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Water, Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2019) – 212 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We study present and perspective productivity of the Sabbione hydropower plant, operating since [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Risks of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) for Sustainable Water Recycling via Aquifers
Water 2019, 11(8), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081737 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
The prediction of the fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in water recycling with urban stormwater and treated wastewater is important since PFAS are widely used, persistent, and have potential impacts on human health and the environment. These alternative water sources have [...] Read more.
The prediction of the fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in water recycling with urban stormwater and treated wastewater is important since PFAS are widely used, persistent, and have potential impacts on human health and the environment. These alternative water sources have been utilized for water recycling via aquifers or managed aquifer recharge (MAR). However, the fate of these chemicals in MAR schemes and the potential impact in terms of regulation have not been studied. PFAS can potentially be transported long distances in the subsurface during MAR. This article reviews the potential risks to MAR systems using recycled water and urban stormwater. To date, there are insufficient data to determine if PFAS can be degraded by natural processes or retained in the aquifer and become suitable pre-treatment or post-treatment technologies that will need to be employed depending upon the end use of the recovered water. The use of engineered pre-treatment or post-treatment methods needs to be based on a ‘fit for purpose’ principle and carefully integrated with the proposed water end use to ensure that human and environmental health risks are appropriately managed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geospatial Information System-Based Modeling Approach for Leakage Management in Urban Water Distribution Networks
Water 2019, 11(8), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081736 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to model one of the urban network problems, the issue of water leakage. In order to manage water leakage, the specific area should be partially isolated from the rest of the network. As Geospatial Information System (GIS) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to model one of the urban network problems, the issue of water leakage. In order to manage water leakage, the specific area should be partially isolated from the rest of the network. As Geospatial Information System (GIS) is a powerful technology in spatial modeling, analysis and visualization of the water network management, a web GIS system for finding optimal valves to close in the event of an incident was developed. The system consists of a new GIS based algorithm for identifying the ideal valves to isolate the desired pipeline. The algorithm is able to identify optimum valves in a water distribution network in the shortest time by using the traceability in GIS web services. The system uses the functions of storing and managing the spatial data by expert users based on web 2.0 technology. The system was implemented and evaluated for Tehran’s district 5 water distribution network using Silverlight, C# and ArcGIS SDK (Software Development Kit). The evaluations demonstrated the accuracy of the algorithm and the operational viability of the system developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Modeling and Management of Urban Water Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Deep Groundwater as an Alternative Source of Water in the Ogaden Jesoma Sandstone Aquifers of Somali Region, Ethiopia
Water 2019, 11(8), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081735 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1525
Abstract
Between 2015 and 2018, the Horn of Africa was affected by a series of climatic-induced events, namely El Nino, La Nina, and the Indian Ocean Dipole. These events modified the variability of rainfall patterns and resulted in extended periods of low rainfall, low [...] Read more.
Between 2015 and 2018, the Horn of Africa was affected by a series of climatic-induced events, namely El Nino, La Nina, and the Indian Ocean Dipole. These events modified the variability of rainfall patterns and resulted in extended periods of low rainfall, low recharge, and high evapotranspiration. That situation prompted humanitarian water professionals to finance the transportation of water from selected locations with high groundwater potential through water trucks to areas facing groundwater depletion and drought. To mitigate this, UNICEF identified alternative water supplies by exploring sustainable deeper groundwater sources. This paper describes a three-phase methodology of deep groundwater development of wells in the Ogaden Jesoma sandstone aquifers of the Somali region of the Horn of Africa, to a depth of 600 m below ground level. The methodology included the development of groundwater suitability maps using geological and remote sensing data, hydrogeological ground truthing of the maps, and then test drilling at the selected locations. The results concluded that the deep sandstone aquifer of Jesoma can provide fresh water with yields of 15 L/s to the local population of the Somali region. The study provided insights into deep groundwater identification and development as well as adaptive deep borehole drilling as a source for climate-resilient water supplies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Open AccessArticle
Examination of Changes in Flood Data in Australia
Water 2019, 11(8), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081734 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
This study performs a simultaneous evaluation of gradual and abrupt changes in Australian annual maximum (AM) flood data using a modified Mann–Kendall and Pettitt change-point detection test. The results show that AM flood data in eastern Australia is dominated by downward trends. Depending [...] Read more.
This study performs a simultaneous evaluation of gradual and abrupt changes in Australian annual maximum (AM) flood data using a modified Mann–Kendall and Pettitt change-point detection test. The results show that AM flood data in eastern Australia is dominated by downward trends. Depending on the significance level and study period under consideration, about 8% to 33% of stations are characterised by significant trends, where over 85% of detected significant trends are downward. Furthermore, the change-point analysis shows that the percentages of stations experiencing one abrupt change in the mean or in the direction of the trend are in the range of 8% to 33%, of which over 50% occurred in 1991, with a mode in 1995. Prominent resemblance between the monotonic trend and change-point analysis results is also noticed, in which a negative shift in the mean is observed at catchments that exhibited downward trends, and a positive shift in the mean is observed in the case of upward trends. Trend analysis of the segmented AM flood series based on their corresponding date indicates an absence of a significant trend, which may be attributed to the false detection of trends when the AM flood data are characterised by a shift in its mean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Modelling: Regional Flood Estimation and GIS Based Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
An Adaptive Basin Management Rule to Improve Water Allocation Resilience under Climate Variability and Change—A Case Study in the Laja Lake Basin in Southern Chile
Water 2019, 11(8), 1733; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081733 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 962
Abstract
Due to population growth and expansion in the agricultural and industrial sectors, the demand for water has increased. However, water availability in some regions has decreased due to climate change trends and variability, necessitating innovative strategies and adaptation in water allocation to avoid [...] Read more.
Due to population growth and expansion in the agricultural and industrial sectors, the demand for water has increased. However, water availability in some regions has decreased due to climate change trends and variability, necessitating innovative strategies and adaptation in water allocation to avoid conflicts among users in a hydrological system. This paper presents a resilience analysis and a conceptual hydrological modeling approach to evaluate the resilience capacity of a new water allocation rule in the Laja Lake basin in southern Chile. Resilience assessments included absorptive and adaptive capacities with four system states: resilient, susceptible, resistant, and vulnerable. A modeling approach was used considering the climate variability uncertainty and climate change trends of the Laja system. Characterization of adaptive and absorptive capacities showed that the Laja Lake basin moved from resistant to vulnerable. Hydrological modeling analyses showed that after a new water allocation agreement, the Laja Lake system is moving from vulnerable to susceptible, since the new rule has more adaptive alternatives to face climate variability. The new rule diminishes the possibilities of conflicts among users, ensuring the fulfillment of water needs for uses such as farming and ecosystem services such as landscaping, and allows for increased water allocation for energy in wet hydrological years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
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Open AccessArticle
Large Scale Flood Hazard Analysis by Including Defence Failures on the Dutch River System
Water 2019, 11(8), 1732; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081732 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
To make informed flood risk management (FRM) decisions in large protected river systems, flood risk and hazard analyses should include the potential for dike breaching. ‘Load interdependency’ analyses attempt to include the system-wide effects of dike breaching while accounting for the uncertainty of [...] Read more.
To make informed flood risk management (FRM) decisions in large protected river systems, flood risk and hazard analyses should include the potential for dike breaching. ‘Load interdependency’ analyses attempt to include the system-wide effects of dike breaching while accounting for the uncertainty of both river loads and dike fragility. The intensive stochastic computation required for these analyses often precludes the use of complex hydraulic models, but simpler models may miss spatial inundation interactions such as flows that ‘cascade’ between compartmentalised regions and overland flows that ‘shortcut’ between river branches. The potential for these interactions in the Netherlands has previously been identified, and so a schematisation of the Dutch floodplain and protection system is here developed for use in a load interdependency analysis. The approach allows for the spatial distribution of hazard to be quantified under various scenarios and return periods. The results demonstrate the importance of including spatial inundation interactions on hazard estimation at three specific locations, and for the system in general. The modelling approach can be used at a local scale to focus flood-risk analysis and management on the relevant causes of inundation, and at a system-wide scale to estimate the overall impact of large-scale measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Risk Analysis and Management from a System's Approach)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of a Water Absorbing Geocomposite on Soil Water Retention and Soil Matric Potential
Water 2019, 11(8), 1731; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081731 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Climate change induces droughts that are becoming more intensive and more frequent than ever before. Most of the available forecast tools predict a further significant increase in the risk of drought, which indicates the need to prepare solutions to mitigate its effects. Growing [...] Read more.
Climate change induces droughts that are becoming more intensive and more frequent than ever before. Most of the available forecast tools predict a further significant increase in the risk of drought, which indicates the need to prepare solutions to mitigate its effects. Growing water scarcity is now one of the world’s leading challenges. In agriculture and environmental engineering, in order to increase soil water retention, soil additives are used. In this study, the influence of a newly developed water absorbing geocomposite (WAG) on soil water retention and soil matric potential was analyzed. WAG is a special element made from geotextile which is wrapped around a synthetic skeleton with a superabsorbent polymer placed inside. To describe WAG’s influence on soil water retention and soil matric potential, coarse sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam soils were used. WAG in the form of a mat was used in the study as a treatment. Three kinds of samples were prepared for every soil type. Control samples and samples with WAG treatment placed at depths of 10 cm and 20 cm were examined in a test container of 105 × 70 × 50 cm dimensions. The samples had been watered and drained, and afterwards, the soil surface was heated by lamps of 1100 W total power constantly for 72 h. Soil matric potential was measured by Irrometer field tensiometers at three depths. Soil moisture content was recorded at six depths: of 5, 9, 15, 19, 25, and 30 cm under the top of the soil surface with time-domain reflectometry (TDR) measurement devices. The values of soil moisture content and soil matric potential were collected in one-minute steps, and analyzed in 24-h-long time steps: 24, 48, and 72 h. The samples with the WAG treatment lost more water than the control samples. Similarly, lower soil matric potential was noted in the samples with the WAG than in the control samples. However, after taking into account the water retained in the WAG, it appeared that the samples with the WAG had more water easily available for plants than the control samples. It was found that the mechanism of a capillary barrier affected higher water loss from soil layers above those where the WAG had been placed. The obtained results of water loss depend on the soil type used in the profile. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Groundwater Table Effects on the Yield, Growth, and Water Use of Canola (Brassica napus L.) Plant
Water 2019, 11(8), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081730 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
Lysimeter experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to investigate canola (Brassica napus L.) plant water use, growth, and yield parameters for three different water table depths of 30, 60, and 90 cm. Additionally, control experiments were conducted, and only irrigation was applied [...] Read more.
Lysimeter experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to investigate canola (Brassica napus L.) plant water use, growth, and yield parameters for three different water table depths of 30, 60, and 90 cm. Additionally, control experiments were conducted, and only irrigation was applied to these lysimeters without water table limitations. The canola plant’s tolerance level to shallow groundwater was determined. Results showed that groundwater contributions to canola plant for the treatments at 30, 60, and 90 cm water table depths were 97%, 71%, and 68%, respectively, while the average grain yields of canola were 4.5, 5.3, and 6.3 gr, respectively. These results demonstrate that a 90 cm water table depth is the optimum depth for canola plants to produce a high yield with the least amount of water utilization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ecological River Health Assessments Using Chemical Parameter Model and the Index of Biological Integrity Model
Water 2019, 11(8), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081729 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
River health is one of the important issues today because of various threats by multiple anthropogenic stressors that have long-term impacts on the physical habitats, biodiversity, ecological functions, and their services. The main objectives of this study is to diagnose the chemical and [...] Read more.
River health is one of the important issues today because of various threats by multiple anthropogenic stressors that have long-term impacts on the physical habitats, biodiversity, ecological functions, and their services. The main objectives of this study is to diagnose the chemical and biological river health in the watershed of Geum River with regard to the chemical regimes (N, P) and fish community using multi-metric chemical pollution index (CPI), and the index of biotic integrity model (IBI), respectively. The empirical models of sestonic chlorophyll, nutrients (N, P), and nutrient ratios of N:P indicated that the watershed, including all sampling sites, was a phosphorus-limited system. Analysis of fish trophic and tolerance guilds showed that the omnivore fish species and tolerant fish species were dominant in the watershed, while the sensitive fish species decreased downstream because of nutrient enrichments (such as TN, TP) and organic matter pollutions (such as BOD, COD). The chemical model of CPI showed that 11 sampling sites were in the fair—good condition, and 8 sites were in poor—very poor condition. Species composition analysis indicated that Zacco platypus was most widely distributed in the watersheds and dominated the fish community. The biological health of the watershed, based on the multimetric IBI model, was in poor condition and was getting worse downstream. The degradation of the river health was matched with the chemical health and showed a decreased abundance of insectivores and sensitive fish species. The outcomes of the river health were supported by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) of fish model metrics and the physicochemical parameters. Overall, our study suggests that river health was directly influenced by the chemical pollutions of nutrients and organic matter inputs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Non-Parametric Stationary Synthetic Rainfall Generator for Use in Hourly Water Resource Simulations
Water 2019, 11(8), 1728; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081728 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
This paper presents a new non-parametric, synthetic rainfall generator for use in hourly water resource simulations. Historic continuous precipitation time series are discretized into sequences of dry and wet events separated by an inter-event dry period at least equal to four hours. A [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new non-parametric, synthetic rainfall generator for use in hourly water resource simulations. Historic continuous precipitation time series are discretized into sequences of dry and wet events separated by an inter-event dry period at least equal to four hours. A first-order Markov Chain model is then used to generate synthetic sequences of alternating wet and dry events. Sequential events in the synthetic series are selected based on couplings of historic wet and dry events, using nearest neighbor and moving window methods. The new generator is used to generate synthetic sequences of rainfall for New York (NY), Syracuse (NY), and Miami (FL) using over 50 years of observations. Monthly precipitation differences (e.g., seasonality) are well represented in the synthetic series generated for all three cities. The synthetic New York results are also shown to reproduce realistic event sequences proved by a deep event-based analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Two-Phase Flow Simulation of Tunnel and Lee-Wake Erosion of Scour below a Submarine Pipeline
Water 2019, 11(8), 1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081727 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
This paper presents a numerical investigation of the scour phenomenon around a submarine pipeline. The numerical simulations are performed using SedFoam, a two-phase flow model for sediment transport implemented in the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) toolbox OpenFOAM. The paper focuses on [...] Read more.
This paper presents a numerical investigation of the scour phenomenon around a submarine pipeline. The numerical simulations are performed using SedFoam, a two-phase flow model for sediment transport implemented in the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) toolbox OpenFOAM. The paper focuses on the sensitivity of the granular stress model and the turbulence model with respect to the predictive capability of the two-phase flow model. The quality of the simulation results is estimated using a statistical estimator: the Brier Skill Score. The numerical results show no sensitivity to the granular stress model. However, the results strongly depend on the choice of the turbulence model, especially through the different implementations of the cross-diffusion term in the dissipation equation between the k ε and the k ω 2006 models. The influence of the cross-diffusion term tends to indicate that the sediment transport layer behaves more as a shear layer than as a boundary layer, for which the k ε model is more suitable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental, Numerical and Field Approaches to Scour Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Maize Yield and Irrigation Applied in Conservation and Conventional Tillage at Various Plant Densities
Water 2019, 11(8), 1726; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081726 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
Maize is one of the most highly produced crops around the world. Factors such as population density, solar radiation, temperature, availability of nutrients and water, and proper tillage method can have favorable results in increasing yield. This project began in 2015, at two [...] Read more.
Maize is one of the most highly produced crops around the world. Factors such as population density, solar radiation, temperature, availability of nutrients and water, and proper tillage method can have favorable results in increasing yield. This project began in 2015, at two different locations in Georgia (Tifton and Camilla), GA, USA, and has been evaluated for three consecutive maize growing seasons. In each location, a different irrigation method was applied; the University of Georgia (UGA) maize checkbook method was utilized in Tifton and a soil moisture sensor-based method was utilized in Camilla. The different treatments consisted of two tillage methods, conservation and conventional, and four plant densities (69K, 88K, 99K, and 133K plants/ha). The purpose of the project was the evaluation of water requirements by population and tillage method for achieving high maize yields. Soil moisture information was collected hourly in both fields. The results showed that higher plant densities do not necessarily require higher irrigation amounts and do not always have the best results in terms of yield. Conventional tillage had slightly better yield results but not statistically different from conservation tilled plots. Additionally, the results showed that applied irrigation can help in higher maize production. However, increasing the amount of water does not directly equate to higher yield results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Agriculture and Irrigation)
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Open AccessArticle
A Simple Modelling Framework for Shallow Subsurface Water Storage and Flow
Water 2019, 11(8), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081725 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Water storage and flow in shallow subsurface drives runoff generation, vegetation water use and nutrient cycling. Modelling these processes under non-steady state conditions is challenging, particularly in regions like the subtropics that experience extreme wet and dry periods. At the catchment-scale, physically-based equations [...] Read more.
Water storage and flow in shallow subsurface drives runoff generation, vegetation water use and nutrient cycling. Modelling these processes under non-steady state conditions is challenging, particularly in regions like the subtropics that experience extreme wet and dry periods. At the catchment-scale, physically-based equations (e.g., Richards equation) are impractical due to their complexity, while conceptual models typically rely on steady state assumptions not found in daily hydrological dynamics. We addressed this by developing a simple modelling framework for shallow subsurface water dynamics based on physical relationships and a proxy parameter for the fluxes induced by non-unit hydraulic gradients. We demonstrate its applicability for six generic soil textures and for an Acrisol in subtropical China. Results showed that our new approach represents top soil daily fluxes and storage better than, and as fast as, standard conceptual approaches. Moreover, it was less complex and up to two orders of magnitude faster than simulating Richards equation, making it easy to include in existing hydrological models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Sensitive Model Parameter Combinations for Uncertainties in Land Surface Process Simulations over the Tibetan Plateau
Water 2019, 11(8), 1724; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081724 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 767
Abstract
Model parameters are among the primary sources of uncertainties in land surface models (LSMs). Over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), simulations of land surface processes, which have not been well captured by current LSMs, can significantly affect the accurate representations of the weather and [...] Read more.
Model parameters are among the primary sources of uncertainties in land surface models (LSMs). Over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), simulations of land surface processes, which have not been well captured by current LSMs, can significantly affect the accurate representations of the weather and climate impacts of the TP in numerical weather prediction and climate models. Therefore, to provide guidelines for improving the performance of LSMs over the TP, it is essential to quantify the uncertainties in the simulated land surface processes associated with model parameters and detect the most sensitive parameters. In this study, five observational sites were selected to well represent the land surfaces of the entire TP. The impacts of 28 uncertain parameters from the common land model (CoLM) on the simulated surface heat fluxes (including sensible and latent heat fluxes) and soil temperature were quantified using the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation related to parameters (CNOP-P). The results showed that parametric uncertainties could induce considerable simulation uncertainties in surface heat fluxes and soil temperature. Thus, errors in parameters should be reduced. To inform future parameter estimation efforts, a three-step sensitivity analysis framework based on the CNOP-P was applied to identify the most sensitive parameter combinations with four member parameters for sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as soil temperature. Additionally, the most sensitive parameter combinations were screened out and showed variations with the target state variables and sites. However, the combinations also bore some similarities. Generally, three or four members from the most sensitive combinations were soil texture related. Furthermore, it was only at the wetter sites that parameters related to vegetation were contained in the most sensitive parameter combinations. In the future, studies on parameter estimations through multiobjective or single-objective optimization can be conducted to improve the performance of LSMs over the TP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrodynamic Drivers of Dissolved Oxygen Variability within a Tidal Creek in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina
Water 2019, 11(8), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081723 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 924
Abstract
Beach erosion and water quality degradation have been observed in Singleton Swash, a tidal creek that traverses the beach-face connecting land and ocean in Myrtle Beach, SC. The objective of this study in Singleton Swash is to explore relationships between water quality and [...] Read more.
Beach erosion and water quality degradation have been observed in Singleton Swash, a tidal creek that traverses the beach-face connecting land and ocean in Myrtle Beach, SC. The objective of this study in Singleton Swash is to explore relationships between water quality and hydrodynamics, where the latter are influenced by beach face morphology. We measure water velocities, water levels, and dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) (a proxy for water quality) and apply correlation analysis to examine the relationships between physical processes and dissolved oxygen variations. Results show that larger tidal ranges are associated with higher mean levels of DO in the tidal creek. The larger tidal ranges are linked to larger magnitude currents, which increase both the DO transport via larger fluxes of oxygenated oceanic water into the swash and the magnitude of Reynolds shear stresses; due to tidal asymmetries, flood currents are stronger than ebb currents in this system. Based on these results, it is concluded that the combined transport of oxygenated waters into the tidal creek from the ocean on large flood tides and subsequent mixing due to large Reynolds shear stresses result in the observed net DO concentration increases in the creek over tidal cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Precipitation Estimates CMORPH-CRT on Regions of Mexico with Different Climates
Water 2019, 11(8), 1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081722 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 913
Abstract
Satellite-based precipitation (SBP) products with global coverage have the potential to overcome the lack of information in places where there are no rain gauges to perform hydrological analyses; however, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability of the SBP products. In this study, [...] Read more.
Satellite-based precipitation (SBP) products with global coverage have the potential to overcome the lack of information in places where there are no rain gauges to perform hydrological analyses; however, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability of the SBP products. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Climate Prediction Center morphing technique with corrected bias (CMORPH-CRT) product in 14 sites in Mexico. The evaluation was carried out using two approaches: (1) using categorical metrics that include indicators of probability of detection (POD), false alarm rate (FAR), critical success index (CSI), and frequency bias index (FBI); and (2) through statistical indicators such as the mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), relative bias (RB), and correlation coefficient (CC). The analysis was carried out with two levels of temporal aggregation: 30 min and daily. The results indicate that the CMORPH-CRT product overestimates the number of precipitation events in most cases since FBI values greater than 1 in 78.6% of analyzed stations were obtained. Also, we obtained CC values in the range of 0.018 to 0.625, which implied weak to moderate correlations, and found that in all stations, the CMORPH-CRT product overestimates the precipitation (RB > 0). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of Sediment Transport and Erosion-Deposition Patterns in the Locality of a Detached Low-Crested Breakwater on a Cohesive Coast
Water 2019, 11(8), 1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081721 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Understanding the dynamics of sediment transport and erosion-deposition patterns in the locality of a coastal structure is vital to evaluating the performance of coastal structures and predicting the changes in coastal dynamics caused by a specific structure. The nearshore hydro-morphodynamic responses to coastal [...] Read more.
Understanding the dynamics of sediment transport and erosion-deposition patterns in the locality of a coastal structure is vital to evaluating the performance of coastal structures and predicting the changes in coastal dynamics caused by a specific structure. The nearshore hydro-morphodynamic responses to coastal structures vary widely, as these responses are complex functions with numerous parameters, including structural design, sediment and wave dynamics, angle of approach, slope of the coast and the materials making up the beach and structures. This study investigated the sediment transport and erosion-deposition patterns in the locality of a detached low-crested breakwater protecting the cohesive shore of Carey Island, Malaysia. The data used for this study were collected from field measurements and secondary sources from 2014 to 2015. Sea-bed elevations were monitored every two months starting from December 2014 to October 2015, in order to quantify the sea-bed changes and investigate the erosion-deposition patterns of the cohesive sediment due to the existence of the breakwater. In addition, numerical modelling was also performed to understand the impacts of the breakwater on the nearshore hydrodynamics and investigate the dynamics of fine sediment transport around the breakwater structure. A coupled two-dimensional hydrodynamics-sediment transport model based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and cell-centered finite volume method with flexible meshing approach was adopted for this study. Analysis of the results showed that the detached breakwater reduced both current speed and wave height behind the structure by an average of 0.12 m/s and 0.1 m, respectively. Also, the breakwater made it possible for trapped suspended sediment to settle in a sheltered area by approximately 8 cm in height near to the first main segment of the breakwater, from 1 year after its construction. The numerical results were in line with the field measurements, where sediment accumulations were concentrated in the landward area behind the breakwater. In particular, sediment accumulations were concentrated along the main segments of the breakwater structure during the Northeast (NE) season, while concentration near the first main segment of the breakwater were recorded during the Southwest (SW) season. The assessment illustrated that the depositional patterns were influenced strongly by the variations in seasonal hydrodynamic conditions, sediment type, sediment supply and the structural design. Detached breakwaters are rarely considered for cohesive shores; hence, this study provides new, significant benefits for engineers, scientists and coastal management authorities with regard to seasonal dynamic changes affected by a detached breakwater and its performance on a cohesive coast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessEditorial
Extreme Floods and Droughts under Future Climate Scenarios
Water 2019, 11(8), 1720; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081720 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Climate projections indicate that in many regions of the world the risk of increased flooding or more severe droughts will be higher in the future. To account for these trends, hydrologists search for the best planning and management measures in an increasingly complex [...] Read more.
Climate projections indicate that in many regions of the world the risk of increased flooding or more severe droughts will be higher in the future. To account for these trends, hydrologists search for the best planning and management measures in an increasingly complex and uncertain environment. The collection of manuscripts in this Special Issue quantifies the changes in projected hydroclimatic extremes and their impacts using a suite of innovative approaches applied to regions in North America, Asia, and Europe. To reduce the uncertainty and warrant the applicability of the research on projections of future floods and droughts, their continued development and testing using newly acquired observational data are critical. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of Failure Cause–Impact–Duration (CID) Plots for Water Supply and Distribution System Management
Water 2019, 11(8), 1719; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081719 - 18 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
Understanding the impact and duration (consequences) of different component failures (cause) in a water supply and distribution system (WSDS) is a critical task for water utilities to develop effective preparation and response plans. During the last three decades, few efforts have been devoted [...] Read more.
Understanding the impact and duration (consequences) of different component failures (cause) in a water supply and distribution system (WSDS) is a critical task for water utilities to develop effective preparation and response plans. During the last three decades, few efforts have been devoted to developing a visualization tool to display the relationship between the failure cause and its consequences. This study proposes two visualization methods to effectively show the relationship between the two failure entities: A failure cause–impact–duration (CID) plot, and a bubble plot. The former is drawn for an effective snapshot on the range (extent) of failure duration and the impact of different failures, whereas the latter provides failure frequency information. A simple and practical failure classification system is also introduced for producing the two proposed plots effectively. To verify the visualization schemes, we collected records of 331 WSDS component failures that occurred in South Korea between 1980 and 2018. Results showed that (1) the proposed CID plot can serve as a useful tool for identifying most minor and major WSDS failures, and (2) the proposed bubble plot is useful for determining significant component failures with respect to their failure consequences and occurrence likelihoods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Set Pair Analysis in a Comprehensive Evaluation of Water Resource Assets: A Case Study of Wuhan City, China
Water 2019, 11(8), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081718 - 18 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
With the rapid development of the social economy, China is suffering from severe water scarcity due to improper management. Evaluation of water resource value is a crucial issue for innovative management in regional water resources. In this paper, in consideration of the complexity [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of the social economy, China is suffering from severe water scarcity due to improper management. Evaluation of water resource value is a crucial issue for innovative management in regional water resources. In this paper, in consideration of the complexity and uncertainty of water resources, 15 indicators were selected to establish the assessment system for its value in Wuhan City from the following three aspects, namely the environment, resources, and society. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Entropy Weight Method were combined to calculate the comprehensive weight. An improved set pair analysis (SPA) model was applied to evaluate water resource assets in the period of 2013–2017. For the sake of the dependability of these results, the James Pollution Loss model was utilized to compute loss of water resource value caused by the decline of water quality in the water pollution environment. The results show that the amount of water resource through physical quantitative accounting in Wuhan City fluctuates greatly. The initial change is relatively stable, then surges in 2015 and 2016, but slumps in 2017. The total water resource assets for Wuhan City from 2013 to 2017 are 14.221, 14.833, 28.375, 75.558, and 21.315 billion RMB, respectively. Therefore, water resource value accounting plays an indispensable role in the environmental protection and sustainable development of water, as well as provides a support for comprehensive calculation and management of various valuable natural resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Regional Flood Frequency Analysis for a Poorly Gauged Basin Using the Simulated Flood Data and L-Moment Method
Water 2019, 11(8), 1717; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081717 - 18 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
The design of hydraulic structures and the assessment of flood control measures require the estimation of flood quantiles. Since observed flood data are rarely available at the specific location, flood estimation in un-gauged or poorly gauged basins is a common problem in engineering [...] Read more.
The design of hydraulic structures and the assessment of flood control measures require the estimation of flood quantiles. Since observed flood data are rarely available at the specific location, flood estimation in un-gauged or poorly gauged basins is a common problem in engineering hydrology. We investigated the flood estimation method in a poorly gauged basin. The flood estimation method applied the combination of rainfall-runoff model simulation and regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA). The L-moment based index flood method was performed using the annual maximum flood (AMF) data simulated by the rainfall-runoff model. The regional flood frequency distribution with 90% error bounds was derived in the Chungju dam basin of Korea, which has a drainage area of 6648 km2. The flood quantile estimates based on the simulated AMF data were consistent with the flood quantile estimates based on the observed AMF data. The widths of error bounds of regional flood frequency distribution increased sharply as the return period increased. The results suggest that the flood estimation approach applied in this study has the potential to estimate flood quantiles when the hourly rainfall measurements during major storms are widely available and the observed flood data are limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Sediment Load Boundary Conditions in Predicting Sediment Delta of Tarbela Reservoir in Pakistan
Water 2019, 11(8), 1716; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081716 - 18 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1291
Abstract
Setting precise sediment load boundary conditions plays a central role in robust modeling of sedimentation in reservoirs. In the presented study, we modeled sediment transport in Tarbela Reservoir using sediment rating curves (SRC) and wavelet artificial neural networks (WA-ANNs) for setting sediment load [...] Read more.
Setting precise sediment load boundary conditions plays a central role in robust modeling of sedimentation in reservoirs. In the presented study, we modeled sediment transport in Tarbela Reservoir using sediment rating curves (SRC) and wavelet artificial neural networks (WA-ANNs) for setting sediment load boundary conditions in the HEC-RAS 1D numerical model. The reconstruction performance of SRC for finding the missing sediment sampling data was at R2 = 0.655 and NSE = 0.635. The same performance using WA-ANNs was at R2 = 0.771 and NSE = 0.771. As the WA-ANNs have better ability to model non-linear sediment transport behavior in the Upper Indus River, the reconstructed missing suspended sediment load data were more accurate. Therefore, using more accurately-reconstructed sediment load boundary conditions in HEC-RAS, the model was better morphodynamically calibrated with R2 = 0.980 and NSE = 0.979. Using SRC-based sediment load boundary conditions, the HEC-RAS model was calibrated with R2 = 0.959 and NSE = 0.943. Both models validated the delta movement in the Tarbela Reservoir with R2 = 0.968, NSE = 0.959 and R2 = 0.950, NSE = 0.893 using WA-ANN and SRC estimates, respectively. Unlike SRC, WA-ANN-based boundary conditions provided stable simulations in HEC-RAS. In addition, WA-ANN-predicted sediment load also suggested a decrease in supply of sediment significantly to the Tarbela Reservoir in the future due to intra-annual shifting of flows from summer to pre- and post-winter. Therefore, our future predictions also suggested the stability of the sediment delta. As the WA-ANN-based sediment load boundary conditions precisely represented the physics of sediment transport, the modeling concept could very likely be used to study bed level changes in reservoirs/rivers elsewhere in the world. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fish Response to Turbulence Generated Using Multiple Randomly Actuated Synthetic Jet Arrays
Water 2019, 11(8), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081715 - 17 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
Hydroelectric power stations generate turbulent flow conditions, which represent a potentially significant hydraulic stressor to fish passing through the turbine system. A test facility has been developed using two randomly actuated synthetic jet arrays (RASJAs) of 25 independent submersible pumps to generate a [...] Read more.
Hydroelectric power stations generate turbulent flow conditions, which represent a potentially significant hydraulic stressor to fish passing through the turbine system. A test facility has been developed using two randomly actuated synthetic jet arrays (RASJAs) of 25 independent submersible pumps to generate a turbulent flow field for biological dose-response testing. The novel elements of this approach include the ability to control the exposure duration within a test volume due to low mean flow velocity as well as the capacity to scale the turbulence levels as a function of pump capacity. Juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were subjected to the turbulent flow regime with average turbulence kinetic energy per unit mass of 0.089 m 2 / s 2 for periods of 2 min and 10 min. No significant loss of equilibrium or disorientation was observed after exposure for either duration at the level of turbulence achieved in this prototype. Further scaling of this approach is required to generate a complete dose-response relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Assessing the Efficiency of Alternative Best Management Practices to Reduce Nonpoint Source Pollution in a Rural Watershed Located in Louisiana, USA
Water 2019, 11(8), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081714 - 17 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
We conducted biophysical simulations using MapShed to determine the effects of adopting best management practices (BMPs) to reduce nutrients and sediment pollution in a watershed dominated by poultry production in the Saline Bayou Watershed, Louisiana, USA. The reduction of three water pollutants, nitrogen, [...] Read more.
We conducted biophysical simulations using MapShed to determine the effects of adopting best management practices (BMPs) to reduce nutrients and sediment pollution in a watershed dominated by poultry production in the Saline Bayou Watershed, Louisiana, USA. The reduction of three water pollutants, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment from adopting different BMPs were assessed using a linear programming model with the cost minimization objective. We considered three weather scenarios (dry, normal, and wet) and BMP parameter efficiencies obtained from linear regression models. Optimization results showed that nutrient management and agricultural land retirement reduced most of the phosphorus runoff in the watershed at the lowest cost. Results were robust to alternative weather (dry, normal, and wet) scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of the 3D-MOHID Hydrodynamic Model for the Tagus Coastal Area
Water 2019, 11(8), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081713 - 17 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
The hydrodynamics of the TagusROFI (Regions of Freshwater Influence) is affected by the coastal upwelling, the estuarine tidal flow, the thermohaline circulation that is modulated by the Tagus freshwater discharge, and by its complex bathymetry. The use of numerical models is the best [...] Read more.
The hydrodynamics of the TagusROFI (Regions of Freshwater Influence) is affected by the coastal upwelling, the estuarine tidal flow, the thermohaline circulation that is modulated by the Tagus freshwater discharge, and by its complex bathymetry. The use of numerical models is the best way to explain the processes that characterize this region. These models are also crucial to answer important scientific and management questions. Nevertheless, the robustness of the products derived from models depend on their accuracy and therefore models must be validated to determine the uncertainty associated. Time and space variability of the driving forces and of bathymetry enhance flow complexity increasing validation difficulties, requiring continuous high-resolution data to describe flow and thermohaline horizontal and vertical variabilities. In the present work, to increase the precision and accuracy of the coastal processes simulations, the sub-systems coastal area and the Tagus estuary were integrated into a single domain, which considers higher resolution grids in both horizontal and vertical directions. The three-dimensiosal (3D)-MOHID Water model was validated for the TagusROFI by comparing statistically modelling results with in situ and satellite L4 data. Validation with a conductivity, temperature, and depth probe (CTD), an acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP) and satellite data was performed for the first time. Validation against tidal gauges showed that the model is able to simulate tidal propagation inside the estuary with accuracy. A very good agreement between CTD data and surface sea water temperature (SST) and salinity simulations was observed. The validation of current direction and velocity from ADCP data also indicated a high model accuracy for these variables. Comparisons between model and satellite for SST also showed that the model produces realistic SSTs and upwelling events. Overall results showed that MOHID setup and parametrisations are well implemented for the TagusROFI domain. These results are even more important when a 3D model is used in simulations due to its complexity once it considers both horizontal and vertical discretization allowing a better representation of the heat and salinity fluxes in the water column. Moreover, the results achieved indicates that 3D-MOHID is robust enough to run in operational mode, including its forecast ability, fundamental to be used as a management tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Capability of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy to Predict Soil Water Retention and Related Soil Properties in an Irrigated Lowland District of Southern Italy
Water 2019, 11(8), 1712; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081712 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
In this study, we examined the potential of vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy, coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis, for the evaluation and prediction of soil water retention at field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (PWP) and related basic soil properties [organic [...] Read more.
In this study, we examined the potential of vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy, coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis, for the evaluation and prediction of soil water retention at field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (PWP) and related basic soil properties [organic carbon (OC), sand, silt, and clay contents] in an agricultural irrigated land of southern Italy. Soil properties were determined in the laboratory with reference to the Italian Official Methods for Soil Analysis. Vis-NIR reflectance spectra were measured in the laboratory, using a high-resolution spectroradiometer. All soil variables, with the exception of silt, evidently affected some specific spectral features. Multivariate calibrations were performed to predict the soil properties from reflectance spectra. PLSR was used to calibrate the spectral data using two-thirds of samples for calibration and one-third for validation. Spectroscopic data were pre-processed [multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variance (SNV), wavelet detrending (WD), first and second derivative transformation, and filtering] prior to multivariate calibration. The results revealed very good models (2.0 < RPD < 2.5) for the prediction of FC, PWP and sand, and excellent (RPD > 2.5) models for the prediction of clay and OC, whereas a poor (RPD < 1.4) prediction model was obtained for silt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Nutrient and Stoichiometry Gradients on Microbial Assemblages in Erhai Lake and Its Input Streams
Water 2019, 11(8), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081711 - 17 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
Networks of lakes and streams are linked by downslope flows of material and energy within catchments. Understanding how bacterial assemblages are associated with nutrients and stoichiometric gradients in lakes and streams is essential for understanding biogeochemical cycling in freshwater ecosystems. In this study, [...] Read more.
Networks of lakes and streams are linked by downslope flows of material and energy within catchments. Understanding how bacterial assemblages are associated with nutrients and stoichiometric gradients in lakes and streams is essential for understanding biogeochemical cycling in freshwater ecosystems. In this study, we conducted field sampling of bacterial communities from lake water and stream biofilms in Erhai Lake watershed. We determined bacterial communities using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and explored the relationship between bacterial composition and environmental factors using networking analysis, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), and variation partitioning analysis (VPA). Physicochemical parameters, nutrients, and nutrient ratios gradients between the lake and the streams were strongly associated with the differences in community composition and the dominant taxa. Cyanobacteria dominated in Erhai Lake, while Proteobacteria dominated in streams. The stream bacterial network was more stable with multiple stressors, including physicochemical-factors and nutrient-factors, while the lake bacterial network was more fragile and susceptible to human activities with dominant nutrients (phosphorus). Negative correlations between bacterial communities and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) as well as positive correlations between bacterial communities and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the network indicated these factors had strong effect on bacterial succession. Erhai Lake is in a eutrophic state, and high relative abundances of Synechococcus (40.62%) and Microcystis (16.2%) were noted during the course of our study. CCA indicated that nutrients (phosphorus) were key parameters driving Cyanobacteria-dominated community structure. By classifying the environmental factors into five categories, VPA analyses identified that P-factor (total phosphorus (TP) and SRP) as well as the synergistic effect of C-factor (DOC), N-factor (NO3), and P-factor (TP and SRP) played a central role in structuring the bacterial communities in Erhai Lake. Heterogeneous physicochemical conditions explained the variations in bacterial assemblages in streams. This study provides a picture of stream–lake linkages from the perspective of bacterial community structure as well as key factors driving bacterial assemblages within lakes and streams at the whole watershed scale. We further argue that better management of phosphorus on the watershed scale is needed for ameliorating eutrophication of Erhai Lake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Knowledge on Cyanobacterial Blooms in Freshwaters)
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Open AccessArticle
Zwitterion-Modified Ultrafiltration Membranes for Permian Basin Produced Water Pretreatment
Water 2019, 11(8), 1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081710 - 17 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Unconventional oil and gas extraction generates large quantities of produced water (PW). Due to strict environmental regulations, it is important to recover and reuse PW. In this study, commercial polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were surface-modified with zwitterionic polymer 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-l-alanine ( [...] Read more.
Unconventional oil and gas extraction generates large quantities of produced water (PW). Due to strict environmental regulations, it is important to recover and reuse PW. In this study, commercial polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were surface-modified with zwitterionic polymer 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-l-alanine (l-DOPA) solution to alleviate membrane fouling during the ultrafiltration of shale oil PW of the Permian Basin. UF membranes were coated in l-DOPA solution by using a dip coating technique. Membrane characterization tests confirmed successful l-DOPA coating on UF membranes. While performing the experiments, permeate flux behaviors of the uncoated and coated membranes and antifouling resistance of the zwitterionic coating were evaluated. Among the coated UF membranes with varying coating times from one day to three days, the three-day coated UF membrane showed a good flux performance and the highest fouling resistance. The flux reduced by 38.4% for the uncoated membrane, while the reduction was 16% for the three-day coated membrane after the 5 h ultrafiltration of PW. Both improvements of the flux performance and recovery ratio are attributed to a negatively-charged surface developed on the membranes after the zwitterionic coating. The UF pretreatment also improved the flux behavior of the later forward osmosis (FO) process for PW treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Transformative Changes in Water Provision Systems: Impact of Decentralised Water Systems on Centralised Water Supply Regime
Water 2019, 11(8), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081709 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Sustainable Urban Water Management (SUWM) is a paradigm in which decentralisation is key. There has been little work directed towards the large-scale possibilities of decentralised water systems and their implications on the functioning of the centralised (potable) water system. This study includes both [...] Read more.
Sustainable Urban Water Management (SUWM) is a paradigm in which decentralisation is key. There has been little work directed towards the large-scale possibilities of decentralised water systems and their implications on the functioning of the centralised (potable) water system. This study includes both a historical and future (scenario) analysis of decentralised developments. Integrated morphological socio-technical scenarios are combined with quantitative water flows for a case study (the Province of Limburg, the Netherlands) and examined by a transdisciplinary group of experts. The study shows how SUWM measures which focus on climate adaptation and circularity can have a significant impact on existing centralised potable water systems. In turn, influencing the total water and peak demands and thus resulting in different utilisation rates. This can result in more system failures (e.g., longer residence time, bacterial growth, reduced self-cleaning capacity), significant changes in the centralised infrastructure (e.g., more wells), increasing water bills (e.g., inequalities), and the preservation of aquifers for future generation. Different scenarios either have regime-reproducing or regime-diversifying impacts. SUWM measures are studied in isolation and thus externalities are not fully considered. Therefore, when planning for decentralised SUWM solutions, a systems thinking approach is recommended, which takes into account externalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Water Resource Accessibility in Southwest China
Water 2019, 11(8), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081708 - 16 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 884
Abstract
The accessibility, quantity, and quality of water resources are the basic requirements for guaranteeing water resource security. Research into regional water resource accessibility will contribute to improving regional water resource security and effective water resource management. In this study, we used a water [...] Read more.
The accessibility, quantity, and quality of water resources are the basic requirements for guaranteeing water resource security. Research into regional water resource accessibility will contribute to improving regional water resource security and effective water resource management. In this study, we used a water resource accessibility index model considering five spatial factors to evaluate the grid-scale water resource accessibility and constructed the spatial pattern of water resource accessibility in Southwest China. Then, we analyzed the coupling coordination degree between county-level water resource accessibility and eco-socio-economic water demand elements. The water resource accessibility showed obvious regional differences, and the overall trend gradually decreased from Southeast to Northwest. The coupling coordination degree between county-level water resource accessibility and eco-socio-economic water demand elements was between 0.26 and 0.84, and was relatively low overall, whereas the counties (districts) with high coordination, moderate coordination, low coordination, reluctant coordination, and incoordination accounted for 0.92%, 5.31%, 21.06%, 59.71%, and 13.00% of total counties (districts), respectively. Therefore, the Southwest region needs to further strengthen the construction of its agricultural irrigation facilities, protect the water resources, and coordinate the relationship between water resource management and water demand elements to comprehensively guarantee regional sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Management Models for Policy Assessment)
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