Next Article in Journal
Is There a Pattern for Occurrence of Macrophytes in Polish Ponds?
Next Article in Special Issue
Impact of Climate Change and Human Activities on Streamflow Variations Based on the Budyko Framework
Previous Article in Journal
Geospatial Information System-Based Modeling Approach for Leakage Management in Urban Water Distribution Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Methane Emissions Driven by Adding a Gradient of Ethanol as Carbon Source in Integrated Vertical-Flow Constructed Wetlands
Open AccessArticle

Risks of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) for Sustainable Water Recycling via Aquifers

1
CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
2
CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag No. 5, Wembley, WA 6913, Australia
3
School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
4
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
5
Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081737
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 13 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
The prediction of the fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in water recycling with urban stormwater and treated wastewater is important since PFAS are widely used, persistent, and have potential impacts on human health and the environment. These alternative water sources have been utilized for water recycling via aquifers or managed aquifer recharge (MAR). However, the fate of these chemicals in MAR schemes and the potential impact in terms of regulation have not been studied. PFAS can potentially be transported long distances in the subsurface during MAR. This article reviews the potential risks to MAR systems using recycled water and urban stormwater. To date, there are insufficient data to determine if PFAS can be degraded by natural processes or retained in the aquifer and become suitable pre-treatment or post-treatment technologies that will need to be employed depending upon the end use of the recovered water. The use of engineered pre-treatment or post-treatment methods needs to be based on a ‘fit for purpose’ principle and carefully integrated with the proposed water end use to ensure that human and environmental health risks are appropriately managed. View Full-Text
Keywords: perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); treatment; urban water; water recycling; managed aquifer recharge (MAR) perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); treatment; urban water; water recycling; managed aquifer recharge (MAR)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Page, D.; Vanderzalm, J.; Kumar, A.; Cheng, K.Y.; Kaksonen, A.H.; Simpson, S. Risks of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) for Sustainable Water Recycling via Aquifers. Water 2019, 11, 1737.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop