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Water, Volume 16, Issue 9 (May-1 2024) – 122 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In light of recent catastrophic sediment-related disasters in Japan, a groundbreaking study has emerged, targeting the development of innovative sediment control measures for non-flowing mountain streams. Conducted by a collaboration between researchers at several Japanese universities and engineers, the study introduces secondary manufactured permeable debris flow barriers as a promising solution. These barriers not only significantly enhance sediment capture but also mitigate the impact of potential debris flows on downstream communities. Findings suggest that the integration of such barriers can dramatically improve safety and environmental outcomes by stabilizing sediment without obstructing natural water flow. This approach emphasizes the need for sustainable engineering solutions in mountainous regions, where traditional sediment control methods may fall short. View this paper
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23 pages, 466 KiB  
Article
Direct-Injection UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of 78 Illegal Drugs and Psychoactive Substances in Domestic Wastewater
by Kan Li, Yiling Hu, Yuke Jiang, Xing Han, Xin Liu and Mingluo Du
Water 2024, 16(9), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091315 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 634
Abstract
The determination of illegal drugs and psychoactive substances in wastewater is increasingly being used to monitor the use of both by populations in specific areas. This article describes a method for the simultaneous determination of 78 illegal drugs and psychoactive substances in wastewater [...] Read more.
The determination of illegal drugs and psychoactive substances in wastewater is increasingly being used to monitor the use of both by populations in specific areas. This article describes a method for the simultaneous determination of 78 illegal drugs and psychoactive substances in wastewater using direct-injection ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). This method includes the analysis of stimulants, opioids, antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, anti-anxiety drugs, and hallucinogens. The method was validated in terms of the selectivity, calibration range, recovery, matrix effects, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99 for all analytes, and the calibration range was from 0.2 to 500 ng/L. The LOD and LOQ of this method were 0.1–1 ng/L and 0.2–5 ng/L, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <9.3% and 11.4%, respectively, and the recovery ranged from 81.3% to 117.7%. The method was applied to real domestic wastewater collected from wastewater treatment plants, and the results showed that morphine, codeine, and ephedrine were detected in all samples. Some samples also contained other illegal drugs and psychoactive substances (such as etomidate, methamphetamine, ketamine, and tramadol). This indicates that the direct-injection UHPLC-MS/MS method can be used for the rapid determination of illegal drugs and psychoactive substances in wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater-Based Epidemiology (WBE) Research)
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16 pages, 2552 KiB  
Article
Nejayote and Food Waste Leachate as a Medium for Scenedesmus acutus and Haematococcus pluvialis Production: A Mixture Experimental Design
by Elizabeth Garza-Valverde, Celestino García-Gómez, Juan Nápoles-Armenta, Luis Samaniego-Moreno, Edgardo Martínez-Orozco and Celia De La Mora-Orozco
Water 2024, 16(9), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091314 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 487
Abstract
The wastewaters of nejayote and food waste leachate are polluting effluents with a high load of organic matter that cause great problems when discharged to water receptors. In this work, we investigated the treatment of nejayote wastewaters and food waste leachate for the [...] Read more.
The wastewaters of nejayote and food waste leachate are polluting effluents with a high load of organic matter that cause great problems when discharged to water receptors. In this work, we investigated the treatment of nejayote wastewaters and food waste leachate for the production of microalgae Scenedesmus acutus and Haematococcus pluvialis. For Scenedesmus acutus, treatment with 10% food waste leachate and 90% growth medium resulted in a concentration of 5.34 g/L in 20 days (μmax = 0.16/day). Meanwhile, 10% nejayote and 90% medium growth produced 4.45 g/L at 20 days (μmax = 0.13/d). A significant reduction of up to 82.6% ammonium, 84.1% orthophosphate, and 87.25% COD was also observed between the different treatments. For Haematococcus pluvialis, the treatment of 90% food waste leachate and 10% growth medium produced a concentration of 4.73 g/L at 6 days (μmax = 0.71/day), while the mixture of 25% najayote, 25% food waste leachate, and 50% growth medium produced a concentration of 5.5 g/L at 20 days (μmax = 0.25/dat). A reduction of up to 97.8% ammonia, 97.4% orthophosphate, and 73.19% COD was also recorded. These findings demonstrated the potential to cultivate microalgae and extract biomolecules for commercial purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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17 pages, 3685 KiB  
Article
Cleansing Tannery Effluent with Pleurotus opuntiae: A Green Solution for Environmental Restoration and Toxicity Evaluation
by Priyanka Yadav, Vartika Mishra, Tejmani Kumar, Umesh Kumar Singh, Emanuel Vamanu and Mohan Prasad Singh
Water 2024, 16(9), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091313 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Heavy metal contamination has emerged as a global environmental concern, with tannery effluents serving as a significant source of these pollutants. The discharge of tannery effluents (TEs) into natural ecosystems has given rise to a spectrum of catastrophic risks, exacerbating concerns related to [...] Read more.
Heavy metal contamination has emerged as a global environmental concern, with tannery effluents serving as a significant source of these pollutants. The discharge of tannery effluents (TEs) into natural ecosystems has given rise to a spectrum of catastrophic risks, exacerbating concerns related to public health, safety, and environmental integrity. This current study focuses on the mycoremediation of the heavy metals present in TE, employing the mycelia of Pleurotus opuntiae, an environmentally sustainable solution. The toxicity of TE was rigorously characterized by evaluating a range of physicochemical parameters in accordance with the American Standard and Testing Methods. Subsequently, various diluted concentrations of effluent (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were incorporated into MDA media to assess the tolerance index (TI) of P. opuntiae. Notably, the highest TI was observed in the 25% and 50% TE concentrations, while no growth was observed in the 75% and 100% groups due to the exceptionally elevated heavy metal content. P. opuntiae demonstrated remarkable efficacy in heavy metal removal, with the most substantial reductions recorded in the 25% diluted effluent (91.3% Pb, 72.2% Cr and 66.5% Zn), closely followed by the 50% diluted effluent. The highest intracellular bioaccumulation was observed for Pb (17.2 µg/g), outperforming Cr (14.5 µg/g) and Zn (8.5 µg/g) in mycelia grown in 25% diluted effluent. To elucidate the detoxification mechanisms underlying metal removal, various characterizations of the mycelium were conducted, including SEM, FTIR, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, LC–MS analysis shed light on the pivotal role of metabolites in regulating heavy metals within the physiological metabolism of P. opuntiae. Moreover, an upsurge in the concentration of the stress marker, metallothionein, and augmented activity of antioxidant enzymes, like SOD, CAT, LPO and GSH, collectively suggested the significant role of antioxidants in mitigating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heavy metal toxicity. These comprehensive findings provide a solid foundation for understanding the mechanisms responsible for heavy metal removal by P. opuntiae and pave the way for the development of effective remediation strategies for decontaminating the effluents discharged by the leather industry, contributing to the preservation of our environment and to public well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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16 pages, 5551 KiB  
Article
Treatment of Pickle Wastewater under Varying Salinity Conditions within the Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor System
by Nuonan Shen, Hongyun Guo, Tingting Yao, Li Xu, Youxian Gao and Ping Yang
Water 2024, 16(9), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091312 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Pickle wastewater is a highly saline organic effluent that poses a significant ecological risk. In this study, a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was used to treat such wastewater, and a denitrification system capable of simultaneously removing high levels of nitrogen and organic [...] Read more.
Pickle wastewater is a highly saline organic effluent that poses a significant ecological risk. In this study, a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was used to treat such wastewater, and a denitrification system capable of simultaneously removing high levels of nitrogen and organic matter was successfully established. Through salinity incremental increase, the system operated stably, and the removal rates of COD, TN, and NH4+-N could be maintained at about 96%, 93%, and 99% under the salinity of 3.0%. The effect of salinity on the structure and function of microbial communities in the reactor was investigated by high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that increasing salinity could reduce the diversity, change the structure, and reduce the functionality of the microbial community. Under high-salt conditions (salt content of 3.0%), salt-tolerant microorganisms such as Actinobacteriota became dominant populations. As salinity increased, NOB (nitrite oxidizing bacteria) was strongly inhibited, and its abundance decreased rapidly until it disappeared. Partial nitrification–denitrification (PND) gradually became the main denitrification pathway. In conclusion, this experiment not only shows that SBBR treatment of pickle wastewater has strong feasibility, but also provides a theoretical research basis for the engineering treatment of pickle wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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23 pages, 4224 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Water Footprints (WFPs) of Agricultural Products across Arid Regions: Insights and Implications for Sustainable Farming
by Saeed Sharafi, Mohammad Javad Nahvinia and Fatemeh Salehi
Water 2024, 16(9), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091311 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 809
Abstract
Water resource management has emerged as a pivotal concern within arid regions in recent times. The water footprint (WFP) index stands out as a principal gauge for facilitating comprehensive watershed management. This study endeavors to compute the WFP of diverse agricultural products encompassing [...] Read more.
Water resource management has emerged as a pivotal concern within arid regions in recent times. The water footprint (WFP) index stands out as a principal gauge for facilitating comprehensive watershed management. This study endeavors to compute the WFP of diverse agricultural products encompassing major crops, orchards, cucurbits, and medicinal plants across arid regions. This research focuses on three distinct climate scenarios: the Shazand Plain with a semidry climate, the Khomein Plain characterized by a dry climate, and the Saveh Plain exhibiting a very dry climate. This study also seeks to ascertain the climate most conducive to cultivating crops from a WFP (green, blue, and gray) perspective. To achieve these objectives, this study employed the CropWat family software to determine crop water requirements, as well as considering crop yield and relevant parameters for calculations. The findings of the investigation unveiled that the cultivated areas in the respective climates amounted to 19,479 ha (semidry), 18,166 ha (dry), and 41,682 ha (very dry). These areas were allocated as follows: 88%, 85%, and 55% for crops; 11%, 13%, and 40% for orchards; and 1%, 2%, and 5% for cucurbit crops. Importantly, the very dry climate was predisposed to allocating more land for low-water-demand orchards. Among the major crops, wheat occupied 44%, 39%, and 43% of the total areas in the semidry, dry, and very dry climates, respectively. Analyzing the overall agricultural output in these climates, it was revealed that over 79%, 69%, and 66% of production correlated with crops; 17%, 19%, and 22% with orchards; and 4%, 12%, and 12% with cucurbits, respectively. In terms of water consumption, maize and apples emerged as the highest performers, with varying consumption patterns across different crops. Interestingly, canola exhibited a substantially higher WFP, surpassing wheat and barley by 56.48% and 58.85%, respectively, in dry climates. Cucurbit crops, on the other hand, displayed a lower WFP in dry climates, which could potentially encourage their cultivation. The influence of climate warming on canola’s WFPgray introduced complexity, challenging the conventional correlation between WFP and yields. Medicinal plants consistently demonstrated lower WFP values, underscoring the need for deliberate and considerate cultivation decisions in this regard. Full article
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12 pages, 1850 KiB  
Article
Cladocera and Geochemical Variables from Core Sediments Show Different Conditions of Hungarian Lakes
by István Gyulai, János Korponai, Sheila Mumbi A. Wamugi, Jázmin Jakab, Umar Abba Kawu, Andor G. Soltész, Tamás Karches and Uyanga Tumurtogoo
Water 2024, 16(9), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091310 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Studies on the sediments of lakes with varying trophic status are of particular importance when considering changes in the natural environment. In this study, our objective was to examine subfossil remains of Cladocera species and the relationship between the sedimental Cladocera assemblages and [...] Read more.
Studies on the sediments of lakes with varying trophic status are of particular importance when considering changes in the natural environment. In this study, our objective was to examine subfossil remains of Cladocera species and the relationship between the sedimental Cladocera assemblages and geochemical variables during 11 years of sediment records from northern Hungarian lakes. To achieve this, we compared sedimental cladoceran communities and the geochemistry of the sediment layers among lakes. Among the studied lakes, one was an intermittent lake (KMT: the Kis-Morotva Lake) which dried out in 2012 but was subsequently naturally refilled in 2013 by groundwater affected by the high-water level of the River Tisza. The other type consisted of permanent lakes (SZA: the Szabolcs oxbow lake, TI: the Timár Morotva Lake) that never dried out. The results of the beta diversity analysis show that the deposition of Cladocera communities was similar among the sediment layers of lakes, while the abundance differences contributed significantly to replacement. Subsequently, core sediment samples of the three lakes were compared based on the remains of Cladocera communities and geochemical variables using Adonis (PERMANOVA). The core sediment samples indicate variations in Cladocera communities alongside disparities in geochemical variables across the same lakes. In conclusion, the significance of sediment cores containing the remains of the Cladocera community has grown significantly in the reconstruction of historical ecological and climatic changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity of Freshwater Ecosystems: Monitoring and Conservation)
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20 pages, 4067 KiB  
Article
Advanced Uncertainty Quantification for Flood Inundation Modelling
by Gordon Aitken, Lindsay Beevers and Mike A. Christie
Water 2024, 16(9), 1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091309 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Flood hazards present a significant risk to the UK, with homes, businesses and critical infrastructure exposed to a mixture of fluvial, surface water and coastal flooding. Climate change is expected to influence river flows, changing the frequency and magnitude of future flood events. [...] Read more.
Flood hazards present a significant risk to the UK, with homes, businesses and critical infrastructure exposed to a mixture of fluvial, surface water and coastal flooding. Climate change is expected to influence river flows, changing the frequency and magnitude of future flood events. Flood hazard assessments are used by decision-makers to implement policies and engineering interventions to reduce the impacts of these flood events. Probabilistic flood modelling can explore input and parameter uncertainties in flood models to fully quantify inundation uncertainty. However, probabilistic methods require large computational costs—limiting their application. This paper investigates a range of advanced uncertainty quantification methods (traditional Monte Carlo (FMC), Kriging and multi-fidelity Monte Carlo (MFMC)) to reduce the dichotomy between accuracy and costs. Results suggest that Kriging can reduce computational costs by 99.9% over FMC. The significantly increased efficiency has the potential to improve future policy and engineering decisions, reducing the impacts of future flood events. Full article
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20 pages, 5994 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of the Stress Shadow Effects in Multistage Hydrofracturing Considering Natural Fracture and Leak-Off Effect
by Jinxin Song, Qing Qiao, Chao Chen, Jiangtao Zheng and Yongliang Wang
Water 2024, 16(9), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091308 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 677
Abstract
As a critical technological approach, multistage fracturing is frequently used to boost gas recovery in compact hydrocarbon reservoirs. Determining an ideal cluster distance that effectively integrates pre-existing natural fractures in the deposit creates a fracture network conducive to gas movement. Fracturing fluid leak-off [...] Read more.
As a critical technological approach, multistage fracturing is frequently used to boost gas recovery in compact hydrocarbon reservoirs. Determining an ideal cluster distance that effectively integrates pre-existing natural fractures in the deposit creates a fracture network conducive to gas movement. Fracturing fluid leak-off also impacts water resources. In our study, we use a versatile finite element–discrete element method that improves the auto-refinement of the grid and the detection of multiple fracture movements to model staged fracturing in naturally fractured reservoirs. This computational model illustrates the interaction between hydraulic fractures and pre-existing fractures and employs the nonlinear Carter leak-off criterion to portray fluid leakage and the impacts of hydromechanical coupling during multistage fracturing. Numerical results show that sequential fracturing exhibits the maximum length in unfractured and naturally fractured models, and the leak-off volume of parallel fracturing is the smallest. Our study proposes an innovative technique for identifying and optimizing the spacing of fracturing clusters in unconventional reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Coupling in Fractured Porous Media)
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18 pages, 5050 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Reclamation Years and Modes on Soil Moisture Transport Pathways and Permeability Characteristics in an Open-Pit Mining Area in Guangxi
by Song Wang, Lei Gan, Yu Zhang, Zhibo Gao, Zhenhong Luo, Haojie Zhou, Hang Zhang, Hongxia Zhang and Taiqing Huang
Water 2024, 16(9), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091307 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 632
Abstract
The microstructural characteristics of reclaimed soil in Guangxi’s bauxite mining area play a pivotal role in determining soil reclamation quality, yet they remain poorly understood. To explore the impact of varying reclamation years and modes on pore structure characteristics in this region, we [...] Read more.
The microstructural characteristics of reclaimed soil in Guangxi’s bauxite mining area play a pivotal role in determining soil reclamation quality, yet they remain poorly understood. To explore the impact of varying reclamation years and modes on pore structure characteristics in this region, we selected four reclamation regions: grassland reclamation with 2 years (RG2a), grassland reclamation with 10 years (RG10a), bare ground reclamation with 2 years (RW2a) and bare ground reclamation with 10 years (RW10a). Utilizing X-ray CT technology, we scanned soil columns within a 30 cm depth to analyze pore distributions using Avizo 2020 software combined with ImageJ 1.53c and its plugins. The findings revealed a significant increase in the number of 2D and 3D macropores by 1.09% and 88.89% in RG10a compared to RG2a, as well as 39.01% and 13.33% in RG10a compared to RW10a, respectively. Furthermore, RG10a was observed to be more effective in enhancing the rounding rate of macropores and mesopores, as well as average branch length and density. Additionally, RG10a demonstrated a greater capacity to increase porosity and connectivity while reducing curvature and specific surface area among the three-dimensional parameters. The 3D reconstruction illustrated that RG modes exhibited a more abundant distribution of macropores compared to RW modes and 10a modes showed a higher presence of macropores than 2a modes, which displayed a tilted laminar pattern. Soil moisture movement simulations conducted through Avizo 2020 under various modes indicated that RG modes presented a more extensive capacity for vertical flow, while 10a modes displayed more abundant flow lines and a higher infiltration rate (K) compared to 2a modes. In conclusion, prolonged reclamation years favoring grassland reclamation modes could enhance water and nutrient transport pathways toward traditional agricultural soil. Full article
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18 pages, 5203 KiB  
Article
From Recharge to Cave to Spring: Transmission of a Flood Pulse through a Complex Karst Conduit Network, Castleton, Derbyshire (UK)
by John Gunn and Chris Bradley
Water 2024, 16(9), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091306 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Storm Babet (18–21 October 2023) brought heavy and persistent rain (80–100 mm) to the English Peak District, causing widespread surface and underground flooding. The village of Castleton experienced groundwater flooding from springs that drain a complex mixed allogenic–autogenic karst catchment. Transmission of the [...] Read more.
Storm Babet (18–21 October 2023) brought heavy and persistent rain (80–100 mm) to the English Peak District, causing widespread surface and underground flooding. The village of Castleton experienced groundwater flooding from springs that drain a complex mixed allogenic–autogenic karst catchment. Transmission of the flood pulse was monitored using high-resolution (2 and 4 min intervals) logging of (a) the hydraulic head at five underground locations in the karst conduits and (b) the water depth at three springs and in the surface river fed by the springs. Underground, there were large increases in the hydraulic head (9–35 m), which resulted in two types of flow switching. Firstly, the increased head at the input end of a phreatic (water-filled) conduit system removed an underwater permeability barrier in a relatively low-elevation conduit, resulting in a dramatic increase in flow out of the conduit and a corresponding decrease in flow from a linked higher-elevation conduit that had dominated before the storm. Secondly, the increased head upstream of two conduits with limited hydraulic conductivity allowed water to spill over into conduits that were inactive prior to the storm. As expected, the conduits fed by sinking streams from the allogenic catchment responded rapidly to the recharge, but there was also a rapid response from the autogenic catchment where there are no surface streams and only a small number of dolines. The complex signals measured underground are not apparent from the spring hydrographs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogeology)
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15 pages, 10303 KiB  
Article
Applicability of Single-Borehole Dilution Tests in Aquifers with Vertical Flow
by Maria L. Calvache, Manuel López-Chicano, Angela M. Blanco-Coronas, Beatriz de la Torre and Carlos Duque
Water 2024, 16(9), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091305 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 673
Abstract
A set of experimental field single-borehole dilution tests were completed in the Motril–Salobreña detrital aquifer (Spain) in a sector with coarse material in four different moments under variable hydrological conditions. The comparative study of the tracer washing, and the temperature profile patterns for [...] Read more.
A set of experimental field single-borehole dilution tests were completed in the Motril–Salobreña detrital aquifer (Spain) in a sector with coarse material in four different moments under variable hydrological conditions. The comparative study of the tracer washing, and the temperature profile patterns for the tests carried out in two wells located hundreds of m from each other, revealed the presence of ascending vertical flows in one of the wells (not detected by other means) that compromises the reliability of the tracer test. The values of both the apparent horizontal velocity and hydraulic conductivity obtained in the affected well were less than half of those estimated in the well not affected by the upward vertical flows. The repetition of the test eight times during different seasons showed that the hydraulic conductivity calculated from the apparent horizontal velocity can vary; therefore, to approximate to a representative hydraulic conductivity value, using this method is recommended to carry out tests under different hydrological conditions and average the results. The difference generated by the changes in conditions for the specific setting of the study area was 25%. Taking this into account, it was considered that an approximation to the more representative value would be an average under variable hydrological conditions, resulting in a horizontal velocity of 6.7 m/d and hydraulic conductivity of 337 m/d. This information is critical for the management of the aquifer as it has strategic resources against droughts that are becoming more frequent in the Mediterranean area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogeology)
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13 pages, 3106 KiB  
Article
Catchment-Scale Hydrologic Effectiveness of Residential Rain Gardens: A Case Study in Columbia, Maryland, USA
by Benjamin J. Daniels and Jon Alan Yeakley
Water 2024, 16(9), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091304 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 659
Abstract
To mitigate the adverse impacts of urban stormwater on streams, watershed managers are increasingly using low-impact development and green infrastructure (LID-GI) stormwater control measures, such as rain gardens—vegetated depressional areas that collect and infiltrate runoff from rooftops and driveways. Their catchment-scale performance, however, [...] Read more.
To mitigate the adverse impacts of urban stormwater on streams, watershed managers are increasingly using low-impact development and green infrastructure (LID-GI) stormwater control measures, such as rain gardens—vegetated depressional areas that collect and infiltrate runoff from rooftops and driveways. Their catchment-scale performance, however, can vary widely, and few studies have investigated the cumulative performance of residential rain gardens for event runoff control in intermediate-sized (i.e., 1–10 km2) suburban catchments. We modeled three years of continuous rainfall-runoff from a 3.1 km2 catchment in Columbia, MD, USA, using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Various extents of rain garden implementation at residential houses were simulated (i.e., 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% coverage) to determine the effects on peak flow, runoff volume, and lag time. On average, treating 100% of residential rooftops in the catchment reduced peak flows by 14.3%, reduced runoff volumes by 11.4%, and increased lag times by 3.2% for the 223 rainfall events during the simulation period. Peak flow reductions were greater for smaller storm events (p < 0.01). Our results show that residential rain gardens can significantly improve the runoff response of suburban catchments, and that they represent an effective and relatively low-cost option for urban watershed management and restoration. Full article
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26 pages, 9346 KiB  
Article
Developing a Bankruptcy Theory to Resolve Stakeholders’ Conflict over Optimal Water Allocation: The Case of Hirmand Catchment
by Ali Sardar Shahraki, Vijay P. Singh and Ommolbanin Bazrafshan
Water 2024, 16(9), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091303 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 769
Abstract
The growing increase in demand for water and the lack of balance between water supply and demand have led to conflicts among the downstream stakeholders of the international Hirmand River. This river is shared between Iran and Afghanistan and is located in the [...] Read more.
The growing increase in demand for water and the lack of balance between water supply and demand have led to conflicts among the downstream stakeholders of the international Hirmand River. This river is shared between Iran and Afghanistan and is located in the southeast of Iran, in the Sistan region. The Vardkhaneh is divided into two branches, Parian and Sistan, and it is the only main source of water in the Sistan region of Iran. The inner part of Hirmand catchment is considered bankrupt concerning its water resources, so there is a need to take the current status and resulting issues into account in order to resolve conflicts. In Hirmand catchment, four different games of bankruptcy theory, namely proportional (Pr), adjusted proportional (AP), constrained equal award (CEA), and constrained equal losses (CEL), were developed as optimization models based on genetic algorithms. For this purpose, the catchment was simulated with 26 scenarios using the WEAP 2022 version software for an average time period. The results of the bankruptcy game modeling showed that water could be effectively allocated to resolve conflicts among stakeholders. It is therefore recommended to use such a model to resolve fights and optimally allocate resources, even in bankrupt catchments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
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14 pages, 2273 KiB  
Article
A Combination of UV and Disinfectant for Inactivating Viable but Nonculturable State Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Efficiency and Mechanisms
by Jinfeng Zhao, Huichao Zhu, Chen Tao, Zhiquan Wang, Ning Deng and Xin Huang
Water 2024, 16(9), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091302 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Conventional disinfection techniques, relying on a single disinfection step, often fail to directly eliminate microorganisms, instead causing them to enter a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. However, microorganisms in the VBNC state retain metabolic activity and can reactivate under suitable conditions, representing a [...] Read more.
Conventional disinfection techniques, relying on a single disinfection step, often fail to directly eliminate microorganisms, instead causing them to enter a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. However, microorganisms in the VBNC state retain metabolic activity and can reactivate under suitable conditions, representing a “hidden source of contamination” that threatens drinking water safety. This study fundamentally assessed the feasibility of combined disinfection methods by integrating UV254 with disinfectant (NaClO, PAA, and PDS) for inactivating Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), an opportunistic pathogen that has been widely detected in water supply systems. The number of culturable cells was determined using the heterotrophic plate counting (HPC) method, and the number of VBNC cells was quantified using our recently developed qPCR approach. Quantitative analyses showed that combined disinfection methods can effectively reduce both culturable and VBNC cells by several orders of magnitude compared to a single disinfection step. Notably, VBNC P. aeruginosa, after 30 min of UV/NaCIO treatment, was below the detection limit (3.191 log CFU/mL) of PMA-qPCR. The reactivation experiment also confirmed that VBNC P. aeruginosa did not reactivate for 16 h after 30 min of UV/NaClO treatment under controlled laboratory conditions. The higher disinfection capacity of combined methods can be attributed to the generation of reactive radicals. This study highlighted combined disinfection as a promising approach for the inactivation of bacteria in the VBNC state, yet further studies are needed before an application can be considered for minimizing VBNC reactivation in city utility water processing or high-risk building water distribution systems. Full article
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15 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Elemental Arsenic from Acidic As-Containing Wastewater by a Hypophosphite Reduction Process
by Qian Li, Shiyu Zhao, Yan Zhang, Yong Li, Xiaoliang Liu and Yongbin Yang
Water 2024, 16(9), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091301 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Biological oxidation is a low-carbon technology for the treatment of As-containing gold ores, but it causes a large amount of acidic As-containing wastewater that is harmful to the environment. This paper proposed a novel, eco-friendly method to treat this wastewater. Thermodynamic analysis, H [...] Read more.
Biological oxidation is a low-carbon technology for the treatment of As-containing gold ores, but it causes a large amount of acidic As-containing wastewater that is harmful to the environment. This paper proposed a novel, eco-friendly method to treat this wastewater. Thermodynamic analysis, H2PO2 reduction, and wastewater recycling tests were conducted. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the feasibility of the reduction of As(V)/As(III) by H2PO2 or H3PO2 to As0 under acidic conditions. Experimental results confirmed the thermodynamic prediction and showed that H2PO2 could efficiently convert the As (i.e., As(V)/As(III)) in the wastewater to high value-added As0. Under the optimal conditions, 99.61% of As precipitated out, and the obtained As0 had a high purity of 98.5%. Kinetic results showed that the reaction order of H2PO2 concentration was 0.6399, and the activation energy of the H2PO2 reduction process was 34.33 kJ/mol, which is indicative of a mixed-controlled process (20–40 kJ/mol). Wastewater recycling results showed that after recovering As, the wastewater could be reused as a bacterial culture medium. Based on the thermodynamic analysis and experimental and analytical results, hypophosphite reduction mechanisms for removing and recovering As from its acidic wastewater were proposed. The results presented in this paper suggest the feasibility of this one-step H2PO2 reduction approach, which may be promising in treating acidic As-containing wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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16 pages, 6714 KiB  
Article
Improving Irrigation Management of Cotton with Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in Texas High Plains
by Avay Risal, Haoyu Niu, Jose Luis Landivar-Scott, Murilo M. Maeda, Craig W. Bednarz, Juan Landivar-Bowles, Nick Duffield, Paxton Payton, Pankaj Pal, Robert J. Lascano, Timothy Goebel and Mahendra Bhandari
Water 2024, 16(9), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091300 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 690
Abstract
The rapid decline in water availability for irrigation on the Texas High Plains (THP) is a significant problem affecting crop production and the viability of a large regional economy worth approximately USD 7 billion annually. This region is the largest continuous cotton-producing area [...] Read more.
The rapid decline in water availability for irrigation on the Texas High Plains (THP) is a significant problem affecting crop production and the viability of a large regional economy worth approximately USD 7 billion annually. This region is the largest continuous cotton-producing area in the United States, and the timely delivery and efficient use of irrigation water are critical to the sustainability and profitability of cotton production in this region. Current irrigation scheduling must be improved to reduce water consumption without compromising crop production. Presently, irrigation scheduling based on reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is limited due to the lack of reliable and readily available in-field weather data and updated crop coefficients. Additionally, in-field variability in crop water demand is often overlooked, leading to lower irrigation efficiency. To address these challenges, we explored the potential use of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based crop monitoring system to support irrigation management decisions. This study was conducted in Lubbock, Texas, in 2022, where high temporal and spatial resolution images were acquired using a UAV from a cotton field experiment with four irrigation levels. Soil moisture and canopy temperature sensors were deployed to monitor crop response to irrigation and rainfall. The results indicated a significant effect of water stress on crop growth (revealed by UAV-based canopy cover (CC) measurements), yield, and fiber quality. Strong correlations between multi-temporal CC and lint yield (R2 = 0.68 to 0.88) emphasized a clear trend: rainfed treatments with lower yields exhibited reduced CC, while irrigated plots with higher CC displayed increased yields. Furthermore, irrigated plots produced more mature and uniform fibers. This study also explored various evapotranspiration calculation approaches indicating that site-specific CC measurements obtained from a UAV could significantly reduce irrigation application. A regression model linking evapotranspiration to canopy cover demonstrated promising potential for estimating water demand in crops with an R2 as high as 0.68. The findings highlight the efficacy of UAV-based canopy features in assessing drought effects and managing irrigation water in water-limited production regions like the THP. Full article
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20 pages, 2838 KiB  
Article
Challenges When Assessing Water-Related Environmental Impacts of Livestock Farming: A Case Study of a Cow Milk Production System in Catalonia
by Marta Ruiz-Colmenero, Ariadna Bàllega, Miquel Andón, Marta Terré, Maria Devant, Assumpció Antón, Ralph K. Rosenbaum, Anna Targa and Montserrat Núñez
Water 2024, 16(9), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091299 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 618
Abstract
Water availability is a local issue of growing importance in Mediterranean areas where water scarcity linked to climate change and population growth is already leading to increased competition for this resource. This study is aimed at the following: (i) assessing the water-related environmental [...] Read more.
Water availability is a local issue of growing importance in Mediterranean areas where water scarcity linked to climate change and population growth is already leading to increased competition for this resource. This study is aimed at the following: (i) assessing the water-related environmental impacts (water use, freshwater ecotoxicity and eutrophication, marine eutrophication, acidification, human toxicity, and ionizing radiation) along the production chain of cow milk in Catalonia, northeastern Spain; and (ii) addressing the issues encountered (modelling choices, data gaps and inconsistencies) which t can affect the quality of results when performing a water-footprint comprehensive assessment, focusing on water use and associated water scarcity impacts. The scope included the process from the extraction of raw materials up to the distribution of the packaged fat- and protein-corrected milk to the distribution centres of the supermarket chains and markets. Results showed the farm stage to be determinant (contributing to over 60% of the impact), due to the impact of feed production. Impact results were in the range of the European benchmark given by the Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules for dairy products, except for the water scarcity footprint which was one order of magnitude larger than the reference value, due to water scarcity in Spain. Considering compound feed ingredients with a lower water scarcity footprint, and research into slurry treatment for its use as irrigation and cleaning water (without compromising safety and health) could help reduce this impact. Water accounting and traceability along the production chain could support the dairy industry to take responsibility for the consequences of their production choices. Full article
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51 pages, 7841 KiB  
Article
Films Floating on Water Surface: Coupled Redox Cycling of Iron Species (Fe(III)/Fe(II)) at Soil/Water and Water/Air Interfaces
by Hong Zhang, Zac Rush, Zoe Penn, Kami Dunn, Sydney Asmus, Carolyn Cooke, Zach Cord, Shawna Coulter and Chance Morris
Water 2024, 16(9), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091298 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 642
Abstract
Naturally occurring Fe(III) films with rainbow reflection iridescence have been observed floating on the water surface of various spots covered with shallow water (e.g., edges of wetlands and creeks, standing water over soils). This natural phenomenon has become a scenic attraction and stimulated [...] Read more.
Naturally occurring Fe(III) films with rainbow reflection iridescence have been observed floating on the water surface of various spots covered with shallow water (e.g., edges of wetlands and creeks, standing water over soils). This natural phenomenon has become a scenic attraction and stimulated much curiosity. We pursued an experimental inquiry aimed at probing this interesting, curious natural wonder. As the first critical task, floating Fe(III) films were successfully generated in an assessable, controllable setting in our laboratory. This enabled us to establish this phenomenon reproducibly under controlled conditions and characterize the phenomenon over the entire span of the formation and transformation of the Fe(III) films. Our film generation method requires a few things: fresh soil (source for Fe(III) and microbes), glucose (energy source), and water in a container. The floating Fe(III) films as observed in the field occurred in ~1–3 day(s) on the water surface of the inundated soil mixed with the sugar. The Fe(III) films then grew from initial very thin, colorless, somewhat transparent films with rainbow reflection iridescence to colored thicker films and then to orange/orange-red/red crusts over the time. A comprehensive mechanistic picture was formulated to depict the formation of the Fe(III) films. Several sequential processes are operative. First, the Fe(III) (oxides, oxyhydroxides) in the soil is reduced to Fe(II) by the Fe(III)-reducing microbes during their anerobic respiration with Fe(III) as the electron (e) acceptor after depletion of dissolved O2 in the water as a result of aerobic microbial respiration with O2 as the e acceptor. The Fe(II), being soluble, then diffuses to the water surface where it is oxidized to Fe(III). Subsequently, the Fe(III) hydrolyzes and various Fe(III) hydrolysis products polymerize to stabilize. A polymeric model was created to account for the Fe(III) film transformation. The Fe(III) films are considered to transform from the dimers and trimers and linear polymers of Fe(OH)3 to Fe(III) polymer sheets (e.g., Fe(OH)3, FeOOH), to 3D Fe(III) polymers, and eventually to Fe2O3 colloid particles. This floating Fe(III) film phenomenon boasts an environmental chemical drama of redox cycling of Fe(III)/Fe(II) at soil/water and water/air interfaces coupled with Fe(II) transport from the inundated soil to the water surface followed by ultimate mineralization of the Fe(III) polymers. Our Fe(III) film generation method can be readily scaled up to supply Fe(III) films of rich varieties in thickness, size, morphology, and structure over the entire span of various stages of their formation and transformation as desired for various uses. This setup offers a platform needed for further controlled studies on the kinetics, mechanism, and process of abiotic and biotic nature involved in the Fe(III) film phenomenon and for exploration of versatile roles of the Fe(III) films as nanofilms in Fe(III)/Fe(II)-surface catalyzed chemical and photochemical reactions involving various natural and synthetic compounds. Full article
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16 pages, 1497 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Profiling of Klebsiella in Surface Waters from Northern Portugal: Understanding Patterns in Prevalence, Antibiotic Resistance, and Biofilm Formation
by Sara Araújo, Vanessa Silva, Maria de Lurdes Enes Dapkevicius, José Eduardo Pereira, Ângela Martins, Gilberto Igrejas and Patricia Poeta
Water 2024, 16(9), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091297 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 871
Abstract
This study investigates the prevalence of resistance and virulence genes in Klebsiella isolates from surface waters in Northern Portugal, within the broader context of freshwater quality challenges in Southern Europe. The aim of this research is to explain how Klebsiella dynamics, antibiotic resistance, [...] Read more.
This study investigates the prevalence of resistance and virulence genes in Klebsiella isolates from surface waters in Northern Portugal, within the broader context of freshwater quality challenges in Southern Europe. The aim of this research is to explain how Klebsiella dynamics, antibiotic resistance, and biofilm formation interact in surface waters. Antimicrobial susceptibility was examined using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method against 11 antibiotics and screening for Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) production using the double-disk synergy. PCR was employed to detect resistance and virulence genes, while biofilm production was assessed using the microplate method. Out of 77 water isolates, 33 Klebsiella (14 Klebsiella spp. and 19 K. pneumoniae strains) were isolated. ESBL production was observed in 36.8% of K. pneumoniae and 28.6% of Klebsiella spp. High resistance rates to blaCTX-U were observed in both. The papC gene was prevalent, signifying potential environmental risks. Biofilm production averaged 81.3% for K. pneumoniae and 86.9% for Klebsiella spp. These findings underscore the intricate interplay between Klebsiella’s dynamics and freshwater quality, with ESBL’s prevalence raising concerns about waterborne dissemination and public health implications. This work supports the need for vigilance of Klebsiella in surface waters in Southern Europe. Full article
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23 pages, 13719 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study on the Formation Mechanism of Plume Bulge in the Pearl River Estuary under the Influence of River Discharge
by Chenyu Zhao, Nan Wang, Yang Ding, Dehai Song, Junmin Li, Mengqi Li, Lingling Zhou, Hang Yu, Yanyu Chen and Xianwen Bao
Water 2024, 16(9), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091296 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Previous studies have investigated the characteristics and influencing factors of plume bulge in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using observations and numerical simulations. However, the understanding of how river discharge affects plume bulge is not consistent, and the response mechanism of plume bulge [...] Read more.
Previous studies have investigated the characteristics and influencing factors of plume bulge in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using observations and numerical simulations. However, the understanding of how river discharge affects plume bulge is not consistent, and the response mechanism of plume bulge to changes in river discharge has not been revealed in detail. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) is constructed, and five experiments were set to characterize the horizontal and vertical distribution of the plume bulge outside the PRE under different river discharge conditions during spring tide. The physical mechanisms of plume bulge generation and its response mechanisms to river discharge were discussed through standardized analysis and momentum diagnostic analysis. The results indicate that the plume bulge is sensitive to changes in river discharge. When the river discharge is relatively low (e.g., less than 11,720 m3/s observed in the dry season), the bulge cannot be formed. Conversely, when the river discharge is relatively high (e.g., exceeding 23,440 m3/s observed in flood season), the bulge is more significant. The plume bulge is formed by the anticyclonic flow resulting from the action of the Coriolis force on the strongly mixed river plume. The bulge remains stable under the combined effects of barotropic force, baroclinic gradient force, and Coriolis force. The reduction of river discharge weakens the mixing of freshwater and seawater, resulting in the reduction of both the volume and momentum of the river plume, and the balance between advective diffusion and Coriolis forces are altered, resulting in the plume, which is originally flushed out from the Lantau Channel, not being able to maintain the anticyclonic structure and instead floating out along the coast of the western side of the PRE, with the disappearance of the plume bulge. Due to the significant influence of plume bulges on the physical and biogeochemical interactions between estuaries and terrestrial environments, studying the physical mechanisms behind the formation of plume bulges is crucial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Management and Nearshore Hydrodynamics)
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24 pages, 5649 KiB  
Article
Dual Effect of Microplastics and Cadmium on Stream Litter Decomposition and Invertebrate Feeding Behavior
by Hualong He, Sulin Cai, Siyuan Chen, Qiang Li, Yunchao Luo, Xiaoyi Zeng, Rumeng Ye, Pengwei Wan and Xingjun Tian
Water 2024, 16(9), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091295 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 651
Abstract
This study investigates the combined effect of microplastics and cadmium on the decomposition of litter, the structure of fungal communities, and the feeding behavior of invertebrates in an aquatic ecosystem. Through a series of microcosm experiments, we demonstrate that exposure to MPs and [...] Read more.
This study investigates the combined effect of microplastics and cadmium on the decomposition of litter, the structure of fungal communities, and the feeding behavior of invertebrates in an aquatic ecosystem. Through a series of microcosm experiments, we demonstrate that exposure to MPs and Cd significantly reduced the decomposition of leaf litter. Notably, the cumulative impact of combined MP and Cd exposure was found to be greater than their individual effects. During this process, the carbon–nitrogen ratio of the litter increased, while dehydrogenase activity and fungal biomass were inhibited. Additionally, the relative abundance of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi decreased, weakening their role in the decomposition of leaf litter. Conversely, MPs and Cd reduced the relative content of leaf litter lignin, improving its quality as food, thereby leading to an increase in the feeding rate of invertebrates. This dual effect indicates that micropollutants suppress the decomposition of litter by regulating microbial metabolic activity and fungal community structure but promote invertebrate feeding. Our findings provide crucial insights into the adverse effects of MPs and Cd on the structure and diversity of aquatic fungal communities, which could have long-term impacts on the food webs and nutrient cycling progress of aquatic ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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14 pages, 7957 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Unsteady Internal Flow and Its Induced Structural Response in a Circulating Water Pump
by Jinqi Lu, Xueliang Yao, Haixia Zheng, Xiaowei Yan, Houlin Liu and Tianxin Wu
Water 2024, 16(9), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091294 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 557
Abstract
As critical equipment in nuclear power systems, the stability of circulating water pumps (CWP) directly impacts the efficiency of power plants. To investigate the impact mechanisms of the unsteady flow characteristics and flow-induced forces on the rotation system, numerical simulation methods were employed [...] Read more.
As critical equipment in nuclear power systems, the stability of circulating water pumps (CWP) directly impacts the efficiency of power plants. To investigate the impact mechanisms of the unsteady flow characteristics and flow-induced forces on the rotation system, numerical simulation methods were employed to calculate the internal flow of a volute mixed-flow CWP under different flow rates (0.8Qd, 1.0Qd, 1.2Qd). The flow field results indicate that, under the part-load condition, the flow within the volute is chaotic with high energy losses, while under the over-load condition, there is a significant velocity gradient within the impeller, leading to relatively severe flow losses. Additionally, the rotor–stator interface is a major factor in flow-induced pulsations, and the asymmetric pressure distribution within the volute results in radial force imbalance. The finite element method (FEM) results indicate that the position of maximum stress on the pump shaft is closely related to the ratio of radial and axial force. Increasing the flow rate appropriately has been noted to be advantageous in reducing flow-induced forces and their amplitude, consequently diminishing the forces on the rotation system and improving the long-term operational stability of the CWP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
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9 pages, 1114 KiB  
Communication
Modeling of Biofoam Destabilization by Biodefoamers in Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Activated Sludge
by Cynthia Dlangamandla, Ncumisa Mpongwana, Seteno K. O. Ntwampe, Moses Basitere and Boredi S. Chidi
Water 2024, 16(9), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091293 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Biofoam formation in wastewater treatment is a challenge globally. Previously, we successfully proposed the use of biodefoamers instead of synthetic defoamers for environmental protection. In this study, we report on biodefoamation modeling using activated sludge organisms. Overall, the rate law model was determined [...] Read more.
Biofoam formation in wastewater treatment is a challenge globally. Previously, we successfully proposed the use of biodefoamers instead of synthetic defoamers for environmental protection. In this study, we report on biodefoamation modeling using activated sludge organisms. Overall, the rate law model was determined to adequately describe foam drainage including collapse while applying biodefoamers. The target industry is the poultry processing industry whereby foam formation during wastewater treatment is an ongoing challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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15 pages, 4892 KiB  
Article
Mine Wastewater Effect on the Aquatic Diversity and the Ecological Status of the Watercourses in Southern Poland
by Krzysztof Mitko, Piotr Dydo, Andrzej K. Milewski, Joanna Bok-Badura, Agata Jakóbik-Kolon, Tomasz Krawczyk, Anna Cieplok, Mariola Krodkiewska, Aneta Spyra, Grzegorz Gzyl, Anna Skalny, Beata Kończak, Maria Bałazińska, Paweł Łabaj, Anna Tetłak, Maria Kyriazi and Stavroula Klempetsani
Water 2024, 16(9), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091292 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 652
Abstract
Coal mining activity contributes to energy security and employment occupation, but is associated with environmental deterioration. Coal combustion leads to GHG emissions, while coal mining results in the generation of saline effluents. These effluents are discharged in inland surface waters, applying significant pressure [...] Read more.
Coal mining activity contributes to energy security and employment occupation, but is associated with environmental deterioration. Coal combustion leads to GHG emissions, while coal mining results in the generation of saline effluents. These effluents are discharged in inland surface waters, applying significant pressure on their quality, with a negative impact on aquatic life and the economy of a region. This study includes water samples that were analyzed in order to investigate the organic compounds, heavy metals, and other physicochemical parameters. Biological monitoring was done according to the Water Framework Directive methodology. The results from an aquatic area in Southern Poland, which indirectly receives coal mine effluents, indicate elevated salinity with excessive chlorides, sulfates, and sodium ions. The water quality of another non-polluted aquatic area was also assessed to examine the impact of indirect coal mine wastewater discharge on this area. The high salinity levels hinder the use of river water for drinking, agricultural, or industrial purposes. The results obtained show high pressure on the ecological status of streams and rivers that receive mine effluents, and on the density and diversity of aquatic invertebrates. This pressure is clearly visible in the structure of benthic communities and in invertebrate diversity. It also contributes to the appearance of invasive species and increasing water salinity. Limiting discharges of mine water transporting large loads of saline substances would reduce the negative impact on the quality of river waters and biological life. Full article
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13 pages, 934 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Water Quality of the Keddara Dam (Algeria) Using Water Quality Indices
by Tosin Sarah Fashagba, Madani Bessedik, Nadia Badr ElSayed, Chérifa Abdelbaki and Navneet Kumar
Water 2024, 16(9), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091291 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 859
Abstract
Dams are regarded as crucial pieces of structure that store water for irrigation and municipal uses. Given their vital role, the dam’s water quality assessment is considered to be an important criterion and requires constant monitoring. In this research, we attempted to use [...] Read more.
Dams are regarded as crucial pieces of structure that store water for irrigation and municipal uses. Given their vital role, the dam’s water quality assessment is considered to be an important criterion and requires constant monitoring. In this research, we attempted to use two water quality indices (WQIs) methods to assess the water quality of the Keddara Dam, which is located on the Boudouaou River, Algeria, using eleven water quality parameters (temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), full alkalimetric title (TAC), hydrometric title (TH), nitrite ions (NO2−), nitrate ions (NO3−), ammonium ions (NH4+), and phosphate ions (PO43−)) for data recorded from 29 December 2018 to 3 June 2021. Application of The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) WQIs and the Weighted Arithmetic Method (WAM) indicated that the Keddara Dam’s water quality parameters were within the WHO’s permissible level, except for the conductivity and turbidity values. The results of the CCME WQI ranged from acceptable (81.92) to excellent (95.08) quality, whereas the WAM WQI ranged from 9.52 to 17.77, indicating excellent quality. This demonstrates that the Keddara Dam is appropriate for agriculture and municipal use. The water quality indices (WQIs) methods are recommended as valuable tools that allow both the public and decision-makers to comprehend and manage the water quality of any aquatic environment by providing flexibility in choosing variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Assessment of River Basins)
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20 pages, 7034 KiB  
Article
Methods for Constructing a Refined Early-Warning Model for Rainstorm-Induced Waterlogging in Historic and Cultural Districts
by Jing Wu, Junqi Li, Xiufang Wang, Lei Xu, Yuanqing Li, Jing Li, Yao Zhang and Tianchen Xie
Water 2024, 16(9), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091290 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Against the backdrop of increasingly severe global climate change, the risk of rainstorm-induced waterlogging has become the primary threat to the safety of historic and cultural districts worldwide. This paper focuses on the historic and cultural districts of Beijing, China, and explores techniques [...] Read more.
Against the backdrop of increasingly severe global climate change, the risk of rainstorm-induced waterlogging has become the primary threat to the safety of historic and cultural districts worldwide. This paper focuses on the historic and cultural districts of Beijing, China, and explores techniques and methods for identifying extreme rainstorm warnings in cultural heritage areas. Refined warning and forecasting have become important non-engineering measures to enhance these districts’ waterlogging prevention control and emergency management capabilities. This paper constructs a rainstorm-induced waterlogging risk warning model tailored for Beijing’s historical and cultural districts. This model system encompasses three sets of models: a building waterlogging early-warning model, a road waterlogging early-warning model, and a public evacuation early-warning model. During the construction of the model, the core concepts and determination methods of “1 h rainfall intensity water logging index” and “the waterlogging risk index in historical and cultural districts” were proposed. The construction and application of the three models take into full account the correlation between rainfall intensity and rainwater accumulation, while incorporating the characteristics of flood resilience in buildings, roads, and the society in districts. This allows for a precise grading of warning levels, leading to the formulation of corresponding warning response measures. Empirical tests have shown that the construction method proposed in this paper is reliable. The innovative results not only provide a new perspective and method for the early-warning of rainstorm-induced waterlogging, but also offer scientific support for emergency planning and response in historical and cultural districts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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13 pages, 3756 KiB  
Article
Optimizing the Extraction of Sugars from Sewage Sludge Using Ultrasound Combined with Thermal–Alkali
by Yujie Fan, Qunshuai Li, Frederico Gomes Fonseca, Jianyang Song and Miao Gong
Water 2024, 16(9), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091289 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 490
Abstract
The extraction and utilization of sugars from readily available and cost-effective sewage sludge increases the economic potential of this residue, contributing to sustainable urban development. The work presented here presents a novel method in which sugars can be directly extracted from sewage sludge [...] Read more.
The extraction and utilization of sugars from readily available and cost-effective sewage sludge increases the economic potential of this residue, contributing to sustainable urban development. The work presented here presents a novel method in which sugars can be directly extracted from sewage sludge following an ultrasound + thermal–alkali pretreatment. The best results indicated that by subjecting the sludge to a 240 W ultrasound for 20 min, followed by alkali digestion using 6 mL of a 2 M NaOH solution at 48 °C for 60 min, it was possible to maximize the yield of crude sugar (34.22 wt.% dry) with the purity of crude sugar at 46.80%, reaching an extraction efficiency of 99.84%. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the crude sugar yields based on experimental data, reaching a value of 34.67 wt.% dry when employing an ultrasound exposure time of 12.5 min and 6 mL of the NaOH solution for a digestion time of 57.5 min; these results were considered consistent with the experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sewage Sludge: Treatment and Recovery)
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12 pages, 8060 KiB  
Article
Water Stable Isotopes in the Central Altai Mountainous Rivers as Indicator of Glacier Meltwater Fraction in Runoff
by Dmitrii Bantcev, Valeriia Rasputina, Anaiit Ovsepian, Semyon Griga, Anna Kozachek, Kirill Tchikhatchev and Dmitrii Ganyushkin
Water 2024, 16(9), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091288 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 612
Abstract
We used stable water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) to identify the fractions of glacier meltwater and summer precipitation in the runoff in the Taldura River in the Altai mountains. The mean isotopic characteristics of glacier ice, snow, summer precipitation [...] Read more.
We used stable water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) to identify the fractions of glacier meltwater and summer precipitation in the runoff in the Taldura River in the Altai mountains. The mean isotopic characteristics of glacier ice, snow, summer precipitation and river water were obtained. Using isotopic separation of hydrographs, we determined that glacier feeding completely prevails throughout the Taldura River in the middle of the ablation season. In general, the fraction of glacier meltwater in the Taldura River’s runoff in the ablation season varies from 80% to 95% depending on local weather conditions. Full article
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15 pages, 4481 KiB  
Article
A Deformation Analysis Method for Sluice Structure Based on Panel Data
by Zekai Ma, Benxing Lou, Zhenzhong Shen, Fuheng Ma, Xiang Luo, Wei Ye, Xing Li and Dongze Li
Water 2024, 16(9), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091287 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Deformation, as the most intuitive index, can reflect the operation status of hydraulic structures comprehensively, and reasonable analysis of deformation behavior has important guiding significance for structural long-term service. Currently, the health evaluation of dam deformation behavior has attracted widespread attention and extensive [...] Read more.
Deformation, as the most intuitive index, can reflect the operation status of hydraulic structures comprehensively, and reasonable analysis of deformation behavior has important guiding significance for structural long-term service. Currently, the health evaluation of dam deformation behavior has attracted widespread attention and extensive research from scholars due to its great importance. However, given that the sluice is a low-head hydraulic structure, the consequences of its failure are easily overlooked without sufficient attention. While the influencing factors of the sluice’s deformation are almost identical to those of a concrete dam, nonuniform deformation is the key issue in the sluice’s case because of the uneven property of the external load and soil foundation, and referencing the traditional deformation statistical model of a concrete dam cannot directly represent the nonuniform deformation behavior of a sluice. In this paper, we assume that the deformation at various positions of the sluice consist of both overall and individual effects, where overall effect values describe the deformation response trend of the sluice structure under external loads, and individual effect values represent the degree to which the deformation of a single point deviates from the overall deformation. Then, the random coefficient model of panel data is introduced into the analysis of sluice deformation to handle the unobservable overall and individual effects. Furthermore, the maximum entropy principle is applied, both to approximate the probability distribution function of individual effect extreme values and to determine the early warning indicators, completing the assessment and analysis of the nonuniform deformation state. Finally, taking a project as an example, we show that the method proposed can effectively identify the overall deformation trend of the sluice and the deviation degree of each measuring point from the overall deformation, which provides a novel approach for sluice deformation behavior research. Full article
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19 pages, 8985 KiB  
Article
Flood Water Depth Prediction with Convolutional Temporal Attention Networks
by Priyanka Chaudhary, João P. Leitão, Konrad Schindler and Jan Dirk Wegner
Water 2024, 16(9), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091286 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Robust and accurate flood hazard maps are essential for early warning systems and flood risk management. Although physically based models are effective in estimating pluvial flooding, the computational burden makes them difficult to use for real-time flood prediction. In contrast, data-driven models can [...] Read more.
Robust and accurate flood hazard maps are essential for early warning systems and flood risk management. Although physically based models are effective in estimating pluvial flooding, the computational burden makes them difficult to use for real-time flood prediction. In contrast, data-driven models can provide faster flood predictions if trained offline. While most studies have focused on predicting maximum water depth, in this study, we predict pixel-wise water depth maps for entire catchments at a lead time of 2 h. To that end, we propose a deep learning approach that uses a sequence encoding network with temporal self-attention. We also adapt the popular hydrological performance metric Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) as our loss function. We test the effectiveness and generalizability of our method using a new dataset called SwissFlood, which consists of 100 catchments and 1500 rainfall events extracted from real observations in Switzerland. Our method produces 2 m spatial resolution flood maps with absolute error as low as 27 cm for water depth exceeding 1 m. Full article
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