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Atmosphere, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2019) – 62 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Fire and smoke models are essential tools for wildland fire decision-making and planning. The Fire [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Accuracy of Balloon Trajectory Forecasts in the Lower Stratosphere
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020102 - 25 Feb 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
This paper investigates the accuracy of simulated long-duration super-pressure balloon trajectories in the lower stratosphere. The observed trajectories were made during the (tropical) Pre-Concordiasi and (polar) Concordiasi campaigns in 2010, while the simulated trajectories are computed using analyses and forecasts from the European [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the accuracy of simulated long-duration super-pressure balloon trajectories in the lower stratosphere. The observed trajectories were made during the (tropical) Pre-Concordiasi and (polar) Concordiasi campaigns in 2010, while the simulated trajectories are computed using analyses and forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System model. In contrast with the polar stratosphere situation, modelling accurate winds in the tropical lower stratosphere remains challenging for numerical weather prediction systems. The accuracy of the simulated tropical trajectories are quantified with the operational products of 2010 and 2016 in order to understand the impact of model physics and vertical resolution improvements. The median errors in these trajectories are large (typically ≳250 km after 24 h), with a significant negative bias in longitude, for both model versions. In contrast, using analyses in which the balloon-borne winds have been assimilated reduces the median error in the balloon position after 24 h to ∼60 km. For future campaigns, we describe operational strategies that take advantage of the geographic distribution and the episodic nature of large error events to anticipate the amplitude of error in trajectory forecasts. We finally stress the importance of a high vertical resolution in the model, given the intense shears encountered in the tropical lower stratosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
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Open AccessEditorial
Integration of Advanced Soft Computing Techniques in Hydrological Predictions
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020101 - 25 Feb 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Recently, extreme events have been occurring more frequently, a possible result of climate change, and have resulted in both significant economic losses as well as loss of life around the world [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Filtration Performance Characteristics of Sticky Aerosol Using Calcium Hydroxide
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020100 - 24 Feb 2019
Viewed by 954
Abstract
This study examined the performance of removing aerosol upon a flow rate variable by agglomerating sticky aerosol with calcium hydroxide and removing cohesive aerosol through an experimental apparatus, simulating an actual painting booth. As a result of examining the performance of the filter [...] Read more.
This study examined the performance of removing aerosol upon a flow rate variable by agglomerating sticky aerosol with calcium hydroxide and removing cohesive aerosol through an experimental apparatus, simulating an actual painting booth. As a result of examining the performance of the filter by fixing the paint spray quantity, the calcium hydroxide input and the filtration area under variable flow rates of 5, 10, and 15 Nm3/min, we confirmed that the filter performance has long average aerosol removing intervals at the 5 Nm3/min flow rate. At the 5 Nm3/min flow rate, there is a low residual pressure drop trend and high fractional collection efficiency, and a high level of total collection efficiency is maintained at 99.42%. When the flow rate is less than 5 Nm3/min, the aerosol settling and experimentation was impossible. With this research, the optimal conditions for the use of sticky aerosol have been examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Tire Wear Contribution to PM2.5 in Urban Environments
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020099 - 23 Feb 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3359
Abstract
Vehicle-related particulate matter (PM) emissions may arise from both exhaust and non-exhaust mechanisms, such as brake wear, tire wear, and road pavement abrasion, each of which may be emitted directly and indirectly through resuspension of settled road dust. Several researchers have indicated that [...] Read more.
Vehicle-related particulate matter (PM) emissions may arise from both exhaust and non-exhaust mechanisms, such as brake wear, tire wear, and road pavement abrasion, each of which may be emitted directly and indirectly through resuspension of settled road dust. Several researchers have indicated that the proportion of PM2.5 attributable to vehicle traffic will increasingly come from non-exhaust sources. Currently, very little empirical data is available to characterize tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in the PM2.5 fraction. As such, this study was undertaken to quantify TRWP in PM2.5 at roadside locations in urban centers including London, Tokyo and Los Angeles, where vehicle traffic is an important contributor to ambient air PM. The samples were analyzed using validated chemical markers for tire tread polymer based on a pyrolysis technique. Results indicated that TRWP concentrations in the PM2.5 fraction were low, with averages ranging from < 0.004 to 0.10 µg/m3, representing an average contribution to total PM2.5 of 0.27%. The TRWP levels in PM2.5 were significantly different between the three cities, with significant differences between London and Los Angeles and Tokyo and Los Angeles. There was no significant correlation between TRWP in PM2.5 and traffic count. This study provides an initial dataset to understand potential human exposure to airborne TRWP and the potential contribution of this non-exhaust emission source to total PM2.5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Sources Apportionment)
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Open AccessEditorial
Ocean Contributions to the Marine Boundary Layer Aerosol Budget
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020098 - 23 Feb 2019
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Projections of future climate remain an important scientific goal for much of the Earth science community [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Contributions to the Marine Boundary Layer Aerosol Budget)
Open AccessArticle
Plum Rain-Season-Oriented Modelling and Intervention of Indoor Humidity with and without Human Occupancy
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020097 - 22 Feb 2019
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
The plum rain season, caused by precipitation along a persistent stationary Mei-Yu front in East Asia, creates favorable temperatures and relative humidity (RH) for mold growth indoors. This paper investigates the effects of human occupancy on indoor humidity and investigates the [...] Read more.
The plum rain season, caused by precipitation along a persistent stationary Mei-Yu front in East Asia, creates favorable temperatures and relative humidity (RH) for mold growth indoors. This paper investigates the effects of human occupancy on indoor humidity and investigates the efficient RH reduction methods to prevent mold growth in moist climates. The research is carried out based on a case study which compares a family-occupied home and another unoccupied one during typical plum rain season in Nanjing. Firstly, by analyzing the factors that can influence the indoor air RH, this paper develops a comprehensive model to evaluate the efficiency of various RH intervention methods. Secondly, this paper collects the meteorological data in Nanjing at different time scales, from days to hours. Thirdly, a specific case study is carried out based on the model and data. The results show that dehumidification and heating can always reduce RH below the critical value under which the mold growth could be inhibited. However, the effects of ventilation are more sophisticated and depend upon the human occupancy, outdoor air temperature, and air change per hour (ACH). In certain unoccupied cases, the ventilation may be inappropriate and may continuously bring moisture outside into the indoor environment, which has adverse effects on mold suppression. In the occupied cases, the condition changes significantly because the human is deemed as an internal source of heat and moist. Special care should be exercised for occupied ventilation in order to determine the optimal ACH and appropriate outdoor temperatures. Finally, some guidance is given to prevent mold growth in the general area that suffers from the plum rain season. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Human Health Risks from Particulate Air Pollution in Selected European Cities
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020096 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
The objective of the current study was to estimate health risk indexes caused by the inhalation of particulate matter (PM) by adult males and children using data sampled in three European cities (Athens, Kuopio, Lisbon). Accordingly, the cancer risk (CR) and the hazard [...] Read more.
The objective of the current study was to estimate health risk indexes caused by the inhalation of particulate matter (PM) by adult males and children using data sampled in three European cities (Athens, Kuopio, Lisbon). Accordingly, the cancer risk (CR) and the hazard quotient (HQ) were estimated from particle-bound metal concentrations whilst the epidemiology-based excess risk (ER), the attributable fraction (AF), and the mortality cases were obtained due to exposure to PM10 and PM2.5. CR and HQ were estimated using two methodologies: the first methodology incorporated the particle-bound metal concentrations (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) whereas the second methodology used the deposited dose rate of particle-bound metals in the respiratory tract. The indoor concentration accounts for 70% infiltration from outdoor air for the time activity periods allocated to indoor environments. HQ was lower than 1 and the cumulative CR was lower than the acceptable level (10−4), although individual CR for some metals exceeded the acceptable limit (10−6). In a lifetime the estimated number of attributable cancer cases was 74, 0.107, and 217 in Athens, Kuopio, and Lisbon, respectively. Excess risk-based mortality estimates (due to outdoor pollution) for fine particles were 3930, 44.1, and 2820 attributable deaths in Athens, Kuopio, and Lisbon, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aerosols)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial and Temporal Variations of Compound Droughts and Hot Extremes in China
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020095 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Droughts and hot extremes may lead to tremendous impacts on the ecosystem and different sectors of the society. A variety of studies have been conducted on the variability of the individual drought or hot extreme in China. However, the evaluation of compound droughts [...] Read more.
Droughts and hot extremes may lead to tremendous impacts on the ecosystem and different sectors of the society. A variety of studies have been conducted on the variability of the individual drought or hot extreme in China. However, the evaluation of compound droughts and hot extremes, which may induce even larger impacts than the individual drought or hot extreme, is still lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in the frequency and spatial extent of compound droughts and hot extremes during summer in China using monthly precipitation and daily temperature data from 1953 to 2012. Results show that a high frequency of compound droughts and hot extremes mostly occur in the regions stretching from northeast to southwest of China. There is an overall increase in the frequency of co-occurrence of droughts and hot extremes across most parts of China with distinct regional patterns. In addition, an increasing trend in the areas covered by compound extremes has been observed, especially after the 1990s. At regional scales, the increase of the frequency and spatial extent of compound extremes has been shown to be most profound in North China (NC), South China (SC), and Southwest China (SWC), while the decrease of compound extremes was found in Central China (CC). These results show the variability of compound droughts and hot extremes and could provide useful insights into the mitigation efforts of extreme events in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weather and Climate Extremes: Current Developments)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Drought Events and Correlations with Large-Scale Ocean–Atmospheric Patterns of Variability: A Case Study in Xinjiang, China
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020094 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
This research analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of drought in Xinjiang (northwestern China) between 1961 and 2015 using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). Furthermore, the correlations between Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO)/El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and drought were explored. The results suggested an [...] Read more.
This research analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of drought in Xinjiang (northwestern China) between 1961 and 2015 using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). Furthermore, the correlations between Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO)/El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and drought were explored. The results suggested an obvious trend toward aggravated drought, with a significant inflection point in 1997, after which the frequency of drought increased sharply. Spatially, the increase in drought occurred largely in southern and eastern Xinjiang, where occurrences of moderate and extreme drought have become more frequent during the last two decades, whereas northwestern Xinjiang and the Pamir Plateau showed wetting trends. Empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOF) of drought patterns showed a north–south antiphase and an east–west antiphase distribution. The positive (negative) phase of the AMO was related to increased (decreased) drought in Xinjiang, particularly after 1997. During a warm phase (El Niño), major droughts occurred over northern Xinjiang, but they lagged by 12 months. However, not all El Niño and La Niña events were responsible for drought events in northern Xinjiang during this period, and other drivers remain to be identified. This study suggests the possibility of AMO and ENSO links to drought in Xinjiang, but further analysis is needed to better understand such mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meteorological and Hydrological Droughts)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Performance of CMIP5 GCMs for Projection of Future Temperature Change over the Lower Mekong Basin
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020093 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
In this study, we assessed the performance of 34 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general climate models (GCMs) for simulating the observed temperature over the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) in 1961–2004. An improved score-based method was used to rank the performance [...] Read more.
In this study, we assessed the performance of 34 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general climate models (GCMs) for simulating the observed temperature over the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) in 1961–2004. An improved score-based method was used to rank the performance of the GCMs over the LMB. Two methods of multi-model ensemble (MME), sub-ensemble from the top 25% ranked GCMs and full ensemble from the entire GCMs, were calculated using arithmetic mean (AM) method and downscaled using the Delta method to project future temperature change during two future time periods, the near future (2006–2049) and the far future (2050–2093), under representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios) over the LMB. The improved score-based method combining multiple criteria showed a robust assessment of the GCMs performance over the LMB, which can provide good information for projecting future temperature change. The results showed a significant increase in temperature over the LMB under the two ensembles. However, there were differences in the magnitudes of the future temperature increase between the two ensemble methods, with a higher mean annual temperature increase from full ensemble and sub-ensemble at 1.26 °C (1.09 °C), 1.90 °C (1.70 °C), and 2.97 °C (2.78 °C) during 2050–2093 under the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios compared to the values at 0.93 °C (0.87 °C), 0.99 °C (0.95 °C), and 1.09 °C (1.06 °C) during 2006–2049, respectively, relative to the reference time period of 1961–2004. In the future (2006–2093), the temperature is likely to increase at 0.06 °C, 0.18 °C, and 0.39 °C decade−1 under the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios by the sub-ensemble, while a higher temperature increase at 0.08 °C, 0.20 °C, and 0.42 °C was found by the full ensemble over the LMB, relative to the reference time period of 1961–2004. On the whole, the higher warming mainly occurred in the northern and central areas over the LMB, while the lower warming mainly occurred in the southeast and the southwest, especially under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, with the warming increased with increasing RCP for both ensembles. Moreover, in order to reduce the uncertainty of temperature projection in further studies in the LMB, multiple methods of GCMs ensemble should be considered and compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Global Blocking Character in Recent Decades
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020092 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
A global blocking climatology published by this group for events that occurred during the late 20th century examined a comprehensive list of characteristics that included block intensity (BI). In addition to confirming the results of other published climatologies, they found that Northern Hemisphere [...] Read more.
A global blocking climatology published by this group for events that occurred during the late 20th century examined a comprehensive list of characteristics that included block intensity (BI). In addition to confirming the results of other published climatologies, they found that Northern Hemisphere (NH) blocking events (1968–1998) were stronger than Southern Hemisphere (SH) blocks and winter events are stronger than summer events in both hemispheres. This work also examined the interannual variability of blocking as related to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Since the late 20th century, there is evidence that the occurrence of blocking has increased globally. A comparison of blocking characteristics since 1998 (1998–2018 NH; 2000–2018 SH) shows that the number of blocking events and their duration have increased significantly in both hemispheres. The blocking BI has decreased by about six percent in the NH, but there was little change in the BI for the SH events. Additionally, there is little or no change in the primary genesis regions of blocking. An examination of variability related to ENSO reveals that the NH interannual-scale variations found in the earlier work has reversed in the early 21st century. This could either be the result of interdecadal variability or a change in the climate. Interdecadal variations are examined as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Dry-Heat Cooking of Meats as a Source of Airborne N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020091 - 20 Feb 2019
Viewed by 1282
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the airborne release of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a result of the dry-heat cooking of some meats using charcoal grilling and pan-broiling methods. Three types of meat (beef sirloin, pork belly, and duck) were chosen and cooked in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the airborne release of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a result of the dry-heat cooking of some meats using charcoal grilling and pan-broiling methods. Three types of meat (beef sirloin, pork belly, and duck) were chosen and cooked in a temporary building using the above methods. Air samples were collected in Thermosorb-N cartridges, which were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for NDMA using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography–fluorescence detection, respectively. Overall, the charcoal grilling method showed higher average NDMA concentrations than the pan-broiling method for all types of meat. The highest average concentration was observed for charcoal-grilled beef sirloin (410 ng/m3) followed by pork belly, suggesting that meat protein content and cooking duration are important determinants of NDMA formation. Cancer risk assessment showed that the charcoal grilling of such meats can pose an additional cancer risk for restaurant customers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Pollution)
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Open AccessArticle
Climatic Effects of China Large-Scale Urbanization on East Asian Summer Monsoon under Different Phases of Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020090 - 20 Feb 2019
Viewed by 916
Abstract
The effects of urbanization over eastern China on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) under different sea surface temperature background are compared using a Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5.1). Experiments of urbanization investigated by comparing two climate simulations with and without urban land cover [...] Read more.
The effects of urbanization over eastern China on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) under different sea surface temperature background are compared using a Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5.1). Experiments of urbanization investigated by comparing two climate simulations with and without urban land cover under both positive and negative phases of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) show the spatial distribution of precipitation with ‘southern flood and northern drought’ and weakening status of EASM. The climate effect of urbanization in eastern China is significantly different from north to south. Anomalous vertical ascending motion due to the role of urbanization in the south of 30° N have induced an increase in convective available potential energy (CAPE) and precipitation increase over southern China. At the same time, the downward vertical motion occurs in the north of 30° N which cause warming over northern China. Due to the anti-cyclonic anomalies in the upper and lower layers of the north, the monsoon circulation is weakened which can reduce the precipitation. However, urbanization impact under various phases of PDO show different effect. In the 1956–1970 urbanization experiments of negative PDO phase, the downward vertical motion and anti-cyclonic anomalies in the north of 30° N are also weaker than that of positive phase of PDO in 1982–1996. In terms of this situation, the urbanization experiments of negative phase of PDO reveal that the range of the warming area over the north of 40° N is small, and the warming intensity is weak, but the precipitation change is more obvious compared with the background of positive phase of PDO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Linkage of the Large-Scale Circulation Pattern to a Long-Lived Heatwave over Mideastern China in 2018
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020089 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
In this study, the large-scale circulation patterns (a blocking high, wave trains and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH)) associated with a wide ranging and highly intense long-lived heatwave in China during the summer of 2018 are examined using both observational data and [...] Read more.
In this study, the large-scale circulation patterns (a blocking high, wave trains and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH)) associated with a wide ranging and highly intense long-lived heatwave in China during the summer of 2018 are examined using both observational data and reanalysis data. Four hot periods are extracted from the heatwave and these are related to anticyclones (hereafter referred to as heatwave anticyclone) over the hot region. Further analysis shows a relationship between the heatwave anticyclone and a synthesis of low, mid- and high latitude circulation systems. In the mid-high latitudes, a midlatitude wave train and a high latitude wave train are associated with a relay process which maintains the heatwave anticyclone. The midlatitude wave train acts during 16–21 July, whereas the high latitude wave train takes affect during 22–28 July. The transition between the two wave trains leads to the northward movement of the hot region. With the help of a wave flux analysis, it was found that both wave trains originate from the positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO+) which acts as an Atlantic wave source. Serving as a circulation background, the blocking situated over the Scandinavia-Ural sector is maintained for 18 days from 14 to 15 August, which is accompanied by the persistent wave trains and the heatwave anticyclone. Additionally, the abnormal northward movement of the WPSH and its combination with the high latitude wave train lead to the occurrence of extreme hot weather in north-eastern China occurring during the summer of 2018. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Semivolatile Organic Nitrates in Ambient Atmosphere by Gas Chromatography/Electron Ionization–Mass Spectrometry
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020088 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Semivolatile organic nitrates (SVONs) contribute a large proportion of total organic nitrates and play an important role in the tropospheric chemistry. However, the composition and concentrations of SVONs in the atmosphere remain unclear due to the lack of reliable analytical techniques for specific [...] Read more.
Semivolatile organic nitrates (SVONs) contribute a large proportion of total organic nitrates and play an important role in the tropospheric chemistry. However, the composition and concentrations of SVONs in the atmosphere remain unclear due to the lack of reliable analytical techniques for specific organic nitrates. In this study, a method based on gas chromatography and electron ionization–mass spectrometry was developed to detect ambient SVONs that were collected via polyurethane foam disk enrichment. Three SVONs were identified in the semivolatile samples from urban Jinan during spring based on the characteristic fragment ions of [NO2]+ and [CH2NO3]+ and the characteristic fragment loss of NO2 and NO3: 1-pentyl nitrate (molecular weight [MW] = 133), 4-hydroxy-isoprene nitrate (MW = 147), and (3,4)-di-hydroxy-isoprene nitrate (MW = 163). The latter two isoprene nitrates were rarely detected in the real atmosphere in previous studies. The contents of 1-pentyl nitrate, 4-hydroxy-isoprene nitrate, and (3,4)-di-hydroxy-isoprene nitrate were roughly quantified based on the standard of 1-pentyl nitrate, with a detection limit of 50 μg L−1. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was used to determine the total SVONs content. The average concentrations of 1-pentyl nitrate, 4-hydroxy-isoprene nitrate, (3,4)-di-hydroxy-isoprene nitrate, and total SVONs in Jinan during spring were 20.2 ± 7.2, 13.2 ± 7.2, 36.5 ± 8.4, and 380.0 ± 190.8 ng m−3, respectively. The three identified SVONs contributed only 20.2 ± 5.5% to the total SVONs, which suggests that some unidentified SVONs are present in the ambient atmosphere and that studies with improved or advanced analytical techniques will be required to identify them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Construction of Initial Condition Perturbations for the Regional Ensemble Prediction System of North China
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020087 - 19 Feb 2019
Viewed by 856
Abstract
The regional ensemble prediction system (REPS) of North China is currently under development at the Institute of Urban Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, with initial condition perturbations provided by global ensemble dynamical downscaling. To improve the performance of the REPS, a comparison of two [...] Read more.
The regional ensemble prediction system (REPS) of North China is currently under development at the Institute of Urban Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, with initial condition perturbations provided by global ensemble dynamical downscaling. To improve the performance of the REPS, a comparison of two initial condition perturbation methods is conducted in this paper: (i) Breeding, which was specifically designed for the REPS, and (ii) Dynamical downscaling. Consecutive tests were implemented to evaluate the performances of both methods in the operational REPS environment. The perturbation characteristics were analyzed, and ensemble forecast verifications were conducted. Furthermore, a heavy precipitation case was investigated. The main conclusions are as follows: the Breeding perturbations were more powerful at small scales, while the downscaling perturbations were more powerful at large scales; the difference between the two perturbation types gradually decreased with the forecast lead time. The downscaling perturbation growth was more remarkable than that of the Breeding perturbations at short forecast lead times, while the perturbation magnitudes of both schemes were similar for long-range forecasts. However, the Breeding perturbations contained more abundant small-scale components than downscaling for the short-range forecasts. The ensemble forecast verification indicated a slightly better downscaling ensemble performance than that of the Breeding ensemble. A precipitation case study indicated that the Breeding ensemble performance was better than that of downscaling, particularly in terms of location and strength of the precipitation forecast. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Roles of Rainout and Post-Condensation Processes in a Landfalling Atmospheric River with Stable Isotopes in Precipitation and Water Vapor
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020086 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Atmospheric rivers (ARs), and frontal systems more broadly, tend to exhibit prominent “V” shapes in time series of stable isotopes in precipitation. Despite the magnitude and widespread nature of these “V” shapes, debate persists as to whether these shifts are driven by changes [...] Read more.
Atmospheric rivers (ARs), and frontal systems more broadly, tend to exhibit prominent “V” shapes in time series of stable isotopes in precipitation. Despite the magnitude and widespread nature of these “V” shapes, debate persists as to whether these shifts are driven by changes in the degree of rainout, which we determine using the Rayleigh distillation of stable isotopes, or by post-condensation processes such as below-cloud evaporation and equilibrium isotope exchange between hydrometeors and surrounding vapor. Here, we present paired precipitation and water vapor isotope time series records from the 5–7 March 2016, AR in Bodega Bay, CA. The stable isotope composition of surface vapor along with independent meteorological constraints such as temperature and relative humidity reveal that rainout and post-condensation processes dominate during different portions of the event. We find that Rayleigh distillation controls during peak AR conditions (with peak rainout of 55%) while post-condensation processes have their greatest effect during periods of decreased precipitation on the margins of the event. These results and analyses inform critical questions regarding the temporal evolution of AR events and the physical processes that control them at local scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Rivers)
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Open AccessArticle
Algorithm for Improved QPE over Complex Terrain Using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Occurrences
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020085 - 19 Feb 2019
Viewed by 732
Abstract
Lightning and deep convective precipitation have long been studied as closely linked variables, the former being viewed as a proxy, or estimator, of the latter. However, to date, no single methodology or algorithm exists for estimating lightning-derived precipitation in a gridded form. This [...] Read more.
Lightning and deep convective precipitation have long been studied as closely linked variables, the former being viewed as a proxy, or estimator, of the latter. However, to date, no single methodology or algorithm exists for estimating lightning-derived precipitation in a gridded form. This paper, the third in a series, details the specific algorithm where convective rainfall was estimated with cloud-to-ground lightning occurrences from the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), for the North American Monsoon region. Specifically, the authors present the methodology employed in their previous studies to get this estimation, noise test, spatial and temporal neighbors and the algorithm of the Kalman filter for dynamically derived precipitation from lightning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Assimilation of Data Derived from Optimal-Member Products of TREPS for Convection-Permitting TC Forecasting over Southern China
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020084 - 18 Feb 2019
Viewed by 804
Abstract
To improve the landfalling tropical cyclone (TC) forecasting, the pseudo inner-core observations derived from the optimal-member forecast (OPT) and its probability-matched mean (OPTPM) of a mesoscale ensemble prediction system, namely TREPS, were assimilated in a partial-cycle data assimilation (DA) system based on the [...] Read more.
To improve the landfalling tropical cyclone (TC) forecasting, the pseudo inner-core observations derived from the optimal-member forecast (OPT) and its probability-matched mean (OPTPM) of a mesoscale ensemble prediction system, namely TREPS, were assimilated in a partial-cycle data assimilation (DA) system based on the three-dimensional variational method. The impact of assimilating the derived data on the 12-h TC forecasting was evaluated over 17 TCs making landfall on Southern China during 2014–2016, based on the convection-permitting Global/Regional Assimilation and Prediction System (GRAPES) model with the horizontal resolution of 0.03°. The positive impacts of assimilating the OPT-derived data were found in predicting some variables, such as the TC intensity, lighter rainfall, and stronger surface wind, with statistically significant impacts at partial lead times. Compared with assimilation of the OPT-derived data, assimilation of the OPTPM-derived data generally brought improvements in the forecasts of TC track, intensity, lighter rainfall, and weaker surface wind. When the data with higher accuracy was assimilated, the positive impacts of assimilating the OPTPM-derived data on the forecasts of heavier rainfall and stronger surface wind were more evident. The improved representation of initial TC circulation due to assimilating the derived data improved the TC forecasting, which was intuitively illustrated in the case study of Mujigae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land–Atmosphere Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Time-Scaling Properties of Sunshine Duration Based on Detrended Fluctuation Analysis over China
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020083 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
The spatial and temporal variabilities of the daily Sunshine Duration (SSD) time series from the Chinese Meteorological Administration during the 1954–2009 period are examined by the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method. As a whole, weak long-range correlations (LRCs) are found in the daily [...] Read more.
The spatial and temporal variabilities of the daily Sunshine Duration (SSD) time series from the Chinese Meteorological Administration during the 1954–2009 period are examined by the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method. As a whole, weak long-range correlations (LRCs) are found in the daily SSD anomaly records over China. LRCs are also verified by shuffling the SSD records. The proportion of the stations with LRCs accounts for about 97% of the total. Many factors affect the scaling properties of the daily SSD records such as sea-land difference and Tibetan Plateau landform and so on. We find land use and land cover as one of the important factors closely links to LRCs of the SSD. Strong LRCs of the SSD mainly happen in underlying surface of deserts and crops, while weak LRCs occur in forest and grassland. Further studies of scaling behaviors are still necessary to be performed due to the complex underlying surface and climate system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Drought in the Western United States: Its Connections with Large-Scale Oceanic Oscillations
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020082 - 16 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 936
Abstract
In this paper, we applied the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis on a drought index expressed as consecutive dry days (CDD) to identify the drought variability in western United States. Based on the EOF analysis, correlation maps were generated between the leading principle [...] Read more.
In this paper, we applied the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis on a drought index expressed as consecutive dry days (CDD) to identify the drought variability in western United States. Based on the EOF analysis, correlation maps were generated between the leading principle component (PC) of seasonal CDD and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies to explore the dynamic context of the leading modes in CDD. The EOF analysis indicates that the spatiotemporal pattern of winter CDD is related to an integrated impact from El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), while summer CDD is mainly controlled by PDO phases. We also calculated seasonal CDD anomalies during selected climatic phases to further evaluate the impacts of large-scale oceanic oscillation on the spatial pattern of droughts. We found that AMO+/PDO− will contribute to a consistent drought condition during the winter in the western United States. El Niño will bring a dry winter to the northern part of western United States while La Niña will bring a dry winter to the southern part. During El Niño years, the drought center changes with the type of El Niño events. Considering the future states of the examined ocean oscillations, we suggest possible drier than normal conditions in the western United States for upcoming decades, and moreover, an intensified drought for the coast areas of the north Pacific region and upper Mississippi River Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Gravity Wave Propagation from the Stratosphere into the Mesosphere Studied with Lidar, Meteor Radar, and TIMED/SABER
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020081 - 16 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
A low-frequency inertial atmospheric gravity wave (AGW) event was studied with lidar (40.5° N, 116° E), meteor radar (40.3° N, 116.2° E), and TIMED/SABER at Beijing on 30 May 2012. Lidar measurements showed that the atmospheric temperature structure was persistently perturbed by AGWs [...] Read more.
A low-frequency inertial atmospheric gravity wave (AGW) event was studied with lidar (40.5° N, 116° E), meteor radar (40.3° N, 116.2° E), and TIMED/SABER at Beijing on 30 May 2012. Lidar measurements showed that the atmospheric temperature structure was persistently perturbed by AGWs propagating upward from the stratosphere into the mesosphere (35–86 km). The dominant contribution was from the waves with vertical wavelengths λ z = 8 10   km and wave periods T ob = 6.6 ± 0.7   h . Simultaneous observations from a meteor radar illustrated that MLT horizontal winds were perturbed by waves propagating upward with an azimuth angle of θ = 247 ° , and the vertical wavelength ( λ z = 10   km ) and intrinsic period ( T in = 7.4   h ) of the dominant waves were inferred with the hodograph method. TIMED/SABER measurements illustrated that the vertical temperature profiles were also perturbed by waves with dominant vertical wavelength λ z = 6 9   km . Observations from three different instruments were compared, and it was found that signatures in the temperature perturbations and horizontal winds were induced by identical AGWs. According to these coordinated observation results, the horizontal wavelength and intrinsic phase speed were inferred to be ~560 km and ~21 m/s, respectively. Analyses of the Brunt-Väisälä frequency and potential energy illustrated that this persistent wave propagation had good static stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Artificial Intelligence Based Ensemble Modeling for Multi-Station Prediction of Precipitation
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020080 - 15 Feb 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
The aim of ensemble precipitation prediction in this paper was to achieve the best performance via artificial intelligence (AI) based modeling. In this way, ensemble AI based modeling was proposed for prediction of monthly precipitation with three different AI models (feed forward neural [...] Read more.
The aim of ensemble precipitation prediction in this paper was to achieve the best performance via artificial intelligence (AI) based modeling. In this way, ensemble AI based modeling was proposed for prediction of monthly precipitation with three different AI models (feed forward neural network-FFNN, adaptive neural fuzzy inference system-ANFIS and least square support vector machine-LSSVM) for the seven stations located in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Two scenarios were examined each having specific inputs set. The scenario 1 was developed for predicting each station’s precipitation through its own data at previous time steps while in scenario 2, the central station’s data were imposed into the models, in addition to each station’s data, as exogenous input. Afterwards, the ensemble modeling was generated to improve the performance of the precipitation predictions. To end this aim, two linear and one non-linear ensemble techniques were used and then the obtained outcomes were compared. In terms of efficiency measures, the averaging methods employing scenario 2 and non-linear ensemble method revealed higher prediction efficiency. Also, in terms of Skill score, non-linear neural ensemble method could enhance predicting efficiency up to 44% in the verification step. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulating the Effects of Urban Parameterizations on the Passage of a Cold Front During a Pollution Episode in Megacity Shanghai
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020079 - 15 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Urbanization significantly influences meteorological conditions and air quality. Statistically, air pollution in the megacity of Shanghai usually occurs with cold weather fronts. An air pollution episode during a cold front was simulated using weather research and forecasting and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality [...] Read more.
Urbanization significantly influences meteorological conditions and air quality. Statistically, air pollution in the megacity of Shanghai usually occurs with cold weather fronts. An air pollution episode during a cold front was simulated using weather research and forecasting and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model system. In this study, we used two urban schemes, a simple bulk scheme (denoted BULK) and the single-layer urban canopy model (SLUCM), to check the effects of urban parameterization. Our results showed that SLUCM better predicted the arrival time and cooling process of the cold front and more realistically simulated the moving process of the cold front. The improvement in the temperature and relative humidity simulation achieved using SLUCM was more effective under higher urbanization levels, whereas the wind speed simulation was better in rural areas. The simulated concentrations at sites with high urbanization were obviously improved by urban parameterization. The barrier role of the urban canopy during a cold front was better represented and was shown to cause a wider polluted area and higher pollutant concentration using SLUCM than with BULK. Overall, accurate meteorological simulations in the atmospheric boundary layer using SLUCM are expected to provide good prediction of urban air quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biometeorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics and Sources of Water-Soluble Ions in PM2.5 in the Sichuan Basin, China
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020078 - 15 Feb 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
To track the particulate pollution in Sichuan Basin, sample filters were collected in three urban sites. Characteristics of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were explored and their sources were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). During 2012–2013, the PM2.5 concentrations were 86.7 ± [...] Read more.
To track the particulate pollution in Sichuan Basin, sample filters were collected in three urban sites. Characteristics of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were explored and their sources were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). During 2012–2013, the PM2.5 concentrations were 86.7 ± 49.7 μg m−3 in Chengdu (CD), 78.6 ± 36.8 μg m−3 in Neijiang (NJ), and 71.7 ± 36.9 μg m−3 in Chongqing (CQ), respectively. WSIIs contributed about 50% to PM2.5, and 90% of them were secondary inorganic ions. NH4+ and NO3 roughly followed the seasonal pattern of PM2.5 variations, whereas the highest levels of SO42− appeared in summer and autumn. PM2.5 samples were most acidic in autumn and winter, but were alkaline in spring. The aerosol acidity increased with the increasing level of anion equivalents. SO42− primarily existed in the form of (NH4)2SO4. Full neutralization of NH4+ to NO3 was only observed in low levels of SO42− + NO3, and NO3 existed in various forms. SO42− and NO3 were formed mainly through homogeneous reactions, and there was the existence of heterogeneous reactions under high relative humidity. The main identified sources of WSIIs included coal combustion, biomass burning, and construction dust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Aerosol Regional Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Vertical Air Motion on Disdrometer Derived Z-R Coefficients
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020077 - 14 Feb 2019
Viewed by 875
Abstract
For synoptic-scale motions the vertical velocity component is typically of the order of a few centimeters per second. In general, the vertical velocity is not measured directly but must be inferred from other meteorological fields that are measured directly. In the present study, [...] Read more.
For synoptic-scale motions the vertical velocity component is typically of the order of a few centimeters per second. In general, the vertical velocity is not measured directly but must be inferred from other meteorological fields that are measured directly. In the present study, a Joss–Waldvogel disdrometer was used in order to establish the drop size distributions (DSD) at Athalassa, Cyprus. Data from a radiosonde station co-located with the disdrometer were also collected which were subsequently used to derive estimates of vertical velocities. Meteorological fields, including vertical velocities, were extracted from an atmospheric reanalysis, for an area centered over the disdrometer and radiosonde station instrumentation. The disdrometer data were used to determine the Z-R disdrometer derived coefficients, A and b, where Z = A Rb. To model the vertical air effect on the Z-R disdrometer derived coefficients an idealistic notion of flux conservation of the DSD is adopted. This adjusted DSD (FCM-DSD) is based on the exponential DSD and is modified by the relationship between drop terminal velocity (D) and vertical air speed w . The FCM-DSD has a similar appearance to the popular gamma DSD for w < 0. A clear segregation is seen in the A-w plane for both data and model. The data points are also clearly segregated in the b- w plane, but the model points are on opposite sides of the w = 0 line. It is also demonstrated that vertical velocities can be extracted from radiosonde data if initial balloon volume is accurately measured, along with an accurate measurement of the mass of the complete radiosonde-balloon system. To accomplish this, vertical velocities from radiosonde data were compared to reanalysis vertical velocity fields. The resulting values of initial balloon volume are found to be within the range of measured values. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Testing Iron Stable Isotope Ratios as a Signature of Biomass Burning
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020076 - 12 Feb 2019
Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Biomass burning is an important source of soluble Fe transported to the open ocean; however, its exact contribution remains unclear. Iron isotope ratios can be used as a tracer because Fe emitted by combustion can yield very low Fe isotope ratios due to [...] Read more.
Biomass burning is an important source of soluble Fe transported to the open ocean; however, its exact contribution remains unclear. Iron isotope ratios can be used as a tracer because Fe emitted by combustion can yield very low Fe isotope ratios due to isotope fractionation during evaporation processes. However, data on Fe isotope ratios of aerosol particles emitted during biomass burning are lacking. We collected size-fractionated aerosol samples before, during, and after a biomass burning event and compared their Fe isotope ratios. On the basis of the concentrations of several elements and Fe species, Fe emitted during the event mainly comprised suspended soil particles in all the size fractions. Iron isotope ratios of fine particles before and after the event were low due to the influence of other anthropogenic combustion sources, but they were closer to the crustal value during the event because of the influence of Fe from suspended soil. Although Fe isotope ratios of soluble Fe were also measured to reduce Fe from soil components, we did not find low isotope signals. Results suggested that Fe isotope ratios could not identify Fe emitted by biomass burning, and low Fe isotope ratios are found only when the combustion temperature is high enough for a sufficient amount of Fe to evaporate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality in the Asia-Pacific Region)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Relationship between Gravity Waves and Tropopause Height and Temperature over the Globe Revealed by COSMIC Radio Occultation Measurements
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020075 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1033
Abstract
In this study, the relationship between gravity wave (GW) potential energy (Ep) and the tropopause height and temperature over the globe was investigated using COSMIC radio occultation (RO) dry temperature profiles during September 2006 to May 2013. The monthly means of GW Ep [...] Read more.
In this study, the relationship between gravity wave (GW) potential energy (Ep) and the tropopause height and temperature over the globe was investigated using COSMIC radio occultation (RO) dry temperature profiles during September 2006 to May 2013. The monthly means of GW Ep with a vertical resolution of 1 km and tropopause parameters were calculated for each 5° × 5° longitude-latitude grid. The correlation coefficients between Ep values at different altitudes and the tropopause height and temperature were calculated accordingly in each grid. It was found that at middle and high latitudes, GW Ep over the altitude range from lapse rate tropopause (LRT) to several km above had a significantly positive/negative correlation with LRT height (LRT-H)/ LRT temperature (LRT-T) and the peak correlation coefficients were determined over the altitudes of 10–14 km with distinct zonal distribution characteristics. While in the tropics, the distributions of the statistically significant correlation coefficients between GW Ep and LRT/cold point tropopause (CPT) parameters were dispersive and the peak correlation were are calculated over the altitudes of 14–38 km. At middle and high latitudes, the temporal variations of the monthly means and the monthly anomalies of the LRT parameters and GW Ep over the altitude of 13 km showed that LRT-H/LRT-T increases/decreases with the increase of Ep, which indicates that LRT was lifted and became cooler when GWs propagated from the troposphere to the stratosphere. In the tropical regions, statistically significant positive/negative correlations exist between GW Ep over the altitude of 17–19 km and LRT-H/LRT-T where deep convections occur and on the other hand, strong correlations exist between convections and the tropopause parameters in most seasons, which indicates that low and cold tropopause appears in deep convection regions. Thus, in the tropics, both deep convections and GWs excited accordingly have impacts on the tropopause structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Cumulus Parameterization on Model Convergence of Tropical Cyclone Destructive Potential Simulation at Grey-Zone Resolutions: A Numerical Investigation
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020074 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 936
Abstract
The Weather Research Forecast model (WRF) is used to examine the destructive potential of tropical cyclone (TC) Shanshan (2006) at various horizontal resolutions (7.5 km–1 km) with different cumulus parameterization (CP) schemes. It is found that the calculated Power Dissipation Index (PDI) increases [...] Read more.
The Weather Research Forecast model (WRF) is used to examine the destructive potential of tropical cyclone (TC) Shanshan (2006) at various horizontal resolutions (7.5 km–1 km) with different cumulus parameterization (CP) schemes. It is found that the calculated Power Dissipation Index (PDI) increases while the size-dependent destructive potential (PDS) decreases as the grid spacing decreases for all CP-scheme simulations, which indicates a weak model convergence in both PDI and PDS calculations. Moreover, it is change of the storm intensity and inner-core size that lead to the non-convergence of PDI and PDS respectively. At a higher resolution, convection becomes more explicitly resolved, which leads to larger diabatic heating. As a result, the radial pressure gradient force (PGF) increases, and the radius of maximum wind (RMW) decreases. The area of strong diabatic heating subsequently becomes closer to the TC center, which further increases the TC intensity and the PGF near the eyewall. With such a positive feedback loop, the PGF increases and the RMW decreases as the resolution increases. Note that a perfect model should converge well in the simulation of both TC intensity and size, and thus converge in the PDS. For some CP experiments, the calculated PDS convergence is relatively strong, but it is a result of offset between the non-convergent simulations of TC intensity and size. In contrast, the Grell–Freitas scheme exhibits a stronger convergence in the simulations of TC intensity and size, although the convergence in PDS is relatively weak, but is closer to the truth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Mesoscale Weather Analysis and Prediction)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Distribution, Chemical Speciation and Health Risk of Heavy Metals from Settled Dust in Qingdao Urban Area
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020073 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 988
Abstract
Settled dust samples were collected from Qingdao urban area to analyze the spatial distribution, chemical speciation and sources of metals, and to evaluate the health risk of metals from atmospheric dust. The average contents of Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn [...] Read more.
Settled dust samples were collected from Qingdao urban area to analyze the spatial distribution, chemical speciation and sources of metals, and to evaluate the health risk of metals from atmospheric dust. The average contents of Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the atmospheric settled dust of Qingdao were 0.17, 0.75, 153.1, 456.7, 60.9, 176.0 and 708.3 mg/kg, respectively, which were higher than soil background values. The mean exchangeable metal and carbonated-associated fraction proportions of Cd, Zn and Pb were 43.6%, 26.1% and 15%, which implies that they have high mobility and bioavailability. Higher contents of heavy metals appeared in old city areas because of the historical accumulation of metals. Principal component analysis showed that combustion sources partially contributed to Pb, Zn and other trace metals. Hg, Pb and Zn mainly originated from business, human activities and municipal construction. Cd and Cu from settled dust of the old city originated from the erosion and ageing of construction materials. The non-carcinogenic risk rankings for the seven determined heavy metals were ingestion > dermal > inhalation. Cd, Cr and Ni from settled dust showed a low carcinogenic risk. The health risks of Cr, Cu and Pb were higher in old city areas and, therefore, need special attention. Full article
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