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NADPH Oxidases: The Vital Performers and Center Hubs during Plant Growth and Signaling

1
State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
2
College of Life Science and Agronomy, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou 466000, Henan, China
3
School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2020, 9(2), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020437 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 January 2020 / Revised: 8 February 2020 / Accepted: 10 February 2020 / Published: 13 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal Signaling in Plants and the Changing Environment)
NADPH oxidases (NOXs), mostly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs), are the key producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. A lot of literature has addressed ROS signaling in plant development regulation and stress responses as well as on the enzyme’s structure, evolution, function, regulation and associated mechanisms, manifesting the role of NOXs/RBOHs as the vital performers and center hubs during plant growth and signaling. This review focuses on recent advances of NOXs/RBOHs on cell growth, hormone interaction, calcium signaling, abiotic stress responses, and immunity. Several primary particles, including Ca2+, CDPKs, BIK1, ROPs/RACs, CERK, FER, ANX, SnRK and SIK1-mediated regulatory mechanisms, are fully summarized to illustrate the signaling behavior of NOXs/RBOHs and their sophisticated and dexterous crosstalks. Diverse expression and activation regulation models endow NOXs/RBOHs powerful and versatile functions in plants to maintain innate immune homeostasis and development integrity. NOXs/RBOHs and their related regulatory items are the ideal targets for crop improvement in both yield and quality during agricultural practices.
Keywords: NADPH oxidases (NOXs/RBOHs); reactive oxygen species (ROS); activity regulation; plant signaling; crop improvement NADPH oxidases (NOXs/RBOHs); reactive oxygen species (ROS); activity regulation; plant signaling; crop improvement
MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, C.-H.; Wang, P.-Q.; Zhang, P.-P.; Nie, X.-M.; Li, B.-B.; Tai, L.; Liu, W.-T.; Li, W.-Q.; Chen, K.-M. NADPH Oxidases: The Vital Performers and Center Hubs during Plant Growth and Signaling. Cells 2020, 9, 437.

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