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Atmosphere, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Explosion at Santiaguito, Guatemala in 2006 (photo by Kim Genareau). Explosive volcanic eruptions [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Modelling Productivity Loss from Heat Stress
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070286
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
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Abstract
Workers exposed to high ambient temperatures, either indoors or out, work slower. The few studies that have measured this loss of productivity show a degree of consistency across widely varying settings. I develop a class of 5-parameter probability models that express productivity as
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Workers exposed to high ambient temperatures, either indoors or out, work slower. The few studies that have measured this loss of productivity show a degree of consistency across widely varying settings. I develop a class of 5-parameter probability models that express productivity as a function of environmental heat and show how the method of fitting can be adapted according to the completeness of the data available. As well as modelling the mean output, it is important to also consider variation between workers, and the model presented here achieves this. The method is illustrated using three previously published datasets from different industries and work environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Development and Application of a Hot-Dry-Windy Index (HDW) Climatology
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070285
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we describe and analyze a climatology of the Hot-Dry-Windy Index (HDW), with the goal of providing fire-weather forecasters with information about the daily and seasonal variability of the index. The 30-year climatology (1981–2010) was produced using the Climate Forecast System
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In this paper, we describe and analyze a climatology of the Hot-Dry-Windy Index (HDW), with the goal of providing fire-weather forecasters with information about the daily and seasonal variability of the index. The 30-year climatology (1981–2010) was produced using the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) for the contiguous United States, using percentiles to show seasonal and geographical variations of HDW contained within the climatology. The method for producing this climatology is documented and the application of the climatology to historical fire events is discussed. We show that the HDW climatology provides insight into near-surface climatic conditions that can be used to identify temperature and humidity trends that correspond to climate classification systems. Furthermore, when used in conjunction with daily traces of HDW values, users can follow trends in HDW and compare those trends with historical values at a given location. More usefully, this climatology adds value to HDW forecasts; by combining the CFSR climatology and a Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) ensemble history and forecast, we can produce a single product that provides seasonal, climatological, and short-term context to help determine the appropriate fire-management response to a given HDW value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle Levels of Antioxidant Compound Glutathione in Moss from Industrial Areas
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070284
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
Plants possess a wide range of cellular mechanisms that help them tolerate potentially toxic substances. Several studies that were carried out under laboratory conditions have demonstrated that the antioxidant compound glutathione plays a role in enabling mosses to tolerate high levels of heavy
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Plants possess a wide range of cellular mechanisms that help them tolerate potentially toxic substances. Several studies that were carried out under laboratory conditions have demonstrated that the antioxidant compound glutathione plays a role in enabling mosses to tolerate high levels of heavy metals without toxic effects. However, until now, the antioxidant levels have not been studied in mosses under field conditions. In this study, we aimed to clarify the antioxidant concentrations of glutathione in the terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum growing in industrial environments characterised by high atmospheric levels of Cd, Ni, and Pb, and to evaluate the potential use of the compound as a biomarker. The results indicated the existence of a glutathione threshold response, which was significantly correlated with the metal toxicity and which may be influenced by metal bioavailability. Although future studies are needed to strengthen the findings, the present study suggests that total concentration of glutathione in P. purum could therefore be used as a biomarker in air pollution biomonitoring studies, provided that metal bioavailability is taken into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Biomonitoring as a Tool for Assessment of Air Pollution Patterns in a Tropical Valley Using Tillandsia sp.
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070283
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recently, air pollution alerts were issued in the Metropolitan Area of Aburrá Valley (AVMA) due to the highest recorded levels of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) ever measured. We propose a novel methodology based on magnetic parameters and an epiphytic
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Recently, air pollution alerts were issued in the Metropolitan Area of Aburrá Valley (AVMA) due to the highest recorded levels of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) ever measured. We propose a novel methodology based on magnetic parameters and an epiphytic biomonitor of air pollution in order to improve the air pollution monitoring network at low cost. This methodology relies on environmental magnetism along with chemical methods on 185 Tillandsia recurvata specimens collected along the valley (290 km2). The highest magnetic particle concentrations were found at the bottom of the valley, where most human activities are concentrated. Mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) reaches mean (and s.d.) values of 93.5 (81.0) and 100.8 (64.9) × 10−8 m3 kg−1 in areas with high vehicular traffic and industrial activity, while lower χ values of 27.3 (21.0) × 10−8 m3 kg−1 were found at residential areas. Most magnetite particles are breathable in size (0.2–5 μm), and can host potentially toxic elements. The calculated pollution load index (PLI, based on potentially toxic elements) shows significant correlations with the concentration-dependent magnetic parameters (R = 0.88–0.93; p < 0.01), allowing us to validate the magnetic biomonitoring methodology in high-precipitation tropical cities and identify the most polluted areas in the AVMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution)
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Open AccessReview El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Health: An Overview for Climate and Health Researchers
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070282
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important mode of climatic variability that exerts a discernible impact on ecosystems and society through alterations in climate patterns. For this reason, ENSO has attracted much interest in the climate and health science community, with
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The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important mode of climatic variability that exerts a discernible impact on ecosystems and society through alterations in climate patterns. For this reason, ENSO has attracted much interest in the climate and health science community, with many analysts investigating ENSO health links through considering the degree of dependency of the incidence of a range of climate diseases on the occurrence of El Niño events. Because of the mounting interest in the relationship between ENSO as a major mode of climatic variability and health, this paper presents an overview of the basic characteristics of the ENSO phenomenon and its climate impacts, discusses the use of ENSO indices in climate and health research, and outlines the present understanding of ENSO health associations. Also touched upon are ENSO-based seasonal health forecasting and the possible impacts of climate change on ENSO and the implications this holds for future assessments of ENSO health associations. The review concludes that there is still some way to go before a thorough understanding of the association between ENSO and health is achieved, with a need to move beyond analyses undertaken through a purely statistical lens, with due acknowledgement that ENSO is a complex non-canonical phenomenon, and that simple ENSO health associations should not be expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Impacts of Taklimakan Dust Events on Chinese Urban Air Quality in 2015
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070281
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
Aerosols are an important factor affecting air quality. As the largest source of dust aerosol of East Asia, the Taklimakan Desert in Northwest China witnesses frequent dust storm events, which bring about significant impacts on the downstream air quality. However, the scope and
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Aerosols are an important factor affecting air quality. As the largest source of dust aerosol of East Asia, the Taklimakan Desert in Northwest China witnesses frequent dust storm events, which bring about significant impacts on the downstream air quality. However, the scope and timing of the impacts of Taklimakan dust events on Chinese urban air quality have not yet been fully investigated. In this paper, based on multi-source dust data including ground observations, satellite monitoring, and reanalysis products, as well as air quality index (AQI) and the mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 at 367 urban stations in China for 2015, we examined the temporal and spatial characteristics of the impacts of the Taklimakan dust events on downstream urban air quality in China. The results show that the Taklimakan dust events severely affected the air quality of most cities in Northwest China including eastern Xinjiang, Hexi Corridor and Guanzhong Basin, and even northern Southwest China, leading to significant increases in mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in these cities correlating with the occurrence of dust events. The mass concentrations of PM10 on dust days increased by 11–173% compared with the non-dust days, while the mass concentration of PM2.5 increased by 21–172%. The increments of the mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 on dust days decreased as the distances increased between the cities and the Taklimakan Desert. The influence of the Taklimakan dust events on the air quality in the downstream cities usually persisted for up to four days. The mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 increased successively and the impact duration shortened gradually with increasing distances to the source area as a strong dust storm progressed toward the southeast from the Taklimakan Desert. The peaks of the PM10 concentrations in the downstream cities of eastern Xinjiang, the Hexi Corridor and the Guanzhong Basin occurred on the second, third and fourth days, respectively, after the initiation of the Taklimakan dust storm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality in China: Past, Present and Future)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Compositional Variation and Source Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in PM2.5 during Several Winter-Haze Pollution Episodes in Shenyang, China
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070280
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
From 18 February to 13 March 2014 and from 17 December 2016 to 27 January 2017, an online analyzer for monitoring aerosols and gases (MARGA) and an online single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) were used to measure and analyze the concentrations and
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From 18 February to 13 March 2014 and from 17 December 2016 to 27 January 2017, an online analyzer for monitoring aerosols and gases (MARGA) and an online single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) were used to measure and analyze the concentrations and sources of water-soluble (WS) ions in PM10, PM2.5, and gases (NH3, HNO3, HCl), in Shenyang City, China. During the field campaign, nine haze episodes (or smog episodes, total 582 h) were identified, with 960 identified as non-haze periods. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and total water-soluble ions (TWSIs) in PM2.5 during haze episodes were 131 μg·m−3 and 77.2 μg·m−3, 2.3 times and 1.9 times the values in non-haze periods, respectively. The average mass concentration of TWSIs in PM2.5 was 55.9 μg·m−3 (accounting for 55.9% of PM2.5 mass loading), 37.6% of which was sulfate, 31.7% nitrate, 20.0% ammonium, 6.6% chloride, 1.9% potassium, 1.4% calcium, and 0.8% magnesium throughout the campaign. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA) secondary pollution ions increased rapidly during haze episodes to as much as 2.2 times, 3.0 times, and 2.4 times higher than during non-haze periods, respectively. Diurnal variations during non-haze periods were significant, while complex pollution was insignificant. Based on changes in the backward trajectories and concentrations of WS ions, the hazy episodes were divided into three types: complex, coal-burning, and automobile exhaust pollution. All complex episodes had high concentrations and greater contributions of ammonium nitrate from complex and automobile exhaust pollution, while the contribution of ammonium sulfate from coal-burning pollution was greater than that of ammonium nitrate. The correlation coefficients among SNA species were very high in complex pollution, with nitrate and sulfate the main forms present. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) were related to emissions from burning coal for heating and from long-range transmission in winter. In the case of exhaust pollution, NO3 accounted for the highest percentage of PM2.5, and NH4+ was more closely related to NO3 than to SO42−. Coal-burning pollution was the most common type of pollution in Shenyang. The contribution of sulfate was higher than that of nitrate. Based on PCA, the contribution of coal-burning emissions varied from 36.7% to 53.6% due to industry, soil sources, and other factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aerosols)
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Open AccessArticle The Hot-Dry-Windy Index: A New Fire Weather Index
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070279
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
Fire weather indices are commonly used by fire weather forecasters to predict when weather conditions will make a wildland fire difficult to manage. Complex interactions at multiple scales between fire, fuels, topography, and weather make these predictions extremely difficult. We define a new
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Fire weather indices are commonly used by fire weather forecasters to predict when weather conditions will make a wildland fire difficult to manage. Complex interactions at multiple scales between fire, fuels, topography, and weather make these predictions extremely difficult. We define a new fire weather index called the Hot-Dry-Windy Index (HDW). HDW uses the basic science of how the atmosphere can affect a fire to define the meteorological variables that can be predicted at synoptic-and meso-alpha-scales that govern the potential for the atmosphere to affect a fire. The new index is formulated to account for meteorological conditions both at the Earth’s surface and in a 500-m layer just above the surface. HDW is defined and then compared with the Haines Index (HI) for four historical fires. The Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) is used to provide the meteorological data for calculating the indices. Our results indicate that HDW can identify days on which synoptic-and meso-alpha-scale weather processes can contribute to especially dangerous fire behavior. HDW is shown to perform better than the HI for each of the four historical fires. Additionally, since HDW is based on the meteorological variables that govern the potential for the atmosphere to affect a fire, it is possible to speculate on why HDW would be more or less effective based on the conditions that prevail in a given fire case. The HI, in contrast, does not have a physical basis, which makes speculation on why it works or does not work difficult because the mechanisms are not clear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle Variations in Moisture Supply from the Mediterranean Sea during Meteorological Drought Episodes over Central Europe
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070278
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
The climate in Central Europe (CEU) during the 20th century is characterized by an overall temperature increase. Severe and prolonged drought events began occurring towards the end and these have continued into the 21st century. This study aims to analyze variations in the
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The climate in Central Europe (CEU) during the 20th century is characterized by an overall temperature increase. Severe and prolonged drought events began occurring towards the end and these have continued into the 21st century. This study aims to analyze variations in the moisture supply from the Mediterranean Sea (MDS) during meteorological drought episodes occurring over the CEU region over the last three decades. A total of 51 meteorological drought episodes (22 with summer onsets, and 29 with winter) are identified over the CEU during the period 1980–2015 through the one-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI-1), and their respective indicators, including duration, severity, intensity, and peak values, are then computed. Lagrangian forward-in-time analysis reveals that negative anomalies of moisture coming from the MDS prevail in all episodes except seven. Linear regression analysis between variations in the MDS anomalies and indicators of the drought episodes shows a significant linear relationship between severity, duration, peak values (winter), and MDS anomalies, which implies that drought episodes last longer and are more severe with an increase in the negative anomaly of moisture supply from the MDS. Nevertheless, no linear relationship is found between the intensity and peak values (annual, summer) of drought episodes and anomalies in the moisture contribution from the MDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weather and Climate Extremes: Current Developments)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Haze Trends in the Sichuan-Chongqing Region, China, 1980 to 2016
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070277
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study analyzed the long-term variations and trends of haze pollution and its relationships with emission and meteorological factors using the haze days (HDs) data derived from surface observation stations in Sichuan-Chongqing (SCC) region during 1980–2016. The results showed that the multi-year mean
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This study analyzed the long-term variations and trends of haze pollution and its relationships with emission and meteorological factors using the haze days (HDs) data derived from surface observation stations in Sichuan-Chongqing (SCC) region during 1980–2016. The results showed that the multi-year mean number of HDs were 68.7 and 4.9 days for the Sichuan-Basin (SCB) and the rest of SCC region, respectively. The seasonally averaged HDs over SCB reached its maximum in winter (34.7 days), followed by autumn (17.0 days) and spring (11.6 days), and with the minimum observed in summer (5.5 days). The inter-annual variations of HDs in 18 main cities revealed that Zigong, Neijiang, and Yibin, which are located in the southern of SCB, have been the most polluted areas over the SCC region in the past decades. A notable increasing trend in annual HDs over the majority of SCC region was found during 1980–1995, then the trend sharply reversed during 1996–2005, while it increased, fluctuating at some cities after 2006. Seasonally, the increased trend in spring and autumn seems to be the strongest during 1980–1995, whereas the decreased trend in spring and winter was stronger than other seasons during 1996–2005. In addition, a remarkable increasing trend was found in winter since 2006. Using correlation analysis between HDs and emission and meteorological factors during different periods, we found that the variability of local precipitation days (PDs), planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), near-surface wind speed (WS), and relatively humidity (RH) play different roles in influencing the haze pollution change during different historical periods. The joint effect of sharp increase of anthropogenic emissions, reduced PDs and WS intensified the haze pollution in SCB during 1980–1995. In contrast, decreased HDs during 1996–2005 are mainly attributable to the reduction of PM2.5 emission and the increase of PDs (especially in winter). In addition, the decrease of PDs is likely to be responsible for the unexpected increase in winter HDs over SCB in the last decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality in China: Past, Present and Future)
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Open AccessReview Current Challenges in Understanding and Predicting Transport and Exchange in the Atmosphere over Mountainous Terrain
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070276
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
Coupling of the earth’s surface with the atmosphere is achieved through an exchange of momentum, energy, and mass in the atmospheric boundary layer. In mountainous terrain, this exchange results from a combination of multiple transport processes, which act and interact on different spatial
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Coupling of the earth’s surface with the atmosphere is achieved through an exchange of momentum, energy, and mass in the atmospheric boundary layer. In mountainous terrain, this exchange results from a combination of multiple transport processes, which act and interact on different spatial and temporal scales, including, for example, orographic gravity waves, thermally driven circulations, moist convection, and turbulent motions. Incorporating these exchange processes and previous studies, a new definition of the atmospheric boundary layer in mountainous terrain, a mountain boundary layer (MBL), is defined. This paper summarizes some of the major current challenges in measuring, understanding, and eventually parameterizing the relevant transport processes and the overall exchange between the MBL and the free atmosphere. Further details on many aspects of the exchange in the MBL are discussed in several other papers in this issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain)
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Open AccessArticle Origin of Warm SST Bias over the Atlantic Cold Tongue in the Coupled Climate Model FGOALS-g2
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070275
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Most of the coupled models contain a strong warm bias in sea surface temperature (SST) over the Atlantic Cold Tongue (ACT) region (10° S–3° N, 20° W–10° E) during June–August (JJA) and September–November (SON). In this study, the origins of the ACT SST
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Most of the coupled models contain a strong warm bias in sea surface temperature (SST) over the Atlantic Cold Tongue (ACT) region (10° S–3° N, 20° W–10° E) during June–August (JJA) and September–November (SON). In this study, the origins of the ACT SST bias and their relative contributions to the bias are explored by conducting a set of sensitivity experiments, which are based on an ocean-ice model, and by ignoring the nonlinear effects of each origin. The origins for the warm bias over the ACT in the coupled climate model during JJA are estimated as follows: westerly wind bias along the equator (5° S–5° N) during March–May (MAM; contributes approximately 32.6% of the warm bias), northerly bias over the southern tropical Atlantic (25° S–3° N, 40° W–20° E) during MAM and JJA (21.4%), bias in the surface specific humidity and surface air temperature (11.9%), and downward shortwave radiation bias (6.5%). The origins of the ACT bias during SON are as follows: northerly bias over the southern tropical Atlantic during SON (31.2%), bias in the surface specific humidity and surface air temperature (27.9%), downward shortwave radiation bias (17.4%), and zonal wind bias (13.4%). Note that these contribution ratios of these origins may be model-dependent. In addition, the local and non-local effects of the zonal wind bias are explored explicitly, while those of all the other biases are examined implicitly. Therefore, a better-performing atmospheric component is crucial when simulating zonal winds during MAM along the equator (5° S–5° N) and meridional winds during MAM, JJA, and SON over the southern tropical Atlantic, which will alleviate the warm bias over the ACT region in the coupled climate model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Climate Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle Composition, Sources, and Distribution of PM2.5 Saccharides in a Coastal Urban Site of China
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070274
Received: 2 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3838 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The characteristics of biogenic aerosols in an urban area were explored by determining the composition and temporal distribution of saccharides in PM2.5 in Shanghai. The total saccharides showed a wide range of 9.4 ng/m3 to 1652.9 ng/m3, with the
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The characteristics of biogenic aerosols in an urban area were explored by determining the composition and temporal distribution of saccharides in PM2.5 in Shanghai. The total saccharides showed a wide range of 9.4 ng/m3 to 1652.9 ng/m3, with the averaged concentrations of 133.1 ng/m3, 267.5 ng/m3, 265.1 ng/m3, and 674.4 ng/m3 in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The saccharides include anhydrosaccharides (levoglucosan and mannosan), which were higher in cold seasons due to the increased biomass burning; saccharide alcohols (mannitol, arabitol, sorbitol); and monosaccharides (fructose, glucose), which were more abundant in warm seasons and attributed to the biological emissions. Through positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, four emission sources of saccharides were resolved, including biomass burning, fungal spores, plant decomposition, and pollen. Moreover, the process analysis of high concentrations of leveglucosan was conducted by backward trajectory and fire points. We found that concentrations of anhydrosaccharides were relatively stable under different pollution levels, while saccharide alcohols exhibited an obvious decrease with the concentration of PM2.5, indicating that biomass burning was not the core reason for heavy haze pollution. However, high level PM2.5 pollution might inhibit the effects of biological activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Open AccessArticle The Fingerprint of Climate Change and Urbanization in South Korea
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070273
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Understanding long-term changes in precipitation and temperature patterns is important in the detection and characterization of climate change, as is understanding the implications of climate change when performing impact assessments. This study uses a statistically robust methodology to quantify long-, medium- and short-term
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Understanding long-term changes in precipitation and temperature patterns is important in the detection and characterization of climate change, as is understanding the implications of climate change when performing impact assessments. This study uses a statistically robust methodology to quantify long-, medium- and short-term changes for evaluating the degree to which climate change and urbanization have caused temporal changes in precipitation and temperature in South Korea. We sought to identify a fingerprint of changes in precipitation and temperature based on statistically significant differences at multiple-timescales. This study evaluates historical weather data during a 40-year period (1973–2012) and from 54 weather stations. Our results demonstrate that between 1993–2012, minimum and maximum temperature trends in the vicinity of urban and agricultural areas are significantly different from the two previous decades (1973–1992). The results for precipitation amounts show significant differences in urban areas. These results indicate that the climate in urbanized areas has been affected by both the heat island effect and global warming-caused climate change. The increase in the number of rainfall events in agricultural areas is highly significant, although the temporal trends for precipitation amounts showed no significant differences. Overall, the impacts of climate change and urbanization in South Korea have not been continuous over time and have been expressed locally and regionally in terms of precipitation and temperature changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Climate)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis of Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization Schemes in WRF Modeling Set Up over Southern Italy
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070272
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Predictions of boundary layer meteorological parameters with accuracy are essential for achieving good weather and air quality regional forecast. In the present work, we have analyzed seven planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes in a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the
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Predictions of boundary layer meteorological parameters with accuracy are essential for achieving good weather and air quality regional forecast. In the present work, we have analyzed seven planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes in a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the Naples-Caserta region of Southern Italy. WRF model simulations were performed with 1-km horizontal resolution, and the results were compared against data collected by the small aircraft Sky Arrow Environmental Research Aircraft (ERA) during 7–9 October 2014. The selected PBL schemes include three first-order closure PBL schemes (ACM2, MRF, YSU) and four turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) closure schemes (MYJ, UW, MYNN2, and BouLac). A performance analysis of these PBL schemes has been investigated by validating them with aircraft measurements of meteorological parameters profiles (air temperature, specific humidity, wind speed, wind direction) and PBL height to assess their efficiency in terms of the reproduction of observed weather conditions. Results suggested that the TKE closure schemes perform better than first-order closure schemes, and the MYNN2 closure scheme is close to observed values most of the time. It is observed that the inland locations are better simulated than sea locations, and the morning periods are better simulated than those in the afternoon. The results are emphasizing that meteorology-induced variability is larger than the variability in PBL schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Aerosol Radiative Forcing with 1-D Radiative Transfer Modeling in the U. S. South-East
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070271
Received: 2 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Aerosols and their radiative properties play an integral part in understanding Earth’s climate. It is becoming increasingly common to examine aerosol’s radiative impacts on a regional scale. The primary goal of this research is to explore the impacts of regional aerosol’s forcing at
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Aerosols and their radiative properties play an integral part in understanding Earth’s climate. It is becoming increasingly common to examine aerosol’s radiative impacts on a regional scale. The primary goal of this research is to explore the impacts of regional aerosol’s forcing at the surface and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) in the south-eastern U.S. by using a 1-D radiative transfer model. By using test cases that are representative of conditions common to this region, an estimate of aerosol forcing can be compared to other results. Speciation data and aerosol layer analysis provide the basis for the modeling. Results indicate that the region experiences TOA cooling year-round, where the winter has TOA forcings between −2.8 and −5 W/m2, and the summer has forcings between −5 and −15 W/m2 for typical atmospheric conditions. Surface level forcing efficiencies are greater than those estimated for the TOA for all cases considered i.e., urban and non-urban background conditions. One potential implication of this research is that regional aerosol mixtures have effects that are not well captured in global climate model estimates, which has implications for a warming climate where all radiative inputs are not well characterized, thus increasing the ambiguity in determining regional climate impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiative Transfer in the Earth Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle Online Questionnaire as a Tool to Assess Symptoms and Perceived Indoor Air Quality in a School Environment
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070270
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
School environments are a complex entirety where various different exposure factors are related that contribute to the indoor air quality (IAQ) and may affect occupants’ health and well-being. Indoor air questionnaires are useful for collecting information about the occupants’ experiences and perceptions of
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School environments are a complex entirety where various different exposure factors are related that contribute to the indoor air quality (IAQ) and may affect occupants’ health and well-being. Indoor air questionnaires are useful for collecting information about the occupants’ experiences and perceptions of the indoor air and for evaluating the results of the measures taken. A common way to implement health questionnaires is to ask the respondents to describe symptoms at certain time points, such as weeks or months. The aim of our study was to develop a short and easy online questionnaire to assess symptoms and perceived IAQ. We also aimed to test the usability of the questionnaire in school buildings and assess the differences between the online measurement data (CO2, T, and RH) and the IAQ complaints and symptoms reported by the pupils. A total of 105 teachers and 1268 pupils in 36 classrooms at six schools answered the questionnaires over a two-week period. The participants completed the questionnaire always after the lesson in the studied classroom. We received 719 answers from the teachers and 6322 answers from the pupils. The results demonstrated that the teachers reported more IAQ problems and symptoms than the pupils did. Differences between classrooms were observed in both the IAQ problem and reference schools. The most common significant differences (p-value > 0.05) between the classrooms were among humidity, too cold air, and stuffy air, and among symptoms, dry/sore throat, tiredness, headache, and skin symptoms. Maximum values of CO2 measurements and the highest prevalence of stuffy air were relatively consistent. The testing process demonstrated that such a questionnaire was suitable for adults and children aged at least 12 years. The results of our study suggest that a quick and easy online questionnaire that is completed within a short period may be useful for gathering valuable knowledge about perceived IAQ. It could be used in combination with other indoor environment investigations to produce detailed results and restorative measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Air Pollution on Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Physicochemical Characteristics and Possible Sources of Individual Mineral Particles in a Dust Storm Episode in Beijing, China
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070269
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Beijing frequently experiences dust storms during spring, which result in deteriorated visibility and cause negative health impacts. In this paper, the dust particles were collected during a dust storm episode on 4–5 May 2017 in Beijing, and the samples before and after the
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Beijing frequently experiences dust storms during spring, which result in deteriorated visibility and cause negative health impacts. In this paper, the dust particles were collected during a dust storm episode on 4–5 May 2017 in Beijing, and the samples before and after the dust storm were also collected. The morphology and elemental and mineralogical compositions of the dust samples were investigated using a transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (TEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The TEM-EDX results showed that the particles in the dust samples were mainly Si-rich, Ca-rich, S-rich, Fe-rich, Al-rich, Ti-rich, K-rich, Na-rich and Mg-rich particles. The XRD results demonstrated that the minerals in PM10 samples were mainly clay, calcite, quartz, dolomite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar and hematite, in descending order of their contents. The clay minerals, having the highest content, were mainly kaolinite, chlorite and illite. The mixing state and aging degree of mineral particles before, during and after the dust storm episode behaved very differently. The mineral particles collected before and after the dust storm tended to have an internal mixing state, dominated by the S-rich particles internally mixed with alkaline mineral particles, revealing a more serious ageing degree. The mineral particles collected during the dust storm did not show clear internal mixing, revealing a less serious ageing degree. The amount of the Si-rich, Al-rich, Ca-rich and Ti-rich particles was highest during the dust storm, indicating that these particles mainly originated from long-distance transportation. The S-rich, Fe-rich, K-rich, Na-rich and Mg-rich particles were mainly enriched in the samples before and after the dust storm episode, indicating that they mainly originated from local sources. A comparison of the values of S/(Si + Al) in the individual particles with the particle sizes revealed that the finer mineral particles were associated with higher S contents before and after the dust storm, while the coarse particles were associated with lower S contents during the dust storm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Megacities: Air Quality Impacts from Local to Global Scales)
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Open AccessArticle Innovative Strategies for Observations in the Arctic Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ISOBAR)—The Hailuoto 2017 Campaign
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070268
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 30 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the research project “Innovative Strategies for Observations in the Arctic Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ISOBAR)” is to substantially increase the understanding of the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SBL) through a combination of well-established and innovative observation methods as well as by
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The aim of the research project “Innovative Strategies for Observations in the Arctic Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ISOBAR)” is to substantially increase the understanding of the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SBL) through a combination of well-established and innovative observation methods as well as by models of different complexity. During three weeks in February 2017, a first field campaign was carried out over the sea ice of the Bothnian Bay in the vicinity of the Finnish island of Hailuoto. Observations were based on ground-based eddy-covariance (EC), automatic weather stations (AWS) and remote-sensing instrumentation as well as more than 150 flight missions by several different Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) during mostly stable and very stable boundary layer conditions. The structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and above could be resolved at a very high vertical resolution, especially close to the ground, by combining surface-based measurements with UAV observations, i.e., multicopter and fixed-wing profiles up to 200 m agl and 1800 m agl, respectively. Repeated multicopter profiles provided detailed information on the evolution of the SBL, in addition to the continuous SODAR and LIDAR wind measurements. The paper describes the campaign and the potential of the collected data set for future SBL research and focuses on both the UAV operations and the benefits of complementing established measurement methods by UAV measurements to enable SBL observations at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Measurements with Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS))
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Open AccessArticle Source Apportionment of PM2.5 during Haze and Non-Haze Episodes in Wuxi, China
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070267
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Chemical characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Wuxi at urban, industrial, and clean sites on haze and non-haze days were investigated over four seasons in 2016. In this study, high concentrations of fine particulate matter (107.6 ± 25.3 μg/m3
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Chemical characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Wuxi at urban, industrial, and clean sites on haze and non-haze days were investigated over four seasons in 2016. In this study, high concentrations of fine particulate matter (107.6 ± 25.3 μg/m3) were measured in haze episodes. The most abundant chemical components were organic matter (OM), SO42−, NO3, elemental carbon (EC), and NH4+, which varied significantly on haze and non-haze days. The concentrations of OM and EC were 38.5 ± 5.4 μg/m3 and 12.3 ± 2.1 μg/m3 on haze days, which were more than four times greater than those on non-haze days. Source apportionment using a chemical mass balance (CMB) model showed that the dominant sources were secondary sulfate (17.7%), secondary organic aerosols (17.1%), and secondary nitrate (14.2%) during the entire sampling period. The source contribution estimates (SCEs) of most sources at clean sites were lower than at urban and industrial sites. Primary industrial emission sources, such as coal combustion and steel smelting, made larger contributions at industrial sites, while vehicle exhausts and cooking smoke showed higher contributions at urban sites. In addition, the SCEs of secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and secondary organic aerosols on haze days were much higher than those on non-haze days, indicating that the secondary particulate matter formations process was the dominating reason for high concentrations of particles on haze days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Sources Apportionment)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Analysis of the Impacts of Two Types of El Niño on the Central and Eastern Pacific ITCZ
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070266
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
The precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) were used to investigate the discrepancy of Centre and Eastern Pacific ITCZ (CEP-ITCZ) during two types of El Niño years. Two models of the heat source
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The precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) were used to investigate the discrepancy of Centre and Eastern Pacific ITCZ (CEP-ITCZ) during two types of El Niño years. Two models of the heat source distribution during two types of El Niño events were constructed, and the causes of different CEP-ITCZ anomalies for two types of El Niño events were analyzed through the Gill model. The results show that the CEP-ITCZ precipitation is approximately 4.0° southward, and the intensity is enhanced by 3.6 mm/day during the mature period of Eastern Pacific El Niño (EP-El Niño), while during the mature period of Central Pacific El Niño (CP-El Niño), it is only 0.8° southward, and the intensity is enhanced by 3.2 mm/day. The meridional mode of the SST anomaly by means of EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function) can indirectly affect the CEP-ITCZ by influencing the atmospheric Rossby wave response. In CP-El Niño years, the meridional mode of the SST anomaly is weak, and the atmospheric Rossby wave response enhances the northern and southern trade-wind zones at the same time. The anomaly of cross-equatorial flow is weak and the CEP-ITCZ moves southward a little. At the same time, the wind convergence zone is enhanced, and it is more conducive to the vertical transport of water vapor. In EP-El Niño years, the meridional mode of the SST anomaly is strong, and the atmospheric Rossby wave response strengthens the meridional wind on the northern side of the equator, leading to the southward shift of the CEP-ITCZ. At the same time, the wind convergence zone is weakened and widened, and to a certain extent, it suppresses the vertical transport increase of water vapor caused by the sea surface evaporation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Wave Distribution Simulated by WAVEWATCH-III Model in Typhoons Passing Beibu Gulf, China
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070265
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
The Beibu Gulf is an important offshore region in the South China Sea for the fishing industry and other human activities. In 2017, typhoons Doksuri and Khanun passed the Beibu Gulf in two paths, at maximum wind speeds of up to 50 m/s.
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The Beibu Gulf is an important offshore region in the South China Sea for the fishing industry and other human activities. In 2017, typhoons Doksuri and Khanun passed the Beibu Gulf in two paths, at maximum wind speeds of up to 50 m/s. Typhoon Doksuri passed the Beibu Gulf through the open waters of the South China Sea and Typhoon Khanun moved towards the Beibu Gulf through the narrow Qiongzhou Strait. The aim of this study is to analyze the typhoon-induced wave distribution in the Beibu Gulf. WAVEWATCH-III (WW3) is a third-generation numeric wave model developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which has been widely used for sea wave research. The latest version of the WW3 (5.16) model provides three packages of nonlinear term for four wave components (quadruplets) wave–wave interactions, including Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA), Full Boltzmann Integral (WRT), and Generalized Multiple DIA (GMD) with two kinds of coefficients, herein called GMD1 and GMD2. These four packages have been conveniently implemented for simulating wave fields in two typhoons after taking winds from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) at 0.125° grids as the forcing fields. It was found that the GMD2 package was the recommended option of the nonlinear term for quadruplets wave–wave interactions due to the minimum error when comparing a number of simulated results from the WW3 model with significant wave height (SWH) from ECMWF and altimeter Jason-2. Then the wave distribution simulated by the WW3 model employing the GMD2 package was analyzed. In the case of Typhoon Doksuri, wind-sea dominated in the early and middle stages while swell dominated at the later stage. However, during Typhoon Khanun, wind-sea dominated throughout and swell distributed outside the bay around the east of Hainan Island, because the typhoon-induced swell at mesoscale was difficult to propagate into the Beibu Gulf through the narrow Qiongzhou Strait. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storms, Jets and Other Meteorological Phenomena in Coastal Seas)
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Open AccessReview Irradiance Variability Quantification and Small-Scale Averaging in Space and Time: A Short Review
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070264
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
The ongoing world-wide increase of installed photovoltaic (PV) power attracts notice to weather-induced PV power output variability. Understanding the underlying spatiotemporal volatility of solar radiation is essential to the successful outlining and stable operation of future power grids. This paper concisely reviews recent
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The ongoing world-wide increase of installed photovoltaic (PV) power attracts notice to weather-induced PV power output variability. Understanding the underlying spatiotemporal volatility of solar radiation is essential to the successful outlining and stable operation of future power grids. This paper concisely reviews recent advances in the characterization of irradiance variability, with an emphasis on small spatial and temporal scales (respectively less than about 10 km and 1 min), for which comprehensive data sets have recently become available. Special attention is given to studies dealing with the quantification of variability using such unique data, the analysis and modeling of spatial smoothing, and the evaluation of temporal averaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle Copula-Based Hazard Risk Assessment of Winter Extreme Cold Events in Beijing
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070263
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Extreme cold events (ECEs) have occurred more frequently over the last few winters in China, associated with large losses of human life and increasing costs. Here, copulas are used to establish a bivariate copula distribution model for ECE variables of duration and intensity,
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Extreme cold events (ECEs) have occurred more frequently over the last few winters in China, associated with large losses of human life and increasing costs. Here, copulas are used to establish a bivariate copula distribution model for ECE variables of duration and intensity, based on observed daily surface air temperatures in winter from 1978 to 2015 at 20 meteorological stations in Beijing. We demonstrate that durations of ECEs follow Weibull distributions, while their intensities fit a generalized extreme value distribution at most stations. The Gumbel–Hougaard copula best described the relationship between duration and intensity of ECEs at most stations. The joint and conditional return periods based on the bivariate copula described both ECE frequency and the corresponding hazard risk. A high risk was calculated for northern and western areas of Beijing, while a lower risk was calculated for urban and southeastern areas. Although the risk of a low temperature event of greater than 3 days with intensity in the range from −12 °C to −15 °C decreased, the risk of extreme low temperature events with durations greater than 2 days and intensity lower than −15 °C increased over the last 18 years. These probabilistic properties provide useful information for both climate change and hazard risk assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle Global Radiative Flux and Cloudiness Variability for the Period 1959–2010 in Belgium: A Comparison between Reanalyses and the Regional Climate Model MAR
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070262
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
The use of regional climate models (RCMs) can partly reduce the biases in global radiative flux (Eg↓) that are found in reanalysis products and global models, as they allow for a finer spatial resolution and a finer parametrisation of surface and
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The use of regional climate models (RCMs) can partly reduce the biases in global radiative flux (Eg↓) that are found in reanalysis products and global models, as they allow for a finer spatial resolution and a finer parametrisation of surface and atmospheric processes. In this study, we assess the ability of the MAR («Modèle Atmosphérique Régional») RCM to reproduce observed changes in Eg↓, and we investigate the added value of MAR with respect to reanalyses. Simulations were performed at a horizontal resolution of 5 km for the period 1959–2010 by forcing MAR with different reanalysis products: ERA40/ERA-interim, NCEP/NCAR-v1, ERA-20C, and 20CRV2C. Measurements of Eg↓ from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and from the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB), as well as cloud cover observations from Belgocontrol and RMIB, were used for the evaluation of the MAR model and the forcing reanalyses. Results show that MAR enables largely reducing the mean biases that are present in the reanalyses. The trend analysis shows that only MAR forced by ERA40/ERA-interim shows historical trends, which is probably because the ERA40/ERA-interim has a better horizontal resolution and assimilates more observations than the other reanalyses that are used in this study. The results suggest that the solar brightening observed since the 1980s in Belgium has mainly been due to decreasing cloud cover. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Climate Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle Application of Farmyard Manure Rather Than Manure Slurry Mitigates the Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Herbage Production System in Nasu, Japan
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070261
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 8 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
In Japan, it is important to recycle the nutrients in manure for forage production because most dairy cattle are fed inside, mainly with imported grain and home-grown roughage. To understand the overall effect of manure use on grassland on the net greenhouse gas
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In Japan, it is important to recycle the nutrients in manure for forage production because most dairy cattle are fed inside, mainly with imported grain and home-grown roughage. To understand the overall effect of manure use on grassland on the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and GHG intensity of herbage production systems, the integrated evaluation of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) is essential. The objective of this study was to compare the net GHG emissions (expressed in CO2-eq ha−1 y−1) and GHG intensity (expressed in CO2-eq Mg–1 dry matter yield) of herbage production based on manure slurry + synthetic fertilizer (slurry system) with that based on farmyard manure + synthetic fertilizer (FYM system). Calculations of net GHG emissions and GHG intensity took into account the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in grassland, the CH4 and N2O emissions from grassland, and GHG emissions related to cattle waste management, synthetic fertilizer manufacture, and fuel consumption for grassland management based on literature data from previous studies. The net GHG emissions and GHG intensity were 36% (6.9 Mg CO2-eq ha−1 y−1) and 41% (0.89 Mg CO2-eq Mg−1), respectively, lower in the FYM system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gases Emission in Agroecosystem)
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Open AccessArticle Subpixel-Based Precipitation Nowcasting with the Pyramid Lucas–Kanade Optical Flow Technique
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070260
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Short-term high-resolution quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) is very important for flash-flood warning, navigation safety, and other hydrological applications. This paper proposes a subpixel-based QPF algorithm using a pyramid Lucas–Kanade optical flow technique (SPLK) for short-time rainfall forecast. The SPLK tracks the storm on
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Short-term high-resolution quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) is very important for flash-flood warning, navigation safety, and other hydrological applications. This paper proposes a subpixel-based QPF algorithm using a pyramid Lucas–Kanade optical flow technique (SPLK) for short-time rainfall forecast. The SPLK tracks the storm on the subpixel level by using the optical flow technique and then extrapolates the precipitation using a linear method through redistribution and interpolation. The SPLK compares with object-based and pixel-based nowcasting algorithms using eight thunderstorm events to assess its performance. The results suggest that the SPLK can perform better nowcasting of precipitation than the object-based and pixel-based algorithms with higher adequacy in tracking and predicting severe storms in 0–2 h lead-time forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precipitation: Measurement and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle The Weather Conditions for Desired Smoke Plumes at a FASMEE Burn Site
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070259
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Weather is an important factor that determines smoke development, which is essential information for planning smoke field measurements. This study identifies the synoptic systems that would favor to produce the desired smoke plumes for the Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE). Daysmoke
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Weather is an important factor that determines smoke development, which is essential information for planning smoke field measurements. This study identifies the synoptic systems that would favor to produce the desired smoke plumes for the Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE). Daysmoke and PB-Piedmont (PB-P) models are used to simulate smoke plume evolution during the day time and smoke drainage and fog formation during the nighttime for hypothetical prescribed burns on 5–8 February 2011 at the Stewart Army Base in the southeastern United States. Daysmoke simulation is evaluated using the measured smoke plume heights of two historical prescribed burns at the Eglin Air Force Base. The simulation results of the hypothetical prescribed burns show that the smoke plume is not fully developed with low plume height during the daytime on 5 February when the burn site is under the warm, moist, and windy conditions connected to a shallow cyclonic system and a cold front. However, smoke drainage and fog are formed during the nighttime. Well-developed smoke plumes, which rise mainly vertically, extend to a majority portion of the planetary boundary layer, and have steady clear boundaries, appear on both 6 and 7 February when the air is cool but dry and calm during a transition between two low-pressure systems. The plume rises higher on the second day, mainly due to lighter winds. The smoke on 8 February shows a loose structure of large horizontal dispersion and low height after passage of a deep low-pressure system with strong cool and dry winds. Smoke drainage and fog formation are rare for the nights during 5–8 February. It is concluded that prescribed burns conducted during a period between two low-pressure systems would likely generate the desired plumes for FASMEE measurement during daytime. Meanwhile, as the fire smolders into the night, the burns would likely lead to fog formation when the burn site is located in the warm and moist section of a low-pressure system or a cold front. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle Cloud Area Distributions of Shallow Cumuli: A New Method for Ground-Based Images
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070258
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
We develop a new approach that resolves cloud area distributions of single-layer shallow cumuli from ground-based observations. Our simple and computationally inexpensive approach uses images obtained from a Total Sky Imager (TSI) and complementary information on cloud base height provided by lidar measurements
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We develop a new approach that resolves cloud area distributions of single-layer shallow cumuli from ground-based observations. Our simple and computationally inexpensive approach uses images obtained from a Total Sky Imager (TSI) and complementary information on cloud base height provided by lidar measurements to estimate cloud equivalent diameter (CED) over a wide range of cloud sizes (about 0.01–3.5 km) with high temporal resolution (30 s). We illustrate the feasibility of our approach by comparing the estimated CEDs with those derived from collocated and coincident high-resolution (0.03 km) Landsat cloud masks with different spatial and temporal patterns of cloud cover collected over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. We demonstrate that (1) good (~7%) agreement between TSI and Landsat characteristic cloud size can be obtained for clouds that fall within the region of the sky observable by the TSI and (2) large clouds that extend beyond this region are responsible for noticeable (~16%) underestimation of the TSI characteristic cloud size. Our approach provides a previously unavailable dataset for process studies in the convective boundary layer and evaluation of shallow cumuli in cloud-resolving models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Subgrid-Scale Modeling in Actuator-Line Based Large-Eddy Simulation of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Wakes
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070257
Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
A large-eddy simulation (LES) study of vertical-axis wind turbine wakes under uniform inflow conditions is performed. Emphasis is placed on exploring the effects of subgrid-scale (SGS) modeling on turbine loading as well as on the formation and development of the wind turbine wake.
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A large-eddy simulation (LES) study of vertical-axis wind turbine wakes under uniform inflow conditions is performed. Emphasis is placed on exploring the effects of subgrid-scale (SGS) modeling on turbine loading as well as on the formation and development of the wind turbine wake. In this regard, the validated LES framework coupled with an actuator-line parametrization is employed. Three different SGS models are considered: the standard Smagorinsky model, the Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic (LSDD) model, and the anisotropic minimum dissipation (AMD) model. The results show that the SGS model has a negligible effect on the mean aerodynamic loads acting on the blades. However, the structure of the wake, including the mean velocity and turbulence statistics, is significantly affected by the SGS closure. In particular, the standard Smagorisnky model with its theoretical model coefficient (i.e., CS0.16) postpones the transition of the wake to turbulence and yields a higher velocity variance in the turbulent region compared to the LSDD and AMD models. This observation is elaborated in more detail by analyzing the resolved-scale turbulent kinetic energy budget inside the wake. It is also shown that, unlike the standard Smagorinsky model, which requires detailed calibrations of the model coefficient, the AMD can yield predictions similar to the LSDD model for the mean and turbulence characteristics of the wake without any tuning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows)
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