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Water, Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2015) , Pages 2542-3165

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Open AccessArticle
Flow Regime Classification and Hydrological Characterization: A Case Study of Ethiopian Rivers
Water 2015, 7(6), 3149-3165; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7063149 - 22 Jun 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3109
Abstract
The spatiotemporal variability of a stream flow due to the complex interaction of catchment attributes and rainfall induce complexity in hydrology. Researchers have been trying to address this complexity with a number of approaches; river flow regime is one of them. The flow [...] Read more.
The spatiotemporal variability of a stream flow due to the complex interaction of catchment attributes and rainfall induce complexity in hydrology. Researchers have been trying to address this complexity with a number of approaches; river flow regime is one of them. The flow regime can be quantified by means of hydrological indices characterizing five components: magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, and rate of change of flow. Similarly, this study aimed to understand the flow variability of Ethiopian Rivers using the observed daily flow data from 208 gauging stations in the country. With this process, the Hierarchical Ward Clustering method was implemented to group the streams into three flow regimes (1) ephemeral, (2) intermittent, and (3) perennial. Principal component analysis (PCA) is also applied as the second multivariate analysis tool to identify dominant hydrological indices that cause the variability in the streams. The mean flow per unit catchment area (QmAR) and Base flow index (BFI) show an incremental trend with ephemeral, intermittent and perennial streams. Whereas the number of mean zero flow days ratio (ZFI) and coefficient of variation (CV) show a decreasing trend with ephemeral to perennial flow regimes. Finally, the streams in the three flow regimes were characterized with the mean and standard deviation of the hydrological variables and the shape, slope, and scale of the flow duration curve. Results of this study are the basis for further understanding of the ecohydrological processes of the river basins in Ethiopia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Controls on Suspended Sediment Concentrations and Turbidity within a Reforested, Southern Appalachian Headwater Basin
Water 2015, 7(6), 3123-3148; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7063123 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
Water quality data collected between 2007 and 2014 within the Allen Creek Watershed were used to: (1) determine the factors controlling the temporal variations in turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) within a representative, high-gradient headwater basin in the Southern Appalachians; and (2) [...] Read more.
Water quality data collected between 2007 and 2014 within the Allen Creek Watershed were used to: (1) determine the factors controlling the temporal variations in turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) within a representative, high-gradient headwater basin in the Southern Appalachians; and (2) assess the recovery of water quality following extensive logging operations during the early to mid-1900s. Regression analysis suggests that suspended sediment is primarily derived from upland areas and variations in concentration reflect rainfall intensity and total event precipitation. Overall, SSC and turbidity were low in stream waters in comparison to both reference values for stable streams and more developed basins in the region. Some floods were characterized by high SSC values, but limited turbidity and vice versa. Differences in measured SSC and turbidity between storms reflect different controls on the two parameters, and the apparent influence of natural organic matter on turbidity during rainfall events that are incapable of transporting sediment to the channel via overland flow. Low SSC and turbidity values are presumably related to the reforestation of hillslopes and riparian buffers following the cessation of logging operations. They also are due to a historical reduction in the sedimentological connectivity of hillslopes and tributaries with the axial channel that occurred during logging operations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Use Efficiency in Saline Soils under Cotton Cultivation in the Tarim River Basin
Water 2015, 7(6), 3103-3122; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7063103 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3367
Abstract
The Tarim River Basin, the largest area of Chinese cotton production, is receiving increased attention because of serious environmental problems. At two experimental stations (Korla and Aksu), we studied the influence of salinity on cotton yield. Soil chemical and physical properties, soil water [...] Read more.
The Tarim River Basin, the largest area of Chinese cotton production, is receiving increased attention because of serious environmental problems. At two experimental stations (Korla and Aksu), we studied the influence of salinity on cotton yield. Soil chemical and physical properties, soil water content, soil total suction and matric suction, cotton yield and water use efficiency under plastic mulched drip irrigation in different saline soils was measured during cotton growth season. The salinity (mS·cm−1) were 17–25 (low) at Aksu and Korla, 29–50 (middle) at Aksu and 52–62 (high) at Aksu for ECe (Electrical conductivity measured in saturation-paste extract of soil) over the 100 cm soil profile. The soil water characteristic curves in different saline soils showed that the soil water content (15%–23%) at top 40 cm soil, lower total suction power (below 3500 kPa) and lower matric suction (below 30 kPa) in low saline soil at Korla had the highest water use efficiency (10 kg·ha−1·mm−1) and highest irrigation water use efficiency (12 kg·ha−1·mm−1) and highest yield (6.64 t·ha−1). Higher water content below 30 cm in high saline soil increased the salinity risk and led to lower yield (2.39 t·ha−1). Compared to low saline soils at Aksu, the low saline soil at Korla saved 110 mm irrigation and 103 mm total water to reach 1 t·ha−1 yield and increased water use efficiency by 5 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and 7 kg·ha−1·mm−1 for water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Downscaling of TRMM Precipitation Product Using a Combined Multifractal and Regression Approach: Demonstration for South China
Water 2015, 7(6), 3083-3102; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7063083 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2738
Abstract
The lack of high spatial resolution precipitation data, which are crucial for the modeling and managing of hydrological systems, has triggered many attempts at spatial downscaling. The essence of downscaling lies in extracting extra information from a dataset through some scale-invariant characteristics related [...] Read more.
The lack of high spatial resolution precipitation data, which are crucial for the modeling and managing of hydrological systems, has triggered many attempts at spatial downscaling. The essence of downscaling lies in extracting extra information from a dataset through some scale-invariant characteristics related to the process of interest. While most studies utilize only one source of information, here we propose an approach that integrates two independent information sources, which are characterized by self-similar and relationship with other geo-referenced factors, respectively. This approach is applied to 16 years (1998–2013) of TRMM 3B43 monthly precipitation data in an orographic and monsoon influenced region in South China. Elevation, latitude, and longitude are used as predictive variables in the regression model, while self-similarity is characterized by multifractals and modeled by a log-normal multiplicative random cascade. The original 0.25° precipitation field was downscaled to the 0.01° scale. The result was validated with rain gauge data. Good consistency was achieved on coefficient of determination, bias, and root mean square error. This study contributes to the current precipitation downscaling methodology and is helpful for hydrology and water resources management, especially in areas with insufficient ground gauges. Full article
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Open AccessShort Communication
River Flows in the Ebro Basin: A Century of Evolution, 1913–2013
Water 2015, 7(6), 3072-3082; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7063072 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
The water forecast is a major uncertainty in the design of strategies to cope with potential restrictions and ensure the availability of water, even during extreme events such as drought. In this context, our study aimed to present and analyze an updated broad [...] Read more.
The water forecast is a major uncertainty in the design of strategies to cope with potential restrictions and ensure the availability of water, even during extreme events such as drought. In this context, our study aimed to present and analyze an updated broad temporal and geographical overview of the evolution of river flows for the most important river in Spain, the Ebro river, from 1913 to 2013. Our main findings indicate a decreasing trend in water resources from 1913 to the present, and a significant level of volatility that reveals a striking irregularity, with asymmetric cycles and dry years. These findings question the current irrigation policies and together with a need to rethink their implementation should drive further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Riverflow Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Removal of Metaldehyde from Water Using a Novel Coupled Adsorption and Electrochemical Destruction Technique
Water 2015, 7(6), 3057-3071; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7063057 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2948
Abstract
Metaldehyde is a selective pesticide applied to control snails and slugs and which, particularly when application rates are high and during periods of high rainfall, may find its way into water courses, some of which may be used as drinking water supplies. Existing [...] Read more.
Metaldehyde is a selective pesticide applied to control snails and slugs and which, particularly when application rates are high and during periods of high rainfall, may find its way into water courses, some of which may be used as drinking water supplies. Existing water treatment processes have been inadequate for reducing metaldehyde residual levels (up to 8 µg/L) found in some waters to below the EU/UK statutory limit of 0.1 µg/L. Here a novel coupled adsorption and electrochemical regeneration technology is tested to determine if it is capable of effectively removing metaldehyde. We demonstrate that metaldehyde is not only adsorbed on the adsorbent used but is also destroyed during the regeneration stage, resulting in residual metaldehyde concentrations below the EU/UK regulatory limit for drinking water. No known harmful breakdown by-products were observed to be generated by the process. The effectiveness of the process seems unaffected by organic-rich peat water, indicating the potential for the treatment of drinking water much of which in the UK is derived from upland peaty catchments. Furthermore, successive spiking experiments showed that this technology has the potential to be applied as a continuous process without the generation of substantial waste products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Land Use and Climate Change on Groundwater and Ecosystems at the Middle Reaches of the Tarim River Using the MIKE SHE Integrated Hydrological Model
Water 2015, 7(6), 3040-3056; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7063040 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3720
Abstract
The Tarim basin is a unique ecosystem. The water from the Tarim River supports both wildlife and humans. To analyze the effects of both land use and climate changes on groundwater, a research site was established at Yingibazar, which is a river oasis [...] Read more.
The Tarim basin is a unique ecosystem. The water from the Tarim River supports both wildlife and humans. To analyze the effects of both land use and climate changes on groundwater, a research site was established at Yingibazar, which is a river oasis along the middle section of the Tarim River. A hydrological survey was performed to assess the general water cycle in this area with special emphasis on groundwater replenishment as well as the impact of agricultural irrigation on the riparian natural vegetation with respect to salt transport and depth of groundwater. Although high-resolution input data is scarce for this region, simulation of water cycle processes was performed using the hydrological model MIKE SHE (DHI). The results of the calibrated model show that natural flooding is the major contributor to groundwater recharge. There is also a close interaction between irrigated agricultural areas and the adjacent natural vegetation for groundwater levels and salinity up to 300 m away from the fields. Furthermore, the source of water used for irrigation (i.e., river and/or groundwater) has a high impact on groundwater levels and salt transportation efficiency. The ongoing expansion of agricultural areas is rapidly destroying natural vegetation, floodplains, and their natural flow paths. Our results show that more unstable annual Tarim floods will occur in the future under the background of climate change. Therefore, integrated hydrological simulations were also performed for 2050 and 2100 using MIKE SHE. The results confirm that after the glaciers melt in the Tian Shan Mountains, serious aquifer depletion and environmental degradation will occur in the area, causing great difficulties for the local people. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating Willingness to Pay to Improve Water Supply Services: Application of Contingent Valuation Method
Water 2015, 7(6), 3024-3039; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7063024 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3086
Abstract
Safe water supply is one of the important Millennium Goals. For development of market water supply services, the willingness of consumers to pay is essential. The consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for piped water supply using the contingent valuation (CV) method with different [...] Read more.
Safe water supply is one of the important Millennium Goals. For development of market water supply services, the willingness of consumers to pay is essential. The consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for piped water supply using the contingent valuation (CV) method with different starting point bids was investigated for the Pavlodar Region, Kazakhstan. The results showed that households with access to groundwater (well or borehole water users) perceived this as of good quality. Consumers without access to groundwater used open-source, standpipe or delivered water for which they had to travel and spend time or to pay. Open source water and standpipe water quality was perceived as bad or satisfactory. More than 90% of the consumers were willing to pay for better water quality and regular water supply. The mean WTP was estimated to be about 1120 in bids and about 1590 KZT per household per month in open-ended question format (150 KZT is ~1 USD as of January 2012). The results can be used to better identify the proper technological choice and the level of service to be provided making rural water projects both sustainable and replicable at a larger scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Dry Spells in Southern Italy (Calabria)
Water 2015, 7(6), 3009-3023; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7063009 - 17 Jun 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2116
Abstract
A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, stream flow, groundwater, and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to analyze this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this paper, an investigation of [...] Read more.
A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, stream flow, groundwater, and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to analyze this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this paper, an investigation of the spatial and temporal patterns of dry spells, in a region of southern Italy, has been carried out on a daily precipitation dataset. First, the frequency distributions of the sequences of dry days have been analyzed. Then, the regional areas most affected by dry events have been evaluated at annual and seasonal scale. Finally, the long-term trend of the dry spells has been estimated at annual and seasonal scale. Results show that the lower probabilities of long dry spells occur in the main reliefs of the region, while the highest values have been detected in the Ionian side. The spatial distribution of the mean and maximum length values of the dry spells evidenced a west–east gradient. The trend analysis mainly revealed a negative behavior in the duration of the dry spells at annual scale and a positive trend in the winter period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Rainfall Intensity and Slope Gradient on Runoff and Soil Moisture Content on Different Growing Stages of Spring Maize
Water 2015, 7(6), 2990-3008; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062990 - 17 Jun 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3041
Abstract
The rainfall-runoff process (RRP) is an important part of hydrologic process. There is an effective measure to study RRP through artificial rainfall simulation. This paper describes a study on three growing stages (jointing stage, tasseling stage, and mature stage) of spring maize in [...] Read more.
The rainfall-runoff process (RRP) is an important part of hydrologic process. There is an effective measure to study RRP through artificial rainfall simulation. This paper describes a study on three growing stages (jointing stage, tasseling stage, and mature stage) of spring maize in which simulated rainfall events were used to study the effects of various factors (rainfall intensity and slope gradient) on the RRP. The RRP was tested with three different rainfall intensities (0.67, 1.00, and 1.67 mm/min) and subjected to three different slopes (5°, 15°, and 20°) so as to study RRP characteristics in semiarid regions. Regression analysis was used to study the results of this test. The following key results were obtained: (1) With the increase in rainfall intensity and slope, the increasing relationship with rainfall duration, overland flow, and cumulative runoff, respectively, complied with logarithmic and quadratic functions before reaching stable runoff in each growing stage of spring maize; (2) The runoff coefficient increased with the increase in rainfall intensity and slope in each growing stages of spring maize. The relationship between runoff coefficient, slope, rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, antecedent soil moisture, and vegetation coverage was multivariate and nonlinear; (3) The runoff lag time decreased with the increase in rainfall intensity and slope within the same growing stage. In addition, the relationship between runoff lag time, slope, rainfall intensity, antecedent soil moisture, and vegetation coverage could also be expressed by a multivariate nonlinear equation; (4) The descent rate of soil infiltration rate curve increased with the increased rainfall intensity and slope in the same growing stage. Furthermore, by comparing the Kostiakov, Horton, and Philip models, it was found that the Horton infiltration model was the best for estimating soil infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration under the condition of test. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using Pressure and Alteration Indicators to Assess River Morphological Quality: Case Study of the Prahova River (Romania)
Water 2015, 7(6), 2971-2989; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062971 - 17 Jun 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2124
Abstract
River morphological quality assessment, derived from quantification of human pressures as well as river channel alteration, is a demand of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in terms of integrating hydromorphological elements in defining ecological status. Our study’s aim is to contribute to the [...] Read more.
River morphological quality assessment, derived from quantification of human pressures as well as river channel alteration, is a demand of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in terms of integrating hydromorphological elements in defining ecological status. Our study’s aim is to contribute to the hydromorphological evaluation by proposing indicators and separating classes, based on a revisited Morphological Quality Index (rMQI) protocol. The rMQI is based on 12 indicators of human pressures, 10 indicators of channel form adjustments, and 11 indicators of functionality. The rMQI scoring system allows for the quantification of changes when compared to reference conditions, be they undisturbed or nearly undisturbed by human interventions, with absent channel adjustments and a functioning natural river style. We used the lower, meandering sector of the Prahova River to demonstrate our assessment methodology. The Lower Prahova River suffers from a minor local intervention and a diminishing intensity of fluvial processes specific to a meandering style. Meanders geometry was affected by significant changes that included a decrease in the radius of curvature, width and width–to–mean–depth ratio. We concluded that the Lower Prahova River has a good morphological quality, which is rated as second class on a scale of five levels, from natural to severely modified. We recommend an improvement in the hydromorphological evaluation protocol in Romania by additional indicators for morphological alterations specific to each channel pattern. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comments on Uncertainty in Groundwater Governance in the Volcanic Canary Islands, Spain
Water 2015, 7(6), 2952-2970; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062952 - 17 Jun 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
The uncertainty associated with natural magnitudes and processes is conspicuous in water resources and groundwater evaluation. This uncertainty has an essential component and a part that can be reduced to some extent by increasing knowledge, improving monitoring coverage, continuous elaboration of data and [...] Read more.
The uncertainty associated with natural magnitudes and processes is conspicuous in water resources and groundwater evaluation. This uncertainty has an essential component and a part that can be reduced to some extent by increasing knowledge, improving monitoring coverage, continuous elaboration of data and accuracy and addressing the related economic and social aspects involved. Reducing uncertainty has a cost that may not be justified by the improvement that is obtainable, but that has to be known to make the right decisions. With this idea, this paper contributes general comments on the evaluation of groundwater resources in the semiarid Canary Islands and on some of the main sources of uncertainty, but a full treatment is not attempted, nor how to reduce it. Although the point of view is local, these comments may help to address similar situations on other islands where similar problems appear. A consequence of physical and hydrological uncertainty is that different hydrogeological and water resource studies and evaluations may yield different results. Understanding and coarsely evaluating uncertainty helps in reducing administrative instability, poor decisions that may harm groundwater property rights, the rise of complaints and the sub-optimal use of the scarce water resources available in semiarid areas. Transparency and honesty are needed, but especially a clear understanding of what numbers mean and the uncertainty around them, to act soundly and avoid conflicting and damaging rigid attitudes. However, the different situations could condition that what may be good in a place, may not always be the case in other places. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity and Interaction Analysis Based on Sobol’ Method and Its Application in a Distributed Flood Forecasting Model
Water 2015, 7(6), 2924-2951; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062924 - 17 Jun 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Sensitivity analysis is a fundamental approach to identify the most significant and sensitive parameters, helping us to understand complex hydrological models, particularly for time-consuming distributed flood forecasting models based on complicated theory with numerous parameters. Based on Sobol’ method, this study compared the [...] Read more.
Sensitivity analysis is a fundamental approach to identify the most significant and sensitive parameters, helping us to understand complex hydrological models, particularly for time-consuming distributed flood forecasting models based on complicated theory with numerous parameters. Based on Sobol’ method, this study compared the sensitivity and interactions of distributed flood forecasting model parameters with and without accounting for correlation. Four objective functions: (1) Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (ENS); (2) water balance coefficient (WB); (3) peak discharge efficiency (EP); and (4) time to peak efficiency (ETP) were implemented to the Liuxihe model with hourly rainfall-runoff data collected in the Nanhua Creek catchment, Pearl River, China. Contrastive results for the sensitivity and interaction analysis were also illustrated among small, medium, and large flood magnitudes. Results demonstrated that the choice of objective functions had no effect on the sensitivity classification, while it had great influence on the sensitivity ranking for both uncorrelated and correlated cases. The Liuxihe model behaved and responded uniquely to various flood conditions. The results also indicated that the pairwise parameters interactions revealed a non-ignorable contribution to the model output variance. Parameters with high first or total order sensitivity indices presented a corresponding high second order sensitivity indices and correlation coefficients with other parameters. Without considering parameter correlations, the variance contributions of highly sensitive parameters might be underestimated and those of normally sensitive parameters might be overestimated. This research laid a basic foundation to improve the understanding of complex model behavior. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Welfare Effects of Water Variability in Agriculture. Insights from a Multimarket Model
Water 2015, 7(6), 2908-2923; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062908 - 16 Jun 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to assess the welfare effects of climate change on the Chilean agricultural sector, with special focus on changes in water availability. The productive impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector are well analyzed at both a [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research is to assess the welfare effects of climate change on the Chilean agricultural sector, with special focus on changes in water availability. The productive impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector are well analyzed at both a global and national level. There is, however, a lack of evidence about the aggregated impacts, considering both demand and supply. This study tries to fill this gap by using a multimarket model, specifically designed for the Chilean agricultural sector. According to our results, changes in water availability will have modest welfare impacts, with an average decrease of total surplus of 4.3%, minor price changes (around −1%), and no significant impacts on total agricultural land. Despite the small aggregated effects, it is expected that climate change will have uneven consequences across regions and activities. For instance, even though the southern zone (zone 3) shows the smallest income changes −14% (average), the impacts within the zone range from 1% to 52% decrease in agricultural net income. This situation suggests large distributional consequences of climate change for the Chilean agricultural sector. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Contribution of Water Saving to a Stable Power Supply in Vietnam
Water 2015, 7(6), 2900-2907; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062900 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2025
Abstract
In Vietnam, the rapid expansion of cities is exceeding the supply capacity for water and electricity, and restrictions on water supply and blackouts occur on a daily basis. In this study, the authors examined whether water-saving equipment could solve these problems. This paper [...] Read more.
In Vietnam, the rapid expansion of cities is exceeding the supply capacity for water and electricity, and restrictions on water supply and blackouts occur on a daily basis. In this study, the authors examined whether water-saving equipment could solve these problems. This paper focused on toilet bowls that consumed a large amount of water, and on showers for which heat consumption was high. In Vietnam, the main heat source for showers is the electric water heater, typically having a power consumption of 2500–4500 W. Although the current diffusion rate of such water heaters is just 13%, their use will spread widely in the future. These heaters have already placed a peak load on electricity consumption in winter when a large amount of energy is consumed for heating water, and they will become a significant factor in blackout risks as their use becomes commonplace nationwide. It is clear that the introduction of water-saving showers will allow not only a more efficient use of water resources, but will also mitigate against the risk of blackouts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Impacts of Climate Change and Human Activities on Water-Surface Area Variations from the 1990s to 2013 in Honghu Lake, China
Water 2015, 7(6), 2881-2899; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062881 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
The water-surface areas of the lakes in the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, have undergone significant changes under the combined impacts of global climate change and local anthropogenic stress. As a typical lake in this region, the Honghu Lake features water-surface [...] Read more.
The water-surface areas of the lakes in the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, have undergone significant changes under the combined impacts of global climate change and local anthropogenic stress. As a typical lake in this region, the Honghu Lake features water-surface area variations that are documented in this study based on high–resolution remote sensing images from the 1990s to 2013. The impact of human activities is analyzed by a novel method based on land use data. The relative impacts of each driving force are further distinguished by the statistical analysis method. Results show that the water-surface area has significant inter-annual and seasonal variabilities, and the minimum of which generally occurs in spring. The degree to which climate factors and land use structure affect the water-surface area varies between different stages. In the April-May period, the sum of the water demands of paddies and aquaculture has a negative effect that is greater than the positive effect of the difference between the monthly precipitation and monthly evaporation. In the June–October period, the precipitation features a positive impact that is greater than the negative effect of the water demand of agriculture. Meanwhile, climate factors and human activities have no influence on the lake area in the November–March period. With the land use being altered when annual precipitations are close in value, paddy field areas decrease, ponds areas increase, and the water demand of agriculture rises in both flood and drought years. These findings provide scientific foundation for understanding the causes of water-surface area variations and for effectively maintaining the stability of the Honghu Lake area through adjustments in land use structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Criteria Model Selection Protocol for Practical Applications to Nutrient Transport at the Catchment Scale
Water 2015, 7(6), 2851-2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062851 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2536
Abstract
Process-based models are widely used to investigate nutrient dynamics for water management purposes. Simulating nutrient transport and transformation processes from agricultural land into water bodies at the catchment scale are particularly relevant and challenging tasks for water authorities. However, few practical methods guide [...] Read more.
Process-based models are widely used to investigate nutrient dynamics for water management purposes. Simulating nutrient transport and transformation processes from agricultural land into water bodies at the catchment scale are particularly relevant and challenging tasks for water authorities. However, few practical methods guide inexperienced modelers in the selection process of an appropriate model. In particular, data availability is a key aspect in a model selection protocol, since a large number of models contain the functionalities to predict nutrient fate and transport, yet a smaller number is applicable to specific datasets. In our work, we aim at providing a model selection protocol fit for practical application with particular emphasis on data availability, cost-benefit analysis and user’s objectives. We select for illustrative purposes five process-based models with different complexity as “candidates” models: SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model), GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Function), AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution model) and HSPF (Hydrological simulation program-FORTRAN). The models are described in terms of hydrological and chemical output and input requirements. The model selection protocol considers data availability, model characteristics and user’s objectives and it is applied to hypothetical scenarios. This selection method is particularly formulated to choose process-based models for nutrient modeling, but it can be generalized for other applications which are characterized by a similar degree of complexity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydraulic Behavior and Chemical Characterization of Lapilli as Material for Natural Filtering of Slurry
Water 2015, 7(6), 2840-2850; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062840 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2008
Abstract
Livestock effluents are a beneficial nutrient supply for crops, whereby their use is critical to ensure the sustainability of the farms global management. However, they can cause serious ecological problems if misused, polluting soils and groundwater. Combining “soft technology” and local materials is [...] Read more.
Livestock effluents are a beneficial nutrient supply for crops, whereby their use is critical to ensure the sustainability of the farms global management. However, they can cause serious ecological problems if misused, polluting soils and groundwater. Combining “soft technology” and local materials is a low cost solution in terms of finance and energy. The REAGUA project (REuso AGUA, Water reuse in Spanish) analyzes the possibility of using “picon” (lapilli) as a material for the treatment of liquid manure from ruminants, for later use in subsurface drip irrigation system to produce forage and biofuels, in which the soil acts as a subsequent advanced treatment. A three-phase system, in which the effluent was poured with a vertical subsurface flow in an unsaturated medium, is designed. In order to determine the management conditions that optimize the filter, it was necessary to characterize the hydraulic behavior of lapilli and its ability to remove substances. Using three lapilli-filled columns, unsaturated flux, and a ruminant effluent, the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days (BOD5) and ammonia, phosphorus and suspension solids (SS) obtained was over 80%, 90%, and 95% respectively, assumable values for irrigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
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Open AccessArticle
Large-Scale Hydrological Modeling and Decision-Making for Agricultural Water Consumption and Allocation in the Main Stem Tarim River, China
Water 2015, 7(6), 2821-2839; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062821 - 12 Jun 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2954
Abstract
A large-scale hydrological model (MIKE HYDRO) was established for the purpose of sustainable agricultural water management in the main stem Tarim River, located in northwest China. In this arid region, agricultural water consumption and allocation management are crucial to address the conflicts among [...] Read more.
A large-scale hydrological model (MIKE HYDRO) was established for the purpose of sustainable agricultural water management in the main stem Tarim River, located in northwest China. In this arid region, agricultural water consumption and allocation management are crucial to address the conflicts among irrigation water users from upstream to downstream. The results of model calibration indicated a close correlation between simulated and observed values. Scenarios with the change on irrigation strategies and land use distributions were investigated. Irrigation scenarios revealed that the available irrigation water has significant and varying effects on the yields of different crops. Irrigation water saving could reach up to 40% in the water-saving irrigation scenario. Land use scenarios illustrated that an increase of farmland area in the lower reach gravely aggravated the water deficit, while a decrease of farmland in the upper reaches resulted in considerable benefits for all sub-catchments. A substitution of crops was also investigated, which demonstrated the potential for saving considerable amounts of irrigation water in upper and middle reaches. Overall, the results of this study provide a scientific basis for decision-making on agricultural water consumption and allocation in the study area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Climate or Land Use?—Attribution of Changes in River Flooding in the Sahel Zone
Water 2015, 7(6), 2796-2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062796 - 12 Jun 2015
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2976
Abstract
This study intends to contribute to the ongoing discussion on whether land use and land cover changes (LULC) or climate trends have the major influence on the observed increase of flood magnitudes in the Sahel. A simulation-based approach is used for attributing the [...] Read more.
This study intends to contribute to the ongoing discussion on whether land use and land cover changes (LULC) or climate trends have the major influence on the observed increase of flood magnitudes in the Sahel. A simulation-based approach is used for attributing the observed trends to the postulated drivers. For this purpose, the ecohydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) with a new, dynamic LULC module was set up for the Sahelian part of the Niger River until Niamey, including the main tributaries Sirba and Goroul. The model was driven with observed, reanalyzed climate and LULC data for the years 1950–2009. In order to quantify the shares of influence, one simulation was carried out with constant land cover as of 1950, and one including LULC. As quantitative measure, the gradients of the simulated trends were compared to the observed trend. The modeling studies showed that for the Sirba River only the simulation which included LULC was able to reproduce the observed trend. The simulation without LULC showed a positive trend for flood magnitudes, but underestimated the trend significantly. For the Goroul River and the local flood of the Niger River at Niamey, the simulations were only partly able to reproduce the observed trend. In conclusion, the new LULC module enabled some first quantitative insights into the relative influence of LULC and climatic changes. For the Sirba catchment, the results imply that LULC and climatic changes contribute in roughly equal shares to the observed increase in flooding. For the other parts of the subcatchment, the results are less clear but show, that climatic changes and LULC are drivers for the flood increase; however their shares cannot be quantified. Based on these modeling results, we argue for a two-pillar adaptation strategy to reduce current and future flood risk: Flood mitigation for reducing LULC-induced flood increase, and flood adaptation for a general reduction of flood vulnerability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydro-Ecological Modeling) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Mix Inexact-Quadratic Fuzzy Water Resources Management Model of Floodplain (IQT-WMMF) for Regional Sustainable Development of Dahuangbaowa, China
Water 2015, 7(6), 2771-2795; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062771 - 12 Jun 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
In this study, a mix inexact-quadratic fuzzy water resources management model of floodplain (IQT-WMMF) has developed, through incorporating techniques of credibility-constrained programming (CP), two-stage programming (TP), interval-parameter programming (IPP) and quadratic programming (QP) within a general framework for limited data availability. The IQT-WMMF [...] Read more.
In this study, a mix inexact-quadratic fuzzy water resources management model of floodplain (IQT-WMMF) has developed, through incorporating techniques of credibility-constrained programming (CP), two-stage programming (TP), interval-parameter programming (IPP) and quadratic programming (QP) within a general framework for limited data availability. The IQT-WMMF can provide an effective linkage between system benefit and the associated economic penalty attributed to the violation of the pre-regulated water target under limited data availabilities expressed probabilistic distributions and interval values; meanwhile, imprecise and no-linear economic data would be resolved. The developed method is applied to a real case of planning water resources in the Dahuangbaowa floodplain, China, with the aim to develop a sustainable water resources management in the study region. A number of scenarios with wet land expansion strategies under various credibility levels are analyzed, implying that different policies can lead to varied water-allocation patterns, system benefits, and system-failure risks. The results discover that water deficits and flood damages have brought negative effects on economic development synchronously, which need to effective plans to reduce losses of shortages and floods for achieving higher system benefits. Tradeoffs between economic benefit and system-failure risk can support generating an increased robustness in risk control for water resources allocation under uncertainties, which is beneficial to adjust the current water-allocation sustainably. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Discharge Alterations of the Mures River, Romania under Ensembles of Future Climate Projections and Sequential Threats to Aquatic Ecosystem by the End of the Century
Water 2015, 7(6), 2753-2770; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062753 - 09 Jun 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
This study aims to assess the potential alterations in the hydrological regime attributed to projected climate change in one of the largest rivers in the Carpathian Area, the Mures River, and to estimate associated threats to riverine ecosystem. The eco-hydrological model, Soil and [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess the potential alterations in the hydrological regime attributed to projected climate change in one of the largest rivers in the Carpathian Area, the Mures River, and to estimate associated threats to riverine ecosystem. The eco-hydrological model, Soil and Water Integrated Model (SWIM), was applied on the Mures River basin, calibrated and validated against records at a gauging station in Alba-Julia town. A set of nine future projections for climatic parameters under one emissions scenario A1B over the period 1971–2100 were fed into the SWIM model. To provide functional link between hydrological regimes and riverine ecosystems, each of the nine simulated discharge time series were introduced into the IHA (Indicators of Hydrological Alterations) tool. Triggered changes in hydrological patterns of the Mures River were assessed at the basin and sub-basin scales. The obtained results present a strong agreement through all nine climate projections; suggesting an increase in the discharge of Mures River for the winter season; a decrease in summer and prolongation of the low flow periods by the end of the century. Anticipated changes would pose threats to aquatic ecosystems; altering normal life-cycles; and depleting natural habitats of species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Costs of Benefit Sharing: Historical and Institutional Analysis of Shared Water Development in the Ferghana Valley, the Syr Darya Basin
Water 2015, 7(6), 2728-2752; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062728 - 09 Jun 2015
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3592
Abstract
Ongoing discussions on water-energy-food nexus generally lack a historical perspective and more rigorous institutional analysis. Scrutinizing a relatively mature benefit sharing approach in the context of transboundary water management, the study shows how such analysis can be implemented to facilitate understanding in an [...] Read more.
Ongoing discussions on water-energy-food nexus generally lack a historical perspective and more rigorous institutional analysis. Scrutinizing a relatively mature benefit sharing approach in the context of transboundary water management, the study shows how such analysis can be implemented to facilitate understanding in an environment of high institutional and resource complexity. Similar to system perspective within nexus, benefit sharing is viewed as a positive sum approach capable of facilitating cooperation among riparian parties by shifting the focus from the quantities of water to benefits derivable from its use and allocation. While shared benefits from use and allocation are logical corollary of the most fundamental principles of international water law, there are still many controversies as to the conditions under which benefit sharing could serve best as an approach. Recently, the approach has been receiving wider attention in the literature and is increasingly applied in various basins to enhance negotiations. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the costs associated with benefit sharing, particularly in the long run. The study provides a number of concerns that have been likely overlooked in the literature and examines the approach in the case of the Ferghana Valley shared by Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan utilizing data for the period from 1917 to 2013. Institutional analysis traces back the origins of property rights of the transboundary infrastructure, shows cooperative activities and fierce negotiations on various governance levels. The research discusses implications of the findings for the nexus debate and unveils at least four types of costs associated with benefit sharing: (1) Costs related to equity of sharing (horizontal and vertical); (2) Costs to the environment; (3) Transaction costs and risks of losing water control; and (4) Costs as a result of likely misuse of issue linkages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Disaggregation of Areal Rainfall Using Two Different Artificial Neural Networks Models
Water 2015, 7(6), 2707-2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062707 - 05 Jun 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2454
Abstract
The objective of this study is to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models, including multilayer perceptron (MLP) and Kohonen self-organizing feature map (KSOFM), for spatial disaggregation of areal rainfall in the Wi-stream catchment, an International Hydrological Program (IHP) representative catchment, in South Korea. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models, including multilayer perceptron (MLP) and Kohonen self-organizing feature map (KSOFM), for spatial disaggregation of areal rainfall in the Wi-stream catchment, an International Hydrological Program (IHP) representative catchment, in South Korea. A three-layer MLP model, using three training algorithms, was used to estimate areal rainfall. The Levenberg–Marquardt training algorithm was found to be more sensitive to the number of hidden nodes than were the conjugate gradient and quickprop training algorithms using the MLP model. Results showed that the networks structures of 11-5-1 (conjugate gradient and quickprop) and 11-3-1 (Levenberg-Marquardt) were the best for estimating areal rainfall using the MLP model. The networks structures of 1-5-11 (conjugate gradient and quickprop) and 1-3-11 (Levenberg–Marquardt), which are the inverse networks for estimating areal rainfall using the best MLP model, were identified for spatial disaggregation of areal rainfall using the MLP model. The KSOFM model was compared with the MLP model for spatial disaggregation of areal rainfall. The MLP and KSOFM models could disaggregate areal rainfall into individual point rainfall with spatial concepts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Subgrid Parameterization of the Soil Moisture Storage Capacity for a Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Model
Water 2015, 7(6), 2691-2706; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062691 - 29 May 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
Spatial variability plays an important role in nonlinear hydrologic processes. Due to the limitation of computational efficiency and data resolution, subgrid variability is usually assumed to be uniform for most grid-based rainfall-runoff models, which leads to the scale-dependence of model performances. In this [...] Read more.
Spatial variability plays an important role in nonlinear hydrologic processes. Due to the limitation of computational efficiency and data resolution, subgrid variability is usually assumed to be uniform for most grid-based rainfall-runoff models, which leads to the scale-dependence of model performances. In this paper, the scale effect on the Grid-Xinanjiang model was examined. The bias of the estimation of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture at the different grid scales, along with the scale-dependence of the effective parameters, highlights the importance of well representing the subgrid variability. This paper presents a subgrid parameterization method to incorporate the subgrid variability of the soil storage capacity, which is a key variable that controls runoff generation and partitioning in the Grid-Xinanjiang model. In light of the similar spatial pattern and physical basis, the soil storage capacity is correlated with the topographic index, whose spatial distribution can more readily be measured. A beta distribution is introduced to represent the spatial distribution of the soil storage capacity within the grid. The results derived from the Yanduhe Basin show that the proposed subgrid parameterization method can effectively correct the watershed soil storage capacity curve. Compared to the original Grid-Xinanjiang model, the model performances are quite consistent at the different grid scales when the subgrid variability is incorporated. This subgrid parameterization method reduces the recalibration necessity when the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution is changed. Moreover, it improves the potential for the application of the distributed model in the ungauged basin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tracing the Sources and Processes of Groundwater in an Alpine Glacierized Region in Southwest China: Evidence from Environmental Isotopes
Water 2015, 7(6), 2673-2690; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062673 - 29 May 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1881
Abstract
The melting of alpine snow and glaciers is an important hydrologic process on Mount Gongga, China. The relevance of ice-snow melt to the groundwater recharge in the glacierized Hailuogou watershed is so far not well known. To better understand the origin of groundwater [...] Read more.
The melting of alpine snow and glaciers is an important hydrologic process on Mount Gongga, China. The relevance of ice-snow melt to the groundwater recharge in the glacierized Hailuogou watershed is so far not well known. To better understand the origin of groundwater and the hydrological interactions between groundwater, meltwater, and precipitation in this region, 148 environmental isotopic data of water samples were analyzed for changes in isotopic composition. The results indicate that the groundwater contains a uniform isotopic signature, with δ18O values between −13.5‰ and −11.1‰ and δ2H values between −90‰ and −75‰. The mean stable isotopic composition of groundwater is heavier than that of ice-snow meltwater but lighter than that of precipitation. The effect of evaporation on the isotopic variation of groundwater is very limited and the seasonal isotope variations in precipitation are attenuated in groundwater. A model based on the δ18O results suggests that approximately 35% of the groundwater is derived from ice-snow meltwater sources. The study demonstrates that ice-snow meltwater is a substantial source of shallow groundwater in the alpine regions on the edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Areal Distribution of Ammonium Contamination of Soil-Water Environment in the Vicinity of Old Municipal Landfill Site with Vertical Barrier
Water 2015, 7(6), 2656-2672; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062656 - 29 May 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2319
Abstract
The content of the paper is focused on determining the influence of an old municipal landfill site on the pollution of soil and groundwater by ammonium. The assessment of the influence was conducted on piezometric recording basis, laboratory tests and site investigation, which [...] Read more.
The content of the paper is focused on determining the influence of an old municipal landfill site on the pollution of soil and groundwater by ammonium. The assessment of the influence was conducted on piezometric recording basis, laboratory tests and site investigation, which gave information on contamination level and direction of pollutants migration. Based on the groundwater monitoring results, several maps of groundwater level changes were created. Moreover, mapping of ammonium distribution and migration paths within Lubna Landfill surroundings was also provided. The monitoring data show improvement of water quality in almost every piezometer after only a few years from when groundwater protection system was installed at the site. It indicates that reduction of ammonium within the vicinity of the landfill is continuously progressing in time. On the basis of the results obtained, the magnitude of variability in pollutant migration and changes in concentration, as well as efficiency of the vertical barrier were assessed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Institutions and Management in Cape Verde
Water 2015, 7(6), 2641-2655; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062641 - 29 May 2015
Viewed by 1828
Abstract
The water-management model used in Cape Verde for irrigation water is a singular one involving both public and private institutions. The institutional framework adopted since independence (1975) includes influences of both Portuguese colonial occupation and African culture. Water is a common-pool resource, [...] Read more.
The water-management model used in Cape Verde for irrigation water is a singular one involving both public and private institutions. The institutional framework adopted since independence (1975) includes influences of both Portuguese colonial occupation and African culture. Water is a common-pool resource, which can take the form of communal, private or state property, or not be subject to any form of ownership. Thus, this case study enables us to compare theories about managing. From a neo-liberal point of view, the common administration of resources of this kind is inefficient, but for one school of the institutional theory, solutions can come “from within”; in other words, from user groups themselves, who can co-operate, once they have defined commitments. Research based on surveys and interviews with private sector administrators leads to the conclusion that user association management is successful, whereas, individual management can lead to squandering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Effects of Mulch and Irrigation Amount on Soil Water Distribution and Root Zone Water Balance Using HYDRUS-2D
Water 2015, 7(6), 2622-2640; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062622 - 29 May 2015
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3285
Abstract
Water scarcity is the most critical constraint for sustainable cotton production in Xinjiang Province, northwest China. Drip irrigation under mulch is a major water-saving irrigation method that has been widely practiced for cotton production in Xinjiang. The performance of such an irrigation system [...] Read more.
Water scarcity is the most critical constraint for sustainable cotton production in Xinjiang Province, northwest China. Drip irrigation under mulch is a major water-saving irrigation method that has been widely practiced for cotton production in Xinjiang. The performance of such an irrigation system should be evaluated for proper design and management. Therefore, a field experiment and a simulation study were conducted to (1) determine a modeling approach that can be applied to manage drip irrigation under mulch for cotton production in this region; and (2) examine the effects of irrigation amount and mulch on soil water distribution and root zone water balance components. In the experiment, four irrigation treatments were used: T1, 166.5 m3; T2, 140.4 m3; T3, 115.4 m3; and T4: 102.3 m3. The HYDRUS-2D model was calibrated, validated, and applied with the data obtained in this experiment. Soil water balance in the 0–70 cm soil profile was simulated. Results indicate that the observed soil water content and the simulated results obtained with HYDRUS-2D are in good agreement. The radius of the wetting pattern, root water uptake, and evaporation decreased as the amount of irrigation was reduced from T1 to T4, while a lot of stored soil water in the root zone was utilized and a huge amount of water was recharged from the layer below 70 cm to compensate for the decrease in irrigation amount. Mulch significantly reduced evaporation by 11.7 mm and increased root water uptake by 11.2 mm. Our simulation study suggests that this model can be applied to provide assistance in designing drip irrigation systems and developing irrigation strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Water Use in Fodder Production
Water 2015, 7(6), 2612-2621; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7062612 - 27 May 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1923
Abstract
Water deficit in semi-arid regions limits the future of the livestock sector. Also, its high price represents a percentage of the total cost of forage production. Non-conventional water resources applied by subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), in which the safe use lies in the [...] Read more.
Water deficit in semi-arid regions limits the future of the livestock sector. Also, its high price represents a percentage of the total cost of forage production. Non-conventional water resources applied by subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), in which the safe use lies in the management and not on the level of water treatment, would enhance the ruminant production sustainability. To obtain the optimal benefit, the transformation of water per kilogram of dry matter produced must have a high grade of effectiveness. Under this premise, a maralfalfa crop (Penissetum sp, hybridum) has been established with an SDI system and reclaimed water. Forage yield is analyzed with respect to a 40% irrigation reduction. This study shows that, with the use of these good irrigation management practices, it is possible to harvest an annual production of 90 to 72 t·ha−1 in the warmer regions of the Canary Islands. This implies water consumption between 13,200 and 8100 m3·ha−1. A water consumption of 21,000 m3·ha−1 per year for the same production, at a ratio of 230 L·t−1, can be estimated for the rest of the Canary Islands coastal regions. The use of the water management described in this paper can be profitable in the Canary Islands for fodder production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
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