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Genes, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2018)

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Open AccessArticle How Long Are Long Tandem Repeats? A Challenge for Current Methods of Whole-Genome Sequence Assembly: The Case of Satellites in Caenorhabditis elegans
Genes 2018, 9(10), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100500 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Repetitive genome regions have been difficult to sequence, mainly because of the comparatively small size of the fragments used in assembly. Satellites or tandem repeats are very abundant in nematodes and offer an excellent playground to evaluate different assembly methods. Here, we compare
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Repetitive genome regions have been difficult to sequence, mainly because of the comparatively small size of the fragments used in assembly. Satellites or tandem repeats are very abundant in nematodes and offer an excellent playground to evaluate different assembly methods. Here, we compare the structure of satellites found in three different assemblies of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome: the original sequence obtained by Sanger sequencing, an assembly based on PacBio technology, and an assembly using Nanopore sequencing reads. In general, satellites were found in equivalent genomic regions, but the new long-read methods (PacBio and Nanopore) tended to result in longer assembled satellites. Important differences exist between the assemblies resulting from the two long-read technologies, such as the sizes of long satellites. Our results also suggest that the lengths of some annotated genes with internal repeats which were assembled using Sanger sequencing are likely to be incorrect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Bioinformatics Analysis and Functional Prediction of Transmembrane Proteins in Entamoeba histolytica
Genes 2018, 9(10), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100499 (registering DOI)
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Entamoeba histolytica is an invasive, pathogenic parasite causing amoebiasis. Given that proteins involved in transmembrane (TM) transport are crucial for the adherence, invasion, and nutrition of the parasite, we conducted a genome-wide bioinformatics analysis of encoding proteins to functionally classify and characterize all
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Entamoeba histolytica is an invasive, pathogenic parasite causing amoebiasis. Given that proteins involved in transmembrane (TM) transport are crucial for the adherence, invasion, and nutrition of the parasite, we conducted a genome-wide bioinformatics analysis of encoding proteins to functionally classify and characterize all the TM proteins in E. histolytica. In the present study, 692 TM proteins have been identified, of which 546 are TM transporters. For the first time, we report a set of 141 uncharacterized proteins predicted as TM transporters. The percentage of TM proteins was found to be lower in comparison to the free-living eukaryotes, due to the extracellular nature and functional diversification of the TM proteins. The number of multi-pass proteins is larger than the single-pass proteins; though both have their own significance in parasitism, multi-pass proteins are more extensively required as these are involved in acquiring nutrition and for ion transport, while single-pass proteins are only required at the time of inciting infection. Overall, this intestinal parasite implements multiple mechanisms for establishing infection, obtaining nutrition, and adapting itself to the new host environment. A classification of the repertoire of TM transporters in the present study augments several hints on potential methods of targeting the parasite for therapeutic benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Proteins in Parasitic Protozoa)
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Open AccessArticle Phosphate Deficiency Negatively Affects Early Steps of the Symbiosis between Common Bean and Rhizobia
Genes 2018, 9(10), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100498
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Phosphate (Pi) deficiency reduces nodule formation and development in different legume species including common bean. Despite significant progress in the understanding of the genetic responses underlying the adaptation of nodules to Pi deficiency, it is still unclear whether this nutritional deficiency interferes with
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Phosphate (Pi) deficiency reduces nodule formation and development in different legume species including common bean. Despite significant progress in the understanding of the genetic responses underlying the adaptation of nodules to Pi deficiency, it is still unclear whether this nutritional deficiency interferes with the molecular dialogue between legumes and rhizobia. If so, what part of the molecular dialogue is impaired? In this study, we provide evidence demonstrating that Pi deficiency negatively affects critical early molecular and physiological responses that are required for a successful symbiosis between common bean and rhizobia. We demonstrated that the infection thread formation and the expression of PvNSP2, PvNIN, and PvFLOT2, which are genes controlling the nodulation process were significantly reduced in Pi-deficient common bean seedlings. In addition, whole-genome transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of hormones-related genes is compromised in Pi-deficient seedlings inoculated with rhizobia. Moreover, we showed that regardless of the presence or absence of rhizobia, the expression of PvRIC1 and PvRIC2, two genes participating in the autoregulation of nodule numbers, was higher in Pi-deficient seedlings compared to control seedlings. The data presented in this study provides a mechanistic model to better understand how Pi deficiency impacts the early steps of the symbiosis between common bean and rhizobia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Identification and Transcriptional Regulation of Aquaporin Genes in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Water Stress
Genes 2018, 9(10), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100497
Received: 8 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane proteins essential for controlling the flow of water and other molecules required for development and stress tolerance in plants, including important crop species such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). In this study, we utilized a genomic approach for
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Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane proteins essential for controlling the flow of water and other molecules required for development and stress tolerance in plants, including important crop species such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). In this study, we utilized a genomic approach for analyzing the information about AQPs available in public databases to characterize their structure and function. Furthermore, we validated the expression of a suite of AQP genes, at the transcriptional level, including accessions with contrasting responses to drought, different organs and water stress levels. We found 65 new AQP genes, from which 60% are copies expanded by polyploidization. Sequence analysis of the AQP genes showed that the purifying selection pressure acted on duplicate genes, which was related to a high conservation of the functions. This situation contrasted with the expression patterns observed for different organs, developmental stages or genotypes under water deficit conditions, which indicated functional divergence at transcription. Expression analyses on contrasting genotypes showed high gene transcription from Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein 1 (TIP1) and 2 (TIP2), and Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Protein 1 (PIP1) and 2 (PIP2) subfamilies in roots and from TIP1 and PIP1 subfamilies in leaves. Interestingly, during severe drought stress, 4 TIP genes analyzed in leaves of the tolerant accession reached up to 15-fold the level observed at the susceptible genotype, suggesting a positive relationship with drought tolerance. The obtained results extend our understanding of the structure and function of AQPs, particularly under water stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle An Analytic Approach Using Candidate Gene Selection and Logic Forest to Identify Gene by Environment Interactions (G × E) for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in African Americans
Genes 2018, 9(10), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100496
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Development and progression of many human diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), are hypothesized to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Current approaches to identify and evaluate interactions are limited, most often focusing on main effects and two-way interactions. While
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Development and progression of many human diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), are hypothesized to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Current approaches to identify and evaluate interactions are limited, most often focusing on main effects and two-way interactions. While higher order interactions associated with disease are documented, they are difficult to detect since expanding the search space to all possible interactions of p predictors means evaluating 2p − 1 terms. For example, data with 150 candidate predictors requires considering over 1045 main effects and interactions. In this study, we present an analytical approach involving selection of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and environmental and/or clinical factors and use of Logic Forest to identify predictors of disease, including higher order interactions, followed by confirmation of the association between those predictors and interactions identified with disease outcome using logistic regression. We applied this approach to a study investigating whether smoking and/or secondhand smoke exposure interacts with candidate SNPs resulting in elevated risk of SLE. The approach identified both genetic and environmental risk factors, with evidence suggesting potential interactions between exposure to secondhand smoke as a child and genetic variation in the ITGAM gene associated with increased risk of SLE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Analytics and Integration of Big Omics Data)
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Open AccessArticle The Global Hepatitis B Virus Genotype Distribution Approximated from Available Genotyping Data
Genes 2018, 9(10), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100495
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is divided into nine genotypes, A to I. Currently, it remains unclear how the individual genotypes contribute to the estimated 250 million chronic HBV infections. We performed a literature search on HBV genotyping data throughout the world. Over 900
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is divided into nine genotypes, A to I. Currently, it remains unclear how the individual genotypes contribute to the estimated 250 million chronic HBV infections. We performed a literature search on HBV genotyping data throughout the world. Over 900 publications were assessed and data were extracted from 213 records covering 125 countries. Using previously published HBV prevalence, and population data, we approximated the number of infections with each HBV genotype per country and the genotype distribution among global chronic HBV infections. We estimated that 96% of chronic HBV infections worldwide are caused by five of the nine genotypes: genotype C is most common (26%), followed by genotype D (22%), E (18%), A (17%) and B (14%). Genotypes F to I together cause less than 2% of global chronic HBV infections. Our work provides an up-to-date analysis of global HBV genotyping data and an initial approach to estimate how genotypes contribute to the global burden of chronic HBV infection. Results highlight the need to provide HBV cell culture and animal models that cover at least genotypes A to E and represent the vast majority of global HBV infections to test novel treatment strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Analysis of the NAC Transcription Factor Gene Family Reveals Differential Expression Patterns and Cold-Stress Responses in the Woody Plant Prunus mume
Genes 2018, 9(10), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100494
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 6 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
NAC transcription factors (TFs) participate in multiple biological processes, including biotic and abiotic stress responses, signal transduction and development. Cold stress can adversely impact plant growth and development, thereby limiting agricultural productivity. Prunus mume, an excellent horticultural crop, is widely cultivated in
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NAC transcription factors (TFs) participate in multiple biological processes, including biotic and abiotic stress responses, signal transduction and development. Cold stress can adversely impact plant growth and development, thereby limiting agricultural productivity. Prunus mume, an excellent horticultural crop, is widely cultivated in Asian countries. Its flower can tolerate freezing-stress in the early spring. To investigate the putative NAC genes responsible for cold-stress, we identified and analyzed 113 high-confidence PmNAC genes and characterized them by bioinformatics tools and expression profiles. These PmNACs were clustered into 14 sub-families and distributed on eight chromosomes and scaffolds, with the highest number located on chromosome 3. Duplicated events resulted in a large gene family; 15 and 8 pairs of PmNACs were the result of tandem and segmental duplicates, respectively. Moreover, three membrane-bound proteins (PmNAC59/66/73) and three miRNA-targeted genes (PmNAC40/41/83) were identified. Most PmNAC genes presented tissue-specific and time-specific expression patterns. Sixteen PmNACs (PmNAC11/19/20/23/41/48/58/74/75/76/78/79/85/86/103/111) exhibited down-regulation during flower bud opening and are, therefore, putative candidates for dormancy and cold-tolerance. Seventeen genes (PmNAC11/12/17/21/29/42/30/48/59/66/73/75/85/86/93/99/111) were highly expressed in stem during winter and are putative candidates for freezing resistance. The cold-stress response pattern of 15 putative PmNACs was observed under 4 °C at different treatment times. The expression of 10 genes (PmNAC11/20/23/40/42/48/57/60/66/86) was upregulated, while 5 genes (PmNAC59/61/82/85/107) were significantly inhibited. The putative candidates, thus identified, have the potential for breeding the cold-tolerant horticultural plants. This study increases our understanding of functions of the NAC gene family in cold tolerance, thereby potentially intensifying the molecular breeding programs of woody plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics of Plant Domestication and Crop Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle Complete Genome Sequence of the Model Halovirus PhiH1 (ΦH1)
Genes 2018, 9(10), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100493
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
The halophilic myohalovirus Halobacterium virus phiH (ΦH) was first described in 1982 and was isolated from a spontaneously lysed culture of Halobacterium salinarum strain R1. Until 1994, it was used extensively as a model to study the molecular genetics of haloarchaea, but only
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The halophilic myohalovirus Halobacterium virus phiH (ΦH) was first described in 1982 and was isolated from a spontaneously lysed culture of Halobacterium salinarum strain R1. Until 1994, it was used extensively as a model to study the molecular genetics of haloarchaea, but only parts of the viral genome were sequenced during this period. Using Sanger sequencing combined with high-coverage Illumina sequencing, the full genome sequence of the major variant (phiH1) of this halovirus has been determined. The dsDNA genome is 58,072 bp in length and carries 97 protein-coding genes. We have integrated this information with the previously described transcription mapping data. PhiH could be classified into Myoviridae Type1, Cluster 4 based on capsid assembly and structural proteins (VIRFAM). The closest relative was Natrialba virus phiCh1 (φCh1), which shared 63% nucleotide identity and displayed a high level of gene synteny. This close relationship was supported by phylogenetic tree reconstructions. The complete sequence of this historically important virus will allow its inclusion in studies of comparative genomics and virus diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Halophilic Microorganisms)
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Open AccessArticle Playing Hide-and-Seek in Beta-Globin Genes: Gene Conversion Transferring a Beneficial Mutation between Differentially Expressed Gene Duplicates
Genes 2018, 9(10), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100492
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 7 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests that adaptation to diverse environments often involves selection on existing variation rather than new mutations. A previous study identified a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 2 of two paralogous β-globin genes of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus
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Increasing evidence suggests that adaptation to diverse environments often involves selection on existing variation rather than new mutations. A previous study identified a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 2 of two paralogous β-globin genes of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) in Britain in which the ancestral serine (Ser) and the derived cysteine (Cys) allele represent geographically partitioned functional variation affecting the erythrocyte antioxidative capacity. Here we studied the geographical pattern of the two-locus Ser/Cys polymorphism throughout Europe and tested for the geographic correlation between environmental variables and allele frequency, expected if the polymorphism was under spatially heterogeneous environment-related selection. Although bank vole population history clearly is important in shaping the dispersal of the oxidative stress protective Cys allele, analyses correcting for population structure suggest the Europe-wide pattern is affected by geographical variation in environmental conditions. The β-globin phenotype is encoded by the major paralog HBB-T1 but we found evidence of bidirectional gene conversion of exon 2 with the low-expression paralog HBB-T2. Our data support the model where gene conversion reshuffling genotypes between high- and low- expressed paralogs enables tuning of erythrocyte thiol levels, which may help maintain intracellular redox balance under fluctuating environmental conditions. Therefore, our study suggests a possible role for gene conversion between differentially expressed gene duplicates as a mechanism of physiological adaptation of populations to new or changing environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Chromosome Painting in Neotropical Long- and Short-Tailed Parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes): Phylogeny and Proposal for a Putative Ancestral Karyotype for Tribe Arini
Genes 2018, 9(10), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100491
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
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Abstract
Most Neotropical Psittacidae have a diploid number of 2n = 70, and a dichotomy in chromosome patterns. Long-tailed species have biarmed macrochromosomes, while short-tailed species have telo/acrocentric macrochromosomes. However, the use of chromosome painting has demonstrated that karyotype evolution in Psittacidae includes a
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Most Neotropical Psittacidae have a diploid number of 2n = 70, and a dichotomy in chromosome patterns. Long-tailed species have biarmed macrochromosomes, while short-tailed species have telo/acrocentric macrochromosomes. However, the use of chromosome painting has demonstrated that karyotype evolution in Psittacidae includes a high number of inter/intrachromosomal rearrangements. To determine the phylogeny of long- and short-tailed species, and to propose a putative ancestral karyotype for this group, we constructed homology maps of Pyrrhura frontalis (PFR) and Amazona aestiva (AAE), belonging to the long- and short-tailed groups, respectively. Chromosomes were analyzed by conventional staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization using whole chromosome paints of Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis. Conventional staining showed a karyotype with 2n = 70 in both species, with biarmed macrochromosomes in PFR and telo/acrocentric chromosomes in AAE. Comparison of the results with the putative avian ancestral karyotype (PAK) showed fusions in PFR of PAK1p/PAK4q (PFR1) and PAK6/PAK7 (PFR6) with a paracentric inversion in PFR6. However, in AAE, there was only the fusion between PAK6/7 (AAE7) with a paracentric inversion. Our results indicate that PFR retained a more basal karyotype than long-tailed species previously studied, and AAE a more basal karyotype for Neotropical Psittacidae analyzed so far. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessReview Sequence Composition and Evolution of Mammalian B Chromosomes
Genes 2018, 9(10), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100490
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
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Abstract
B chromosomes (Bs) revealed more than a hundred years ago remain to be some of the most mysterious elements of the eukaryotic genome. Their origin and evolution, DNA composition, transcriptional activity, impact on adaptiveness, behavior in meiosis, and transfer to the next generation
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B chromosomes (Bs) revealed more than a hundred years ago remain to be some of the most mysterious elements of the eukaryotic genome. Their origin and evolution, DNA composition, transcriptional activity, impact on adaptiveness, behavior in meiosis, and transfer to the next generation require intensive investigations using modern methods. Over the past years, new experimental techniques have been applied and helped us gain a deeper insight into the nature of Bs. Here, we consider mammalian Bs, taking into account data on their DNA sequencing, transcriptional activity, positions in nuclei of somatic and meiotic cells, and impact on genome functioning. Comparative cytogenetics of Bs suggests the existence of different mechanisms of their formation and evolution. Due to the long and complicated evolvement of Bs, the similarity of their morphology could be explained by the similar mechanisms involved in their development while the difference between Bs even of the same origin could appear due to their positioning at different stages of their evolution. A complex analysis of their DNA composition and other features is required to clarify the origin and evolutionary history of Bs in the species studied. The intraspecific diversity of Bs makes this analysis a very important element of B chromosome studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution, Composition and Regulation of Supernumerary B Chromosomes)
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Open AccessReview Genes Contributing to Domestication of Rice Seed Traits and Its Global Expansion
Genes 2018, 9(10), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100489
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
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Abstract
Asian rice (Oryza sativa) and African rice (Oryza glaberrima) are separately domesticated from their wild ancestors Oryza rufipogon and Oryza barthii, which are very sensitive to daylength. In the process of domestication, some traits that are favorable for
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Asian rice (Oryza sativa) and African rice (Oryza glaberrima) are separately domesticated from their wild ancestors Oryza rufipogon and Oryza barthii, which are very sensitive to daylength. In the process of domestication, some traits that are favorable for the natural survival of wild rice such as seed dormancy and shattering have become favorable ones for human consumption due to the loss-of-function mutations in the genes that are underlying these traits. As a consequence, many genes that are related to these kinds of traits have been fixed with favorable alleles in modern cultivars by artificial selection. After domestication, Oryza sativa cultivars gradually spread to temperate and cool regions from the tropics and subtropics due to the loss of their photoperiod sensitivity. In this paper, we review the characteristics of domestication-related seed traits and heading dates in rice, including the key genes controlling these traits, the differences in allelic diversity between wild rice and cultivars, the geographic distribution of alleles, and the regulatory pathways of these traits. A comprehensive comparison shows that these genes contributed to rice domestication and its global expansion. In addition, these traits have also experienced parallel evolution by artificial selection on the homologues of key genes in other cereals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics of Plant Domestication and Crop Evolution)
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Open AccessReview Unraveling the Roles of Regulatory Genes during Domestication of Cultivated Camellia: Evidence and Insights from Comparative and Evolutionary Genomics
Genes 2018, 9(10), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100488
Received: 26 August 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
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Abstract
With the increasing power of DNA sequencing, the genomics-based approach is becoming a promising resolution to dissect the molecular mechanism of domestication of complex traits in trees. Genus Camellia possesses rich resources with a substantial value for producing beverage, ornaments, edible oil and
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With the increasing power of DNA sequencing, the genomics-based approach is becoming a promising resolution to dissect the molecular mechanism of domestication of complex traits in trees. Genus Camellia possesses rich resources with a substantial value for producing beverage, ornaments, edible oil and more. Currently, a vast number of genetic and genomic research studies in Camellia plants have emerged and provided an unprecedented opportunity to expedite the molecular breeding program. In this paper, we summarize the recent advances of gene expression and genomic resources in Camellia species and focus on identifying genes related to key economic traits such as flower and fruit development and stress tolerances. We investigate the genetic alterations and genomic impacts under different selection programs in closely related species. We discuss future directions of integrating large-scale population and quantitative genetics and multiple omics to identify key candidates to accelerate the breeding process. We propose that future work of exploiting the genomic data can provide insights related to the targets of domestication during breeding and the evolution of natural trait adaptations in genus Camellia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics of Plant Domestication and Crop Evolution)
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Open AccessReview B Chromosomes in Populations of Mammals Revisited
Genes 2018, 9(10), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100487
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
The study of B chromosomes (Bs) started more than a century ago, while their presence in mammals dates since 1965. As the past two decades have seen huge progress in application of molecular techniques, we decided to throw a glance on new data
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The study of B chromosomes (Bs) started more than a century ago, while their presence in mammals dates since 1965. As the past two decades have seen huge progress in application of molecular techniques, we decided to throw a glance on new data on Bs in mammals and to review them. We listed 85 mammals with Bs that make 1.94% of karyotypically studied species. Contrary to general view, a typical B chromosome in mammals appears both as sub- or metacentric that is the same size as small chromosomes of standard complement. Both karyotypically stable and unstable species possess Bs. The presence of Bs in certain species influences the cell division, the degree of recombination, the development, a number of quantitative characteristics, the host-parasite interactions and their behaviour. There is at least some data on molecular structure of Bs recorded in nearly a quarter of species. Nevertheless, a more detailed molecular composition of Bs presently known for six mammalian species, confirms the presence of protein coding genes, and the transcriptional activity for some of them. Therefore, the idea that Bs are inert is outdated, but the role of Bs is yet to be determined. The maintenance of Bs is obviously not the same for all species, so the current models must be adapted while bearing in mind that Bs are not inactive as it was once thought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution, Composition and Regulation of Supernumerary B Chromosomes)
Open AccessArticle De Novo Assembly of Two Swedish Genomes Reveals Missing Segments from the Human GRCh38 Reference and Improves Variant Calling of Population-Scale Sequencing Data
Genes 2018, 9(10), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100486
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
The current human reference sequence (GRCh38) is a foundation for large-scale sequencing projects. However, recent studies have suggested that GRCh38 may be incomplete and give a suboptimal representation of specific population groups. Here, we performed a de novo assembly of two Swedish genomes
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The current human reference sequence (GRCh38) is a foundation for large-scale sequencing projects. However, recent studies have suggested that GRCh38 may be incomplete and give a suboptimal representation of specific population groups. Here, we performed a de novo assembly of two Swedish genomes that revealed over 10 Mb of sequences absent from the human GRCh38 reference in each individual. Around 6 Mb of these novel sequences (NS) are shared with a Chinese personal genome. The NS are highly repetitive, have an elevated GC-content, and are primarily located in centromeric or telomeric regions. Up to 1 Mb of NS can be assigned to chromosome Y, and large segments are also missing from GRCh38 at chromosomes 14, 17, and 21. Inclusion of NS into the GRCh38 reference radically improves the alignment and variant calling from short-read whole-genome sequencing data at several genomic loci. A re-analysis of a Swedish population-scale sequencing project yields > 75,000 putative novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and removes > 10,000 false positive SNV calls per individual, some of which are located in protein coding regions. Our results highlight that the GRCh38 reference is not yet complete and demonstrate that personal genome assemblies from local populations can improve the analysis of short-read whole-genome sequencing data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing)
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Open AccessArticle Out of the Can”: A Draft Genome Assembly, Liver Transcriptome, and Nutrigenomics of the European Sardine, Sardina pilchardus
Genes 2018, 9(10), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100485
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Clupeiformes, such as sardines and herrings, represent an important share of worldwide fisheries. Among those, the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus, Walbaum 1792) exhibits significant commercial relevance. While the last decade showed a steady and sharp decline in capture levels, recent advances
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Clupeiformes, such as sardines and herrings, represent an important share of worldwide fisheries. Among those, the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus, Walbaum 1792) exhibits significant commercial relevance. While the last decade showed a steady and sharp decline in capture levels, recent advances in culture husbandry represent promising research avenues. Yet, the complete absence of genomic resources from sardine imposes a severe bottleneck to understand its physiological and ecological requirements. We generated 69 Gbp of paired-end reads using Illumina HiSeq X Ten and assembled a draft genome assembly with an N50 scaffold length of 25,579 bp and BUSCO completeness of 82.1% (Actinopterygii). The estimated size of the genome ranges between 655 and 850 Mb. Additionally, we generated a relatively high-level liver transcriptome. To deliver a proof of principle of the value of this dataset, we established the presence and function of enzymes (Elovl2, Elovl5, and Fads2) that have pivotal roles in the biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, essential nutrients particularly abundant in oily fish such as sardines. Our study provides the first omics dataset from a valuable economic marine teleost species, the European sardine, representing an essential resource for their effective conservation, management, and sustainable exploitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Heat-Shock-Induced Removal of Transgenes Using the Gene-Deletor System in Hybrid Aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides)
Genes 2018, 9(10), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100484
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 23 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
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Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy of the gene-deletor system in aspen, we evaluated the system for foreign gene removal in a hybrid aspen clone, INRA 353-53 (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides). The recombinase flipping DNA (FLP) gene was under the
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To evaluate the efficacy of the gene-deletor system in aspen, we evaluated the system for foreign gene removal in a hybrid aspen clone, INRA 353-53 (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides). The recombinase flipping DNA (FLP) gene was under the control of the heat-inducible promoter of Gmhsp17.6-L, and the β-glucuronidase (gusA) gene which was under the control of the 35S promoter and were constructed using the gene-deletor system in the pCaLFGmFNLFG vector. Six transgenic plants and their sublines were heated at 42 °C for 8 h and gene deletion was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three lines exhibited partial transgene deletion while the remaining three lines did not delete. Transgenic lines were evaluated by Southern-blot analyses, verifying that the six transgenic plant lines all had a single copy of transfer DNA (t-DNA). Two partial-deletion lines and two non-deletion lines were analysed for methylation and expression of promoter and recombinase. Hardly any methylation was detected in the Gmhsp17.6-L promoter or recombinase FLP gene sequences, however, the expression of the promoter and recombinase was increased significantly in the partial-deletion compared with the non-deletion line after heat-shock treatment. These results suggest that the excision efficiency had no direct relationship with methylation status of the Gmhsp17.6-L promoter and FLP recombinase, yet was affected by the expression of the Gmhsp17.6-L and FLP after heat-shock treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessReview Clinical Implications of Hepatitis B Virus RNA and Covalently Closed Circular DNA in Monitoring Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Today with a Gaze into the Future: The Field Is Unprepared for a Sterilizing Cure
Genes 2018, 9(10), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100483
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
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Abstract
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has long remained a critical global health issue. Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is a persistent form of the HBV genome that maintains HBV chronicity. Decades of extensive research resulted in the two therapeutic options currently available:
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Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has long remained a critical global health issue. Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is a persistent form of the HBV genome that maintains HBV chronicity. Decades of extensive research resulted in the two therapeutic options currently available: nucleot(s)ide analogs and interferon (IFN) therapy. A plethora of reliable markers to monitor HBV patients has been established, including the recently discovered encapsidated pregenomic RNA in serum, which can be used to determine treatment end-points and to predict the susceptibility of patients to IFN. Additionally, HBV RNA splice variants and cccDNA and its epigenetic modifications are associated with the clinical course and risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver fibrosis. However, new antivirals, including CRISPR/Cas9, APOBEC-mediated degradation of cccDNA, and T-cell therapies aim at completely eliminating HBV, and it is clear that the diagnostic arsenal for defining the long-awaited sterilizing cure is missing. In this review, we discuss the currently available tools for detecting and measuring HBV RNAs and cccDNA, as well as the state-of-the-art in clinical implications of these markers, and debate needs and goals within the context of the sterilizing cure that is soon to come. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Conservation of k-mer Composition and Correlation Contribution between Introns and Intergenic Regions of Animalia Genomes
Genes 2018, 9(10), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100482
Received: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we pairwise-compared multiple genome regions, including genes, exons, coding DNA sequences (CDS), introns, and intergenic regions of 39 Animalia genomes, including Deuterostomia (27 species) and Protostomia (12 species), by applying established k-mer-based (alignment-free) comparison methods. We found strong correlations
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In this study, we pairwise-compared multiple genome regions, including genes, exons, coding DNA sequences (CDS), introns, and intergenic regions of 39 Animalia genomes, including Deuterostomia (27 species) and Protostomia (12 species), by applying established k-mer-based (alignment-free) comparison methods. We found strong correlations between the sequence structure of introns and intergenic regions, individual organisms, and within wider phylogenetical ranges, indicating the conservation of certain structures over the full range of analyzed organisms. We analyzed these sequence structures by quantifying the contribution of different sets of DNA words to the average correlation value by decomposing the correlation coefficients with respect to these word sets. We found that the conserved structures within introns, intergenic regions, and between the two were mainly a result of conserved tandem repeats with repeat units ≤ 2 bp (e.g., (AT)n), while other conserved sequence structures, such as those found between exons and CDS, were dominated by tandem repeats with repeat unit sizes of 3 bp in length and more complex DNA word patterns. We conclude that the conservation between intron and intergenic regions indicates a shared function of these sequence structures. Also, the similar differences in conserved structures with known origin, especially to the conservation between exons and CDS resulting from DNA codons, indicate that k-mer composition-based functional properties of introns and intergenic regions may differ from those of exons and CDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technologies and Resources for Genetics)
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Open AccessArticle Genotype Fingerprints Enable Fast and Private Comparison of Genetic Testing Results for Research and Direct-to-Consumer Applications
Genes 2018, 9(10), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100481
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
Genetic testing has expanded out of the research laboratory into medical practice and the direct-to-consumer market. Rapid analysis of the resulting genotype data now has a significant impact. We present a method for summarizing personal genotypes as ‘genotype fingerprints’ that meets these needs.
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Genetic testing has expanded out of the research laboratory into medical practice and the direct-to-consumer market. Rapid analysis of the resulting genotype data now has a significant impact. We present a method for summarizing personal genotypes as ‘genotype fingerprints’ that meets these needs. Genotype fingerprints can be derived from any single nucleotide polymorphism-based assay, and remain comparable as chip designs evolve to higher marker densities. We demonstrate that these fingerprints support distinguishing types of relationships among closely related individuals and closely related individuals from individuals from the same background population, as well as high-throughput identification of identical genotypes, individuals in known background populations, and de novo separation of subpopulations within a large cohort through extremely rapid comparisons. Although fingerprints do not preserve anonymity, they provide a useful degree of privacy by summarizing a genotype while preventing reconstruction of individual marker states. Genotype fingerprints are therefore well-suited as a format for public aggregation of genetic information to support ancestry and relatedness determination without revealing personal health risk status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms for Personal Genomics)
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Open AccessReview Unusual Diversity of Sex Chromosomes in African Cichlid Fishes
Genes 2018, 9(10), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100480
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
African cichlids display a remarkable assortment of jaw morphologies, pigmentation patterns, and mating behaviors. In addition to this previously documented diversity, recent studies have documented a rich diversity of sex chromosomes within these fishes. Here we review the known sex-determination network within vertebrates,
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African cichlids display a remarkable assortment of jaw morphologies, pigmentation patterns, and mating behaviors. In addition to this previously documented diversity, recent studies have documented a rich diversity of sex chromosomes within these fishes. Here we review the known sex-determination network within vertebrates, and the extraordinary number of sex chromosomes systems segregating in African cichlids. We also propose a model for understanding the unusual number of sex chromosome systems within this clade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Population and Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Detection and Monitoring of Insecticide Resistance Mutations in Anopheles gambiae: Individual vs. Pooled Specimens
Genes 2018, 9(10), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100479
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Abstract
Bioassays and molecular diagnostics are routinely used for the monitoring of malaria vector populations to support insecticide resistance management (IRM), guiding operational decisions on which insecticides ought to be used for effective vector control. Previously developed TaqMan assays were optimised to distinguish the
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Bioassays and molecular diagnostics are routinely used for the monitoring of malaria vector populations to support insecticide resistance management (IRM), guiding operational decisions on which insecticides ought to be used for effective vector control. Previously developed TaqMan assays were optimised to distinguish the wild-type L1014 from the knockdown resistance (kdr) point mutations 1014F and 1014S (triplex reaction), and the N1575 wild-type from the point mutation 1575Y (duplex reaction). Subsequently, artificial pools of Anopheles gambiae (An. gambiae) specimens with known genotypes of L1014F, L1014S, and N1575Y were created, nucleic acids were extracted, and kdr mutations were detected. These data were then used to define a linear regression model that predicts the allelic frequency within a pool of mosquitoes as a function of the measured ΔCt values (Ct mutant − Ct wild type probe). Polynomial regression models showed r2 values of >0.99 (p < 0.05). The method was validated with populations of variable allelic frequencies, and found to be precise (1.66–2.99%), accurate (3.3–5.9%), and able to detect a single heterozygous mosquito mixed with 9 wild type individuals in a pool of 10. Its pilot application in field-caught samples showed minimal differences from individual genotyping (0.36–4.0%). It allowed the first detection of the super-kdr mutation N1575Y in An. gambiae from Mali. Using pools instead of individuals allows for more efficient resistance allele screening, facilitating IRM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Insecticide Resistance)
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Open AccessArticle An Improved Method for Prediction of Cancer Prognosis by Network Learning
Genes 2018, 9(10), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100478
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract
Accurate identification of prognostic biomarkers is an important yet challenging goal in bioinformatics. Many bioinformatics approaches have been proposed for this purpose, but there is still room for improvement. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning-based method for more accurate identification
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Accurate identification of prognostic biomarkers is an important yet challenging goal in bioinformatics. Many bioinformatics approaches have been proposed for this purpose, but there is still room for improvement. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning-based method for more accurate identification of prognostic biomarker genes and use them for prediction of cancer prognosis. The proposed method specifies the candidate prognostic gene module by graph learning using the generative adversarial networks (GANs) model, and scores genes using a PageRank algorithm. We applied the proposed method to multiple-omics data that included copy number, gene expression, DNA methylation, and somatic mutation data for five cancer types. The proposed method showed better prediction accuracy than did existing methods. We identified many prognostic genes and their roles in their biological pathways. We also showed that the genes identified from different omics data were complementary, which led to improved accuracy in prediction using multi-omics data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploration of Survival Traits, Probiotic Determinants, Host Interactions, and Functional Evolution of Bifidobacterial Genomes Using Comparative Genomics
Genes 2018, 9(10), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100477
Received: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are found in a wide-range of habitats and are used as important probiotics. Thus, exploration of their functional traits at the genus level is of utmost significance. Besides, this genus has been demonstrated to exhibit an open pan-genome
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Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are found in a wide-range of habitats and are used as important probiotics. Thus, exploration of their functional traits at the genus level is of utmost significance. Besides, this genus has been demonstrated to exhibit an open pan-genome based on the limited number of genomes used in earlier studies. However, the number of genomes is a crucial factor for pan-genome calculations. We have analyzed the pan-genome of a comparatively larger dataset of 215 members of the genus Bifidobacterium belonging to different habitats, which revealed an open nature. The pan-genome for the 56 probiotic and human-gut strains of this genus, was also found to be open. The accessory- and unique-components of this pan-genome were found to be under the operation of Darwinian selection pressure. Further, their genome-size variation was predicted to be attributed to the abundance of certain functions carried by genomic islands, which are facilitated by insertion elements and prophages. In silico functional and host-microbe interaction analyses of their core-genome revealed significant genomic factors for niche-specific adaptations and probiotic traits. The core survival traits include stress tolerance, biofilm formation, nutrient transport, and Sec-secretion system, whereas the core probiotic traits are imparted by the factors involved in carbohydrate- and protein-metabolism and host-immunomodulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessReview The Behavior of the Maize B Chromosome and Centromere
Genes 2018, 9(10), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100476
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 16 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
The maize B chromosome is a non-essential chromosome with an accumulation mechanism. The dispensable nature of the B chromosome facilitates many types of genetic studies in maize. Maize lines with B chromosomes have been widely used in studies of centromere functions. Here, we
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The maize B chromosome is a non-essential chromosome with an accumulation mechanism. The dispensable nature of the B chromosome facilitates many types of genetic studies in maize. Maize lines with B chromosomes have been widely used in studies of centromere functions. Here, we discuss the maize B chromosome alongside the latest progress of B centromere activities, including centromere misdivision, inactivation, reactivation, and de novo centromere formation. The meiotic features of the B centromere, related to mini-chromosomes and the control of the size of the maize centromere, are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution, Composition and Regulation of Supernumerary B Chromosomes)
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Open AccessArticle Overexpression of PeHKT1;1 Improves Salt Tolerance in Populus
Genes 2018, 9(10), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100475
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
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Abstract
Soil salinization is an increasingly serious threat that limits plant growth and development. Class I transporters of the high-affinity K+ transporter (HKT) family have been demonstrated to be involved in salt tolerance by contributing to Na+ exclusion from roots and shoots.
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Soil salinization is an increasingly serious threat that limits plant growth and development. Class I transporters of the high-affinity K+ transporter (HKT) family have been demonstrated to be involved in salt tolerance by contributing to Na+ exclusion from roots and shoots. Here, we isolated the PeHKT1;1 gene from hybrid poplar based on the sequences of the Populus trichocarpa genome. The full-length PeHKT1;1 gene was 2173 bp, including a 1608 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 535 amino acids and containing eight distinct transmembrane domains. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the PeHKT1;1 protein had a typical S–G–G–G signature for the P-loop domains and belonged to class I of HKT transporters. PeHKT1;1 transcripts were mainly detected in stem and root, and were remarkably induced by salt stress treatment. In further characterization of its functions, overexpression of PeHKT1;1 in Populus davidiana × Populus bolleana resulted in a better relative growth rate in phenotypic analysis, including root and plant height, and exhibited higher catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities than non-transgenic poplar under salt stress conditions. These observations indicated that PeHKT1;1 may enhance salt tolerance by improving the efficiency of antioxidant systems. Together, these data suggest that PeHKT1;1 plays an important role in response to salt stress in Populus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Whole-Genome Sequencing of 84 Japanese Eels Reveals Evidence against Panmixia and Support for Sympatric Speciation
Genes 2018, 9(10), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100474
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
The Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica), European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) are migratory, catadromous, temperate zone fish sharing several common life cycle features. The population genetics of panmixia in these eel species has already
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The Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica), European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) are migratory, catadromous, temperate zone fish sharing several common life cycle features. The population genetics of panmixia in these eel species has already been investigated. Our extensive population genetics analysis was based on 1400 Gb of whole-genome sequence (WGS) data from 84 eels. It demonstrated that a Japanese eel group from the Kuma River differed from other populations of the same species. Even after removing the potential adapted/selected single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, and with very small differences (fixation index [Fst] = 0.01), we obtained results consistently indicating that panmixia does not occur in Japanese eels. The life cycle of the Japanese eel is well-established and the Kuma River is in the center of its habitat. Nevertheless, simple reproductive isolation is not the probable cause of non-panmixia in this species. We propose that the combination of spawning area subdivision, philopatry, and habitat preference/avoidance accounts for the non-panmixia in the Japanese eel population. We named this hypothesis the “reproductive isolation like subset mapping” (RISM) model. This finding may be indicative of the initial stages of sympatric speciation in these eels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Lysine Acetylation Regulates Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase Activity in Escherichia coli
Genes 2018, 9(10), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100473
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
Protein lysine acetylation is a widely conserved posttranslational modification in all three domains of life. Lysine acetylation frequently occurs in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) from many organisms. In this study, we determined the impact of the naturally occurring acetylation at lysine-73 (K73) in Escherichia
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Protein lysine acetylation is a widely conserved posttranslational modification in all three domains of life. Lysine acetylation frequently occurs in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) from many organisms. In this study, we determined the impact of the naturally occurring acetylation at lysine-73 (K73) in Escherichia coli class II alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) on its alanylation activity. We prepared an AlaRS K73Ac variant in which Nε-acetyl-l-lysine was incorporated at position 73 using an expanded genetic code system in E. coli. The AlaRS K73Ac variant showed low activity compared to the AlaRS wild type (WT). Nicotinamide treatment or CobB-deletion in an E. coli led to elevated acetylation levels of AlaRS K73Ac and strongly reduced alanylation activities. We assumed that alanylation by AlaRS is affected by K73 acetylation, and the modification is sensitive to CobB deacetylase in vivo. We also showed that E. coli expresses two CobB isoforms (CobB-L and CobB-S) in vivo. CobB-S displayed the deacetylase activity of the AlaRS K73Ac variant in vitro. Our results imply a potential regulatory role for lysine acetylation in controlling the activity of aaRSs and protein synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic DNA and RNA Programming)
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Open AccessArticle B Chromosome System in the Korean Field Mouse Apodemus peninsulae Thomas 1907 (Rodentia, Muridae)
Genes 2018, 9(10), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100472
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we analyzed B chromosome variation in Korean field mouse Apodemus peninsulae Thomas 1907 (Rodentia, Muridae) based on a 40-year study of karyotypes collected from geographically distant populations in East Siberia, North Mongolia, China, the Russian Far East, and Japan (Hokkaido).
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In this paper, we analyzed B chromosome variation in Korean field mouse Apodemus peninsulae Thomas 1907 (Rodentia, Muridae) based on a 40-year study of karyotypes collected from geographically distant populations in East Siberia, North Mongolia, China, the Russian Far East, and Japan (Hokkaido). We developed the database of individual variants of B chromosome systems in A. peninsulae. In Siberian populations all animals had Bs. The karyotypes of the studied animals contain from 1 to 30 Вs differing in size and morphology. Analysis of B chromosome systems in 598 individuals from different localities of the range shows the presence of 286 variants of Вs combinations in these animals. Unique sets of B morphotypes make up most of these variants (64.7 ± 1.3%), probably suggesting that individual Bs systems normally result from stochastic processes in the populations. The proportion of animals with a large number of Bs gradually decreases, probably due to increased complexities in the inheritance of large numbers of Bs. A. peninsulae is thus proposed as a good model for studying the origin and evolution of extra elements in the karyotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution, Composition and Regulation of Supernumerary B Chromosomes)
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Open AccessComment On Controls in Ancient Microbiome Studies, and Microbial Resilience in Ancient Samples
Genes 2018, 9(10), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100471
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
In the following comment, we reply to Eisenhofer and Weyrich’s letter “Proper authentication of ancient DNA is still essential” responding to the article “Gut Microbiome and Putative Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies” by Santiago-Rodriguez et al. One of the concerns raised
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In the following comment, we reply to Eisenhofer and Weyrich’s letter “Proper authentication of ancient DNA is still essential” responding to the article “Gut Microbiome and Putative Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies” by Santiago-Rodriguez et al. One of the concerns raised was the possibility that the patterns noted in the gut microbiome of pre-Inca/Inca and Italian nobility mummies were due to contamination of the blank control. When examining the blank controls and filtering the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present in the blank controls, and further performing in-silico contamination analyses, we noticed very similar patterns as those previously reported. We also discuss controls in ancient microbiome studies, and aspects of microbial resilience in ancient samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Genetics and Genomics)
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