of the structure–function relationships of antibodies provides a platform for protein engineering that has been exploited to generate a wide range of biologics for a host of therapeutic indications. In this review, our basic understanding of the antibody structure is described along with how that knowledge has leveraged the engineering of antibody and antibody-related therapeutics having the appropriate antigen affinity, effector function, and biophysical properties. The platforms examined include the development of antibodies, antibody fragments, bispecific antibody, and antibody fusion products, whose efficacy and manufacturability can be improved via humanization, affinity modulation, and stability enhancement. We also review the design and selection of binding arms, and avidity modulation. Different strategies of preparing bispecific and multispecific molecules for an array of therapeutic applications are included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Function of Antibodies)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibody-Drug Conjugates Targeting the Urokinase Receptor (uPAR) as a Possible Treatment of Aggressive Breast Cancer
Antibodies 2019, 8(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib8040054 - 05 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1116
Abstract
A promising molecular target for aggressive cancers is the urokinase receptor (uPAR). A fully human, recombinant antibody that binds uPAR to form a stable complex that blocks uPA-uPAR interactions (2G10) and is internalized primarily through endocytosis showed efficacy in a mouse xenograft model [...] Read more.
A promising molecular target for aggressive cancers is the urokinase receptor (uPAR). A fully human, recombinant antibody that binds uPAR to form a stable complex that blocks uPA-uPAR interactions (2G10) and is internalized primarily through endocytosis showed efficacy in a mouse xenograft model of highly aggressive, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) of 2G10 were designed and produced bearing tubulin inhibitor payloads ligated through seven different linkers. Aldehyde tag technology was employed for linking, and either one or two tags were inserted into the antibody heavy chain, to produce site-specifically conjugated ADCs with drug-to-antibody ratios of either two or four. Both cleavable and non-cleavable linkers were combined with two different antimitotic toxins—MMAE (monomethylauristatin E) and maytansine. Nine different 2G10 ADCs were produced and tested for their ability to target uPAR in cell-based assays and a mouse model. The anti-uPAR ADC that resulted in tumor regression comprised an MMAE payload with a cathepsin B cleavable linker, 2G10-RED-244-MMAE. This work demonstrates in vitro activity of the 2G10-RED-244-MMAE in TNBC cell lines and validates uPAR as a therapeutic target for TNBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody-Based Therapeutics for Treating Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Engineering a Novel Antibody-Peptide Bispecific Fusion Protein Against MERS-CoV
Antibodies 2019, 8(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib8040053 - 04 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
In recent years, tremendous efforts have been made in the engineering of bispecific or multi-specific antibody-based therapeutics by combining two or more functional antigen-recognizing elements into a single construct. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no reported cases of [...] Read more.
In recent years, tremendous efforts have been made in the engineering of bispecific or multi-specific antibody-based therapeutics by combining two or more functional antigen-recognizing elements into a single construct. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no reported cases of effective antiviral antibody-peptide bispecific fusion proteins. We previously developed potent fully human monoclonal antibodies and inhibitory peptides against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a novel coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory illness with high mortality. Here, we describe the generation of antibody-peptide bispecific fusion proteins, each of which contains an anti-MERS-CoV single-chain antibody m336 (or normal human IgG1 CH3 domain as a control) linked with, or without, a MERS-CoV fusion inhibitory peptide HR2P. We found that one of these fusion proteins, designated as m336 diabody-pep, exhibited more potent inhibitory activity than the antibody or the peptide alone against pseudotyped MERS-CoV infection and MERS-CoV S protein-mediated cell-cell fusion, suggesting its potential to be developed as an effective bispecific immunotherapeutic for clinical use. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Immunoglobulin for Treating Bacterial Infections: One More Mechanism of Action
Antibodies 2019, 8(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib8040052 - 03 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
The mechanisms underlying the effects of immunoglobulins on bacterial infections are thought to involve bacterial cell lysis via complement activation, phagocytosis via bacterial opsonization, toxin neutralization, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, recent advances in the study of the pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria have [...] Read more.
The mechanisms underlying the effects of immunoglobulins on bacterial infections are thought to involve bacterial cell lysis via complement activation, phagocytosis via bacterial opsonization, toxin neutralization, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, recent advances in the study of the pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria have raised the possibility of an association between immunoglobulin and bacterial toxin secretion. Over time, new toxin secretion systems like the type III secretion system have been discovered in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. With this system, the bacterial toxins are directly injected into the cytoplasm of the target cell through a special secretory apparatus without any exposure to the extracellular environment, and therefore with no opportunity for antibodies to neutralize the toxin. However, antibodies against the V-antigen, which is located on the needle-shaped tip of the bacterial secretion apparatus, can inhibit toxin translocation, thus raising the hope that the toxin may be susceptible to antibody targeting. Because multi-drug resistant bacteria are now prevalent, inhibiting this secretion mechanism is an attractive alternative or adjunctive therapy against lethal bacterial infections. Thus, it is not unreasonable to define the blocking effect of anti-V-antigen antibodies as the fifth mechanism for immunoglobulin action against bacterial infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Therapeutic Antibodies against Toxins and Pathogens)
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Open AccessReview
Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Immune Checkpoints for the Treatment of Solid Tumors
Antibodies 2019, 8(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib8040051 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Recently, modulation of immune checkpoints has risen to prominence as a means to treat a number of solid malignancies, given the durable response seen in many patients and improved side effect profile compared to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Several classes of immune checkpoint modulators [...] Read more.
Recently, modulation of immune checkpoints has risen to prominence as a means to treat a number of solid malignancies, given the durable response seen in many patients and improved side effect profile compared to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Several classes of immune checkpoint modulators have been developed. Here, we review current monoclonal antibodies directed against immune checkpoints that are employed in practice today. We discuss the history, mechanism, indications, and clinical data for each class of therapies. Furthermore, we review the challenges to durable tumor responses that are seen in some patients and discuss possible interventions to circumvent these barriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody-Based Therapeutics for Treating Cancer)
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Open AccessCommunication
NR4A Expression by Human Marginal Zone B-Cells
Antibodies 2019, 8(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib8040050 - 11 Oct 2019
Viewed by 976
Abstract
We have previously characterized a human blood CD19+CD1c+IgM+CD27+CD21loCD10+ innate-like B-cell population, which presents features shared by both transitional immature and marginal zone (MZ) B-cells, named herein “precursor-like” MZ B-cells. B-cells with similar [...] Read more.
We have previously characterized a human blood CD19+CD1c+IgM+CD27+CD21loCD10+ innate-like B-cell population, which presents features shared by both transitional immature and marginal zone (MZ) B-cells, named herein “precursor-like” MZ B-cells. B-cells with similar attributes have been associated with regulatory potential (Breg). In order to clarify this issue and better characterize this population, we have proceeded to RNA-Seq transcriptome profiling of mature MZ and precursor-like MZ B-cells taken from the blood of healthy donors. We report that ex vivo mature MZ and precursor-like MZ B-cells express transcripts for the immunoregulatory marker CD83 and nuclear receptors NR4A1, 2, and 3, known to be associated with T-cell regulatory (Treg) maintenance and function. Breg associated markers such as CD39 and CD73 were also expressed by both populations. We also show that human blood and tonsillar precursor-like MZ B-cells were the main B-cell population to express elevated levels of CD83 and NR4A1-3 proteins ex vivo and without stimulation. Sorted tonsillar precursor-like MZ B-cells exerted regulatory activity on autologous activated CD4+ T-cells, and this was affected by a CD83 blocking reagent. We believe these observations shed light on the Breg potential of MZ populations, and identify NR4A1-3 as potential Breg markers, which as for Tregs, may be involved in stabilization of a regulatory status. Since expression and activity of these molecules can be modulated therapeutically, our findings may be useful in strategies aiming at modulation of Breg responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory B Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Immunoglobulin G1 Fc Sialylation on Backbone Amide H/D Exchange
Antibodies 2019, 8(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib8040049 - 01 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
The usefulness of higher-order structural information provided by hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS) for the structural impact analyses of chemical and post-translational antibody modifications has been demonstrated in various studies. However, the structure–function assessment for protein drugs in biopharmaceutical research and development is often [...] Read more.
The usefulness of higher-order structural information provided by hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS) for the structural impact analyses of chemical and post-translational antibody modifications has been demonstrated in various studies. However, the structure–function assessment for protein drugs in biopharmaceutical research and development is often impeded by the relatively low-abundance (below 5%) of critical quality attributes or by overlapping effects of modifications, such as glycosylation, with chemical amino acid modifications; e.g., oxidation or deamidation. We present results demonstrating the applicability of the H/DX-MS technique to monitor conformational changes of specific Fc glycosylation variants produced by in vitro glyco-engineering technology. A trend towards less H/DX in Fc Cγ2 domain segments correlating with larger glycan structures could be confirmed. Furthermore, significant deuterium uptake differences and corresponding binding properties to Fc receptors (as monitored by SPR) between α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialylated Fc glycosylation variants were verified at sensitive levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Higher Order Structure Characterization of Therapeutic Antibodies)
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Open AccessArticle
Distinguishing Between Monomeric scFv and Diabody in Solution Using Light and Small Angle X-ray Scattering
Antibodies 2019, 8(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib8040048 - 23 Sep 2019
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Depending on the linker length between the V H and the V L domain, single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragments form monomers, dimers (diabodies) or higher oligomers. We aimed at generating a diabody of the anti-MET antibody 3H3 to use it as crystallization chaperone [...] Read more.
Depending on the linker length between the V H and the V L domain, single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragments form monomers, dimers (diabodies) or higher oligomers. We aimed at generating a diabody of the anti-MET antibody 3H3 to use it as crystallization chaperone to promote crystallization of the MET ectodomain through the introduction of a pre-formed twofold axis of symmetry. Size exclusion chromatography, however, suggested the protein to be monomeric. Hence, we used scattering techniques applied to solutions to further investigate its oligomerization state. The small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) curve measured for our protein nicely fits to the scattering curve calculated from the known crystal structure of a diabody. In addition, concentration-dependent photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) measurements revealed a hydrodynamic radius of 3.4 nm at infinite dilution and a negative interaction parameter k D , indicating attractive interactions that are beneficial for crystallization. Both SAXS and PCS measurements clearly suggest our antibody fragment to be a diabody in solution. Chemical cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and cell motility assays confirmed this conclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Higher Order Structure Characterization of Therapeutic Antibodies)
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