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Open AccessArticle

Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Characteristics of Bottled Water in China: A Consideration of Water Source

1
College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
2
Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Physics Department, University of Patras, GR-265 00 Patras, Greece
3
Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jilin 130102, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051065
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

The origin of bottled water can be identified via its stable isotope signature because of the spatial variation of the stable isotope composition of natural waters. In this paper, the spatial pattern of δ2H and δ18O values were analyzed for a total of 242 bottled water samples produced at 137 sites across China that were randomly purchased during 2014–2015. The isotopic ratios of bottled water vary between −166‰ and −19‰ for δ2H, and between −21.6‰ and −2.1‰ for δ18O. Based on multiple regression analyses using meteorological and geographical parameters, an isoscape of Chinese bottled water was created. The results showed that altitude among spatial parameters and precipitation amount and air temperature among meteorological parameters were major natural factors determining the isotopic variation of bottled water. Our findings indicate the potential and the significance of the use of stable isotopes for the source identification of bottled water. An analysis of different origin types (spring, glacier and unmarked) and several different brands of bottled water in the same location reflected different production processes and source signatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: bottled water; isoscape; authentication; China; δ2H; δ18O bottled water; isoscape; authentication; China; δ2H; δ18O
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Guo, R.; Wang, S.; Zhang, M.; Argiriou, A.A.; Liu, X.; Su, B.; Qiu, X.; Jiao, R.; Shi, M.; Zhou, S.; Zhang, Y. Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Characteristics of Bottled Water in China: A Consideration of Water Source. Water 2019, 11, 1065.

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