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Genes 2018, 9(10), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100491

Chromosome Painting in Neotropical Long- and Short-Tailed Parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes): Phylogeny and Proposal for a Putative Ancestral Karyotype for Tribe Arini

1
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará 66075-110, Brazil
2
Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos e Citogenética, SAMAM, Instituto Evandro Chagas, Ananindeua, Pará 67030-000, Brazil
3
Cambridge Resource Centre for Comparative Genomics, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK
4
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul 91509-900, Brazil
5
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, Laboratório de Diversidade Genética Animal, Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul 97300-162, Brazil
6
Faculdade de Ciências Naturais, Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará 66075-110, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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Abstract

Most Neotropical Psittacidae have a diploid number of 2n = 70, and a dichotomy in chromosome patterns. Long-tailed species have biarmed macrochromosomes, while short-tailed species have telo/acrocentric macrochromosomes. However, the use of chromosome painting has demonstrated that karyotype evolution in Psittacidae includes a high number of inter/intrachromosomal rearrangements. To determine the phylogeny of long- and short-tailed species, and to propose a putative ancestral karyotype for this group, we constructed homology maps of Pyrrhura frontalis (PFR) and Amazona aestiva (AAE), belonging to the long- and short-tailed groups, respectively. Chromosomes were analyzed by conventional staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization using whole chromosome paints of Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis. Conventional staining showed a karyotype with 2n = 70 in both species, with biarmed macrochromosomes in PFR and telo/acrocentric chromosomes in AAE. Comparison of the results with the putative avian ancestral karyotype (PAK) showed fusions in PFR of PAK1p/PAK4q (PFR1) and PAK6/PAK7 (PFR6) with a paracentric inversion in PFR6. However, in AAE, there was only the fusion between PAK6/7 (AAE7) with a paracentric inversion. Our results indicate that PFR retained a more basal karyotype than long-tailed species previously studied, and AAE a more basal karyotype for Neotropical Psittacidae analyzed so far. View Full-Text
Keywords: parrots; Psittaciformes; Psittacidae; chromosome painting; phylogeny; putative ancestral karyotype parrots; Psittaciformes; Psittacidae; chromosome painting; phylogeny; putative ancestral karyotype
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Furo, I.O.; Kretschmer, R.; O’Brien, P.C.M.; Pereira, J.C.; Garnero, A.V.; Gunski, R.J.; Ferguson-Smith, M.A.; de Oliveira, E.H.C. Chromosome Painting in Neotropical Long- and Short-Tailed Parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes): Phylogeny and Proposal for a Putative Ancestral Karyotype for Tribe Arini. Genes 2018, 9, 491.

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