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Cells, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 193 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A combination treatment of Simvastatin (Simva) and Temozolomide (TMZ) inhibits autophagy flux and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) in GBM cells (U251, U87). Simva-TMZ treatment activates PERK and IRE1 arms of the UPR, which play a role in the inhibition of autophagy flux. IRE1 RNase inhibition (MKC8866) and PERK kinase inhibition (GSK-2606414) affect autophagy flux in U251 and U87 cells (p62 degradation and LC3β-II/LC3β-I ratio) in different ways. Although MKC8866 did not change Simva-TMZ-induced cell death in either GBM cell lines, GSK-26064614 increased its cytotoxicity in U87 cells. Overall, PERK and IRE1 arms of the UPR are involved in the inhibition of autophagy induced by Simva-TMZ- in GBM cells. View this paper
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Article
Phase I/II Clinical Trial of the Anti-Podoplanin Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Dogs with Malignant Melanoma
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112529 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Podoplanin (PDPN), a small transmembrane mucin-like glycoprotein, is ectopically expressed on tumor cells. PDPN is known to be linked with several aspects of tumor malignancies in certain types of human and canine tumors. Therefore, it is considered to be a novel therapeutic target. [...] Read more.
Podoplanin (PDPN), a small transmembrane mucin-like glycoprotein, is ectopically expressed on tumor cells. PDPN is known to be linked with several aspects of tumor malignancies in certain types of human and canine tumors. Therefore, it is considered to be a novel therapeutic target. Monoclonal antibodies targeting PDPN expressed in human tumor cells showed obvious anti-tumor effects in preclinical studies using mouse models. Previously, we generated a cancer-specific mouse–dog chimeric anti-PDPN antibody, P38Bf, which specifically recognizes PDPN expressed in canine tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the safety and anti-tumor effects of P38Bf in preclinical and clinical trials. P38Bf showed dose-dependent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against canine malignant melanoma cells. In a preclinical trial with one healthy dog, P38Bf administration did not induce adverse effects over approximately 2 months. In phase I/II clinical trials of three dogs with malignant melanoma, one dog vomited, and all dogs had increased serum levels of C-reactive protein, although all adverse effects were grade 1 or 2. Severe adverse effects leading to withdrawal of the clinical trial were not observed. Furthermore, one dog had stable disease with P38Bf injections. This is the first reported clinical trial of anti-PDPN antibody therapy using spontaneously occurring canine tumor models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Function of Podoplanin (PDPN) in Disease)
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Review
The Potential Role of Osteopontin and Furin in Worsening Disease Outcomes in COVID-19 Patients with Pre-Existing Diabetes
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112528 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with more than 50 million cases reported globally. Findings have consistently identified an increased severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals with diabetes. Osteopontin, a cytokine-like [...] Read more.
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with more than 50 million cases reported globally. Findings have consistently identified an increased severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals with diabetes. Osteopontin, a cytokine-like matrix-associated phosphoglycoprotein, is elevated in diabetes and drives the expression of furin, a proprotein convertase implicated in the proteolytic processing and activation of several precursors, including chemokines, growth factors, hormones, adhesion molecules, and receptors. Elevated serum furin is a signature of diabetes mellitus progression and is associated with a dysmetabolic phenotype and increased risk of diabetes-linked premature mortality. Additionally, furin plays an important role in enhancing the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 by promoting its entry and replication in the host cell. Here, we hypothesize that diabetes-induced osteopontin and furin protein upregulation results in worse outcomes in diabetic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection owing to the roles of these protein in promoting viral infection and increasing metabolic dysfunction. Thus, targeting the osteopontin-furin axis may be a plausible strategy for reducing mortality in SARS-CoV-2 patients with diabetes. Full article
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Review
Ex Vivo Culture Models to Indicate Therapy Response in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2527; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112527 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is characterized by a poor 5 year survival and varying response rates to both standard-of-care and new treatments. Despite advances in medicine and treatment methods, mortality rates have hardly decreased in recent decades. Reliable patient-derived tumor [...] Read more.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is characterized by a poor 5 year survival and varying response rates to both standard-of-care and new treatments. Despite advances in medicine and treatment methods, mortality rates have hardly decreased in recent decades. Reliable patient-derived tumor models offer the chance to predict therapy response in a personalized setting, thereby improving treatment efficacy by identifying the most appropriate treatment regimen for each patient. Furthermore, ex vivo tumor models enable testing of novel therapies before introduction in clinical practice. A literature search was performed to identify relevant literature describing three-dimensional ex vivo culture models of HNSCC to examine sensitivity to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted therapy. We provide a comprehensive overview of the currently used three-dimensional ex vivo culture models for HNSCC with their advantages and limitations, including culture success percentage and comparison to the original tumor. Furthermore, we evaluate the potential of these models to predict patient therapy response. Full article
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Review
Cytokinin and Ethylene Cell Signaling Pathways from Prokaryotes to Eukaryotes
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112526 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Cytokinins (CKs) and ethylene (ET) are among the most ancient organic chemicals on Earth. A wide range of organisms including plants, algae, fungi, amoebae, and bacteria use these substances as signaling molecules to regulate cellular processes. Because of their ancestral origin and ubiquitous [...] Read more.
Cytokinins (CKs) and ethylene (ET) are among the most ancient organic chemicals on Earth. A wide range of organisms including plants, algae, fungi, amoebae, and bacteria use these substances as signaling molecules to regulate cellular processes. Because of their ancestral origin and ubiquitous occurrence, CKs and ET are also considered to be ideal molecules for inter-kingdom communication. Their signal transduction pathways were first historically deciphered in plants and are related to the two-component systems, using histidine kinases as primary sensors. Paradoxically, although CKs and ET serve as signaling molecules in different kingdoms, it has been supposed for a long time that the canonical CK and ET signaling pathways are restricted to terrestrial plants. These considerations have now been called into question following the identification over recent years of genes encoding CK and ET receptor homologs in many other lineages within the tree of life. These advances shed new light on the dissemination and evolution of these hormones as both intra- and inter-specific communication molecules in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal Signaling in Plants and the Changing Environment)
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Article
MicroRNAs and Mammarenaviruses: Modulating Cellular Metabolism
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112525 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
Mammarenaviruses are a diverse genus of emerging viruses that include several causative agents of severe viral hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality in humans. Although these viruses share many similarities, important differences with regard to pathogenicity, type of immune response, and molecular mechanisms during [...] Read more.
Mammarenaviruses are a diverse genus of emerging viruses that include several causative agents of severe viral hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality in humans. Although these viruses share many similarities, important differences with regard to pathogenicity, type of immune response, and molecular mechanisms during virus infection are different between and within New World and Old World viral infections. Viruses rely exclusively on the host cellular machinery to translate their genome, and therefore to replicate and propagate. miRNAs are the crucial factor in diverse biological processes such as antiviral defense, oncogenesis, and cell development. The viral infection can exert a profound impact on the cellular miRNA expression profile, and numerous RNA viruses have been reported to interact directly with cellular miRNAs and/or to use these miRNAs to augment their replication potential. Our present study indicates that mammarenavirus infection induces metabolic reprogramming of host cells, probably manipulating cellular microRNAs. A number of metabolic pathways, including valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, d-Glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, thiamine metabolism, and pools of several amino acids were impacted by the predicted miRNAs that would no longer regulate these pathways. A deeper understanding of mechanisms by which mammarenaviruses handle these signaling pathways is critical for understanding the virus/host interactions and potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets, through the inhibition of specific pathologic metabolic pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Bioinformatics)
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Article
Perlecan Facilitates Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Delocalization in Denervation-Induced Muscle Atrophy
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2524; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112524 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Perlecan is an extracellular matrix molecule anchored to the sarcolemma by a dystrophin–glycoprotein complex. Perlecan-deficient mice are tolerant to muscle atrophy, suggesting that perlecan negatively regulates mechanical stress-dependent skeletal muscle mass. Delocalization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from the sarcolemma to the [...] Read more.
Perlecan is an extracellular matrix molecule anchored to the sarcolemma by a dystrophin–glycoprotein complex. Perlecan-deficient mice are tolerant to muscle atrophy, suggesting that perlecan negatively regulates mechanical stress-dependent skeletal muscle mass. Delocalization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from the sarcolemma to the cytosol triggers protein degradation, thereby initiating skeletal muscle atrophy. We hypothesized that perlecan regulates nNOS delocalization and activates protein degradation during this process. To determine the role of perlecan in nNOS-mediated mechanotransduction, we used sciatic nerve transection as a denervation model of gastrocnemius muscles. Gastrocnemius muscle atrophy was significantly lower in perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan-knockout (Hspg2−/−-Tg) mice than controls (WT-Tg) on days 4 and 14 following surgery. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that cell membrane nNOS expression was reduced by denervation in WT-Tg mice, with marginal effects in Hspg2−/−-Tg mice. Moreover, levels of atrophy-related proteins—i.e., FoxO1a, FoxO3a, atrogin-1, and Lys48-polyubiquitinated proteins—increased in the denervated muscles of WT-Tg mice but not in Hspg2−/−-Tg mice. These findings suggest that during denervation, perlecan promotes nNOS delocalization from the membrane and stimulates protein degradation and muscle atrophy by activating FoxO signaling and the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanobiology Defects in Muscular Disorders)
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Review
Role of Selective Autophagy in Spermatogenesis and Male Fertility
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2523; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112523 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Autophagy is a “self-eating” process that engulfs cellular contents for their subsequent digestion in lysosomes to engage the metabolic need in response to starvation or environmental insults. According to the contents of degradation, autophagy can be divided into bulk autophagy (non-selective autophagy) and [...] Read more.
Autophagy is a “self-eating” process that engulfs cellular contents for their subsequent digestion in lysosomes to engage the metabolic need in response to starvation or environmental insults. According to the contents of degradation, autophagy can be divided into bulk autophagy (non-selective autophagy) and selective autophagy. Bulk autophagy degrades non-specific cytoplasmic materials in response to nutrient starvation while selective autophagy targets specific cargoes, such as damaged organelles, protein aggregates, and intracellular pathogens. Selective autophagy has been documented to relate to the reproductive processes, especially for the spermatogenesis, fertilization, and biosynthesis of testosterone. Although selective autophagy is vital in the field of reproduction, its role and the underlying mechanism have remained unclear. In this review, we focus on selective autophagy to discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanism and role of selective autophagy on spermatogenesis and male fertility in mammals. Understanding the role of selective autophagy during spermatogenesis will promote the recognition of genetic regulation in male infertility, and shed light on therapies of infertile patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proteins in Autophagic Machinery)
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Article
LIMD2 Regulates Key Steps of Metastasis Cascade in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells via MAPK Crosstalk
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2522; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112522 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
Although papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has a good prognosis, 20–90% of patients show metastasis to regional lymph nodes and 10–15% of patients show metastasis to distant sites. Metastatic disease represents the main clinical challenge that impacts survival rate. We previously showed that LIMD2 [...] Read more.
Although papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has a good prognosis, 20–90% of patients show metastasis to regional lymph nodes and 10–15% of patients show metastasis to distant sites. Metastatic disease represents the main clinical challenge that impacts survival rate. We previously showed that LIMD2 was a novel metastasis-associated gene. In this study, to interrogate the role of LIMD2 in cancer invasion and metastasis, we used CRISPR-mediated knockout (KO) of LIMD2 in PTC cells (BCPAP and TPC1). Western blot and high-content screening (HCS) analysis confirmed functional KO of LIMD2. LIMD2 KO reduced in vitro invasion and migration. Ultrastructural analyses showed that cell polarity and mitochondria function and morphology were restored in LIMD2 KO cells. To unveil the signals supervising these phenotypic changes, we employed phospho-protein array. Several members of the MAPK superfamily showed robust reduction in phosphorylation. A Venn diagram displayed the overlap of kinases with reduced phosphorylation in both cell lines and showed that they were able to initiate or sustain the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and DNA damage checkpoint. Flow cytometry and HCS validation analyses further corroborated the phospho-protein array data. Collectively, our findings show that LIMD2 enhances phosphorylation of kinases associated with EMT and invasion. Through cooperation with different kinases, it contributes to the increased genomic instability that ultimately promotes PTC progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Motility and Adhesion)
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Review
Neurohormonal Modulation as a Therapeutic Target in Pulmonary Hypertension
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112521 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are involved in many cardiovascular disorders, including pulmonary hypertension (PH). The current review focuses on the role of the ANS and RAAS activation in PH and updated evidence of potential therapies targeting both systems [...] Read more.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are involved in many cardiovascular disorders, including pulmonary hypertension (PH). The current review focuses on the role of the ANS and RAAS activation in PH and updated evidence of potential therapies targeting both systems in this condition, particularly in Groups 1 and 2. State of the art knowledge in preclinical and clinical use of pharmacologic drugs (beta-blockers, beta-three adrenoceptor agonists, or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone signaling drugs) and invasive procedures, such as pulmonary artery denervation, is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Adrenergic Receptor Biology)
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Article
CITCO as an Adjuvant Facilitates CHOP-Based Lymphoma Treatment in hCAR-Transgenic Mice
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2520; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112520 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is a malignant cancer originating in the lymphatic system with a 25–30% mortality rate. CHOP, consisting of cyclophosphamide (CPA), doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, is a first-generation chemotherapy extensively used to treat NHL. However, poor survival rates among patients in advanced [...] Read more.
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is a malignant cancer originating in the lymphatic system with a 25–30% mortality rate. CHOP, consisting of cyclophosphamide (CPA), doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, is a first-generation chemotherapy extensively used to treat NHL. However, poor survival rates among patients in advanced stages of NHL shows a need to improve this standard of care treatment. CPA, an integral component of CHOP, is a prodrug that requires CYP2B6-mediated bioactivation to 4-hydroxy-CPA (4-OH-CPA). The expression of CYP2B6 is transcriptionally regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NRi13). We have previously demonstrated that the induction of hepatic CYP2B6 by CITCO, a selective human CAR (hCAR) agonist, results in CHOP’s enhanced antineoplastic effects in vitro. Here, we investigate the in vivo potential of CITCO as an adjuvant of CPA-based NHL treatment in a hCAR-transgenic mouse line. Our results demonstrate that the addition of CITCO to the CHOP regimen leads to significant suppression of the growth of EL-4 xenografts in hCAR-transgenic mice accompanied by reduced expression of cyclin-D1, ki67, Pcna, and increased caspase 3 fragmentation in tumor tissues. CITCO robustly induced the expression of cyp2b10 (murine ortholog of CYP2B6) through hCAR activation and increased plasma concentrations of 4-OH-CPA. Comparing to intraperitoneal injection, oral gavage of CITCO results in optimal hepatic cyp2b10 induction. Our in vivo studies have collectively uncovered CITCO as an effective facilitator for CPA-based NHL treatment with a pharmacokinetic profile favoring oral administration, promoting CITCO as a promising adjuvant candidate for CPA-based regimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Xenobiotic Receptors CAR and PXR in Health and Disease)
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Review
“The Loss of Golden Touch”: Mitochondria-Organelle Interactions, Metabolism, and Cancer
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2519; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112519 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
Mitochondria represent the energy hub of cells and their function is under the constant influence of their tethering with other subcellular organelles. Mitochondria interact with the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, cytoskeleton, peroxisomes, and nucleus in several ways, ranging from signal transduction, vesicle transport, and [...] Read more.
Mitochondria represent the energy hub of cells and their function is under the constant influence of their tethering with other subcellular organelles. Mitochondria interact with the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, cytoskeleton, peroxisomes, and nucleus in several ways, ranging from signal transduction, vesicle transport, and membrane contact sites, to regulate energy metabolism, biosynthetic processes, apoptosis, and cell turnover. Tumorigenesis is often associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, which could likely be the result of an altered interaction with different cell organelles or structures. The purpose of the present review is to provide an updated overview of the links between inter-organellar communications and interactions and metabolism in cancer cells, with a focus on mitochondria. The very recent publication of several reviews on these aspects testifies the great interest in the area. Here, we aim at (1) summarizing recent evidence supporting that the metabolic rewiring and adaptation observed in tumors deeply affect organelle dynamics and cellular functions and vice versa; (2) discussing insights on the underlying mechanisms, when available; and (3) critically presenting the gaps in the field that need to be filled, for a comprehensive understanding of tumor cells’ biology. Chemo-resistance and druggable vulnerabilities of cancer cells related to the aspects mentioned above is also outlined. Full article
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Review
CRISPR FokI Dead Cas9 System: Principles and Applications in Genome Engineering
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2518; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112518 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2044
Abstract
The identification of the robust clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated endonuclease (Cas9) system gene-editing tool has opened up a wide range of potential therapeutic applications that were restricted by more complex tools, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like [...] Read more.
The identification of the robust clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated endonuclease (Cas9) system gene-editing tool has opened up a wide range of potential therapeutic applications that were restricted by more complex tools, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). Nevertheless, the high frequency of CRISPR system off-target activity still limits its applications, and, thus, advanced strategies for highly specific CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing are continuously under development including CRISPR–FokI dead Cas9 (fdCas9). fdCas9 system is derived from linking a FokI endonuclease catalytic domain to an inactive Cas9 protein and requires a pair of guide sgRNAs that bind to the sense and antisense strands of the DNA in a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM)-out orientation, with a defined spacer sequence range around the target site. The dimerization of FokI domains generates DNA double-strand breaks, which activates the DNA repair machinery and results in genomic edit. So far, all the engineered fdCas9 variants have shown promising gene-editing activities in human cells when compared to other platforms. Herein, we review the advantages of all published variants of fdCas9 and their current applications in genome engineering. Full article
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Review
Human Pluripotent Stem Cells-Based Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases: Current Status and Challenges
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2517; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112517 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2913
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by irreversible cell damage, loss of neuronal cells and limited regeneration potential of the adult nervous system. Pluripotent stem cells are capable of differentiating into the multitude of cell types that compose the central and peripheral nervous systems and [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by irreversible cell damage, loss of neuronal cells and limited regeneration potential of the adult nervous system. Pluripotent stem cells are capable of differentiating into the multitude of cell types that compose the central and peripheral nervous systems and so have become the major focus of cell replacement therapies for the treatment of neurological disorders. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cells have both been extensively studied as cell therapies in a wide range of neurodegenerative disease models in rodents and non-human primates, including Parkinson’s disease, stroke, epilepsy, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and pain. In this review, we discuss the latest progress made with stem cell therapies targeting these pathologies. We also evaluate the challenges in clinical application of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based therapies including risk of oncogenesis and tumor formation, immune rejection and difficulty in regeneration of the heterogeneous cell types composing the central nervous system. Full article
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Article
Peripheral Blood Eosinophilia Is Associated with Poor Outcome Post-Lung Transplantation
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2516; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112516 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Eosinophils play a role in many chronic lung diseases. In lung transplantation (LTx), increased eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was associated with worse outcomes. However, the effect of peripheral blood eosinophilia after LTx has not been investigated thoroughly. A retrospective study was performed [...] Read more.
Eosinophils play a role in many chronic lung diseases. In lung transplantation (LTx), increased eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was associated with worse outcomes. However, the effect of peripheral blood eosinophilia after LTx has not been investigated thoroughly. A retrospective study was performed including all LTx patients between 2011–2016. Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD)-free and graft survival were compared between patients with high and low blood eosinophils using an 8% threshold ever during follow-up. A total of 102 patients (27.1%) had high blood eosinophils (≥8%) (45 before CLAD and 17 after, 40 had no CLAD) and 274 (72.9%) had low eosinophils (<8%). Patients with high blood eosinophils demonstrated worse graft survival (p = 0.0001) and CLAD-free survival (p = 0.003) compared to low eosinophils. Patients with both high blood and high BAL (≥2%) eosinophils ever during follow-up had the worst outcomes. Within the high blood eosinophil group, 23.5% had RAS compared to 3% in the group with low eosinophils (p < 0.0001). After multivariate analysis, the association between high blood eosinophils and graft and CLAD-free survival remained significant (p = 0.036, p = 0.013) independent of high BAL eosinophils and infection at peak blood eosinophilia, among others. LTx recipients with ever ≥8% blood eosinophils demonstrate inferior graft and CLAD-free survival, specifically RAS, which requires further prospective research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immuno-Pathology in Organ and Cell Transplantation)
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Review
Anthocyanin Bioactivity in Obesity and Diabetes: The Essential Role of Glucose Transporters in the Gut and Periphery
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2515; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112515 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Obesity and type-2 diabetes trends continue to worsen in the United States. Dietary anthocyanins (typically provided by berries and other fruits) are reported to have protective effects against both conditions using a variety of experimental research models including animal and human feeding studies. [...] Read more.
Obesity and type-2 diabetes trends continue to worsen in the United States. Dietary anthocyanins (typically provided by berries and other fruits) are reported to have protective effects against both conditions using a variety of experimental research models including animal and human feeding studies. This review highlights studies that explore the biochemical pathways in both tissue and rodent models which could explain clinical improvements noted with anthocyanin consumption. First, the primary mode of intestinal absorption of anthocyanins is through both sGLT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Stronger binding affinities may allow anthocyanins to be more inhibitive to glucose absorption compared to the reverse, where GLUT2 expression may also be affected. Genetic or chemical inhibition of sGLT1 or GLUT2 demonstrate their essential function in anthocyanin absorption across the enterocyte, where the former interacts with a greater variety of anthocyanins but the latter is the major transporter for specific anthocyanin-glycosides. Once absorbed, anthocyanins positively modulate GLUT4 density and function in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissues via the upregulation of AMPK and restoration of insulin sensitivity. Antioxidant properties and phosphodiesterase inhibition by anthocyanins promote both mitochondrial function and density which could be novel targets for dietary management of obesity and its complications. Full article
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Article
Detection of KRAS G12/G13 Mutations in Cell Free-DNA by Droplet Digital PCR, Offers Prognostic Information for Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2514; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112514 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
KRAS mutations are found in approximately one third of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In this study, we aim to investigate whether KRAS G12/G13 mutant allele fraction (MAF) in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can provide meaningful prognostic information in NSCLC. Multiplex droplet-digital PCR [...] Read more.
KRAS mutations are found in approximately one third of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In this study, we aim to investigate whether KRAS G12/G13 mutant allele fraction (MAF) in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can provide meaningful prognostic information in NSCLC. Multiplex droplet-digital PCR was used to quantitatively assess KRAS G12/G13 MAF in cfDNA from 114 pre-treated advanced disease NSCLC patients. In 14 patients, changes in KRAS G12/G13 MAF were longitudinally monitored during treatment. Plasma KRAS G12/G13 status was associated with poor patients’ outcome in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) (p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the detection of plasma KRAS mutations was an independent predictor of adverse PFS (HR = 3.12; p < 0.001) and OS (HR = 2.53; p = 0.002). KRAS G12/G13 MAF at first treatment evaluation (T1) was higher (p = 0.013) among patients experiencing progressive disease compared to those with disease control, and increased KRAS MAF at T1 was associated (p = 0.005) with shorter PFS. On the contrary, no association was observed between tissue KRAS mutation status and patients’ prognosis. Our results show that ddPCR-based detection of KRAS G12/G13 mutations in plasma could serve as an independent biomarker of unfavorable prognosis in NSCLC patients. Changes in KRAS MAF can provide valuable information for monitoring patient outcome during treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Biopsy)
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Review
Therapeutic Strategies to Target Calcium Dysregulation in Alzheimer’s Disease
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2513; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112513 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting millions of people worldwide. Unfortunately, none of the current treatments are effective at improving cognitive function in AD patients and, therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of new therapies [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting millions of people worldwide. Unfortunately, none of the current treatments are effective at improving cognitive function in AD patients and, therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of new therapies that target the early cause(s) of AD. Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) regulation is critical for proper cellular and neuronal function. It has been suggested that Ca2+ dyshomeostasis is an upstream factor of many neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. For this reason, chemical agents or small molecules aimed at targeting or correcting this Ca2+ dysregulation might serve as therapeutic strategies to prevent the development of AD. Moreover, neurons are not alone in exhibiting Ca2+ dyshomeostasis, since Ca2+ disruption is observed in other cell types in the brain in AD. In this review, we examine the distinct Ca2+ channels and compartments involved in the disease mechanisms that could be potential targets in AD. Full article
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Review
The Genomics of Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Origins of Disease Evolution, Biological Pathways, and Prognostic Implications
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2512; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112512 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
The molecular pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is complex due to the high rate of genomic heterogeneity. Significant advances have been made in the last decade which elucidated the landscape of molecular alterations (cytogenetic abnormalities, gene mutations) in MDS. Seminal experimental studies have [...] Read more.
The molecular pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is complex due to the high rate of genomic heterogeneity. Significant advances have been made in the last decade which elucidated the landscape of molecular alterations (cytogenetic abnormalities, gene mutations) in MDS. Seminal experimental studies have clarified the role of diverse gene mutations in the context of disease phenotypes, but the lack of faithful murine models and/or cell lines spontaneously carrying certain gene mutations have hampered the knowledge on how and why specific pathways are associated with MDS pathogenesis. Here, we summarize the genomics of MDS and provide an overview on the deregulation of pathways and the latest molecular targeted therapeutics. Full article
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Article
Inhibiting the P2X4 Receptor Suppresses Prostate Cancer Growth In Vitro and In Vivo, Suggesting a Potential Clinical Target
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2511; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112511 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. The P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) is the most ubiquitously expressed P2X receptor in mammals and is positively associated with tumorigenesis in many cancer types. However, its involvement in [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. The P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) is the most ubiquitously expressed P2X receptor in mammals and is positively associated with tumorigenesis in many cancer types. However, its involvement in PCa progression is less understood. We hypothesized that P2X4R activity enhanced tumour formation by PCa cells. We showed that P2X4R was the most highly expressed, functional P2 receptor in these cells using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and a calcium influx assay. The effect of inhibiting P2X4R on PCa (PC3 and C4-2B4 cells) viability, proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were examined using the selective P2XR4 antagonists 5-BDBD and PSB-12062. The results demonstrated that inhibiting P2X4R impaired the growth and mobility of PCa cells but not apoptosis. In BALB/c immunocompromised nude mice inoculated with human PC3 cells subcutaneously, 5-BDBD showed anti-tumourigenic effects. Finally, a retrospective analysis of P2RX4 expression in clinical datasets (GDS1439, GDS1746, and GDS3289) suggested that P2X4R was positively associated with PCa malignancy. These studies suggest that P2X4R has a role in enhancing PCa tumour formation and is a clinically targetable candidate for which inhibitors are already available and have the potential to suppress disease progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Purine Signaling and Metabolism in Tumors)
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Article
SIRT3 Deficiency Sensitizes Angiotensin-II-Induced Renal Fibrosis
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2510; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112510 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Background: Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) has a crucial role in the cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study revealed that SIRT3 knockout (SIRT3KO) promoted cardiac pericyte–fibroblast transition. In this study, we investigated the involvement of pericyte and iron in angiotensin II (Ang-II)-mediated renal fibrosis in the [...] Read more.
Background: Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) has a crucial role in the cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study revealed that SIRT3 knockout (SIRT3KO) promoted cardiac pericyte–fibroblast transition. In this study, we investigated the involvement of pericyte and iron in angiotensin II (Ang-II)-mediated renal fibrosis in the SIRT3KO mice. Methods and Results: NG2-DsRed mice and NG2-DsRed-SIRT3 knockout (SIRT3KO) mice were infused with saline or Ang-II (1000 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks. Renal fibrosis, iron content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. Masson’s trichrome staining showed that SIRT3KO enhanced Ang-II-induced renal fibrosis. Immunostaining showed that Ang-II treatment increased the number of NG2-DsRed+ cells in the kidney, and SIRT3KO further enhanced NG2-DsRed+ cells. Moreover, SIRT3KO promoted pericyte differentiation into fibroblasts as evidenced by co-staining NG2-DsRed/FSP-1. Furthermore, DsRed/FSP-1+ and DsRed/transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)+ fibroblasts were elevated by SIRT3KO after Ang-II infusion. Ang-II-induced collagen I and TGF-β1 expression was also enhanced in the SIRT3KO mice. SIRT3KO significantly exacerbated Ang-II-induced iron accumulation. This was accompanied by an increase in acetyl-p53, HO-1 and FPN expression. Further, SIRT3KO sensitized Ang-II-induced upregulation of p47phox and gp91phox together with increased ROS formation in the kidney. Conclusion: Our study suggests that SIRT3 deficiency sensitized Ang-II-induced renal fibrosis by the mechanisms involved in promoting differentiation of pericytes into fibroblasts, exacerbating iron overload and accelerating NADPH oxidase-derived ROS formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System)
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Article
Nuclear Morphological Remodeling in Human Granulocytes Is Linked to Prenylation Independently from Cytoskeleton
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2509; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112509 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Nuclear shape modulates cell behavior and function, while aberrant nuclear morphologies correlate with pathological phenotype severity. Nevertheless, functions of specific nuclear morphological features and underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate a nucleus-intrinsic mechanism driving nuclear lobulation and segmentation concurrent with [...] Read more.
Nuclear shape modulates cell behavior and function, while aberrant nuclear morphologies correlate with pathological phenotype severity. Nevertheless, functions of specific nuclear morphological features and underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate a nucleus-intrinsic mechanism driving nuclear lobulation and segmentation concurrent with granulocyte specification, independently from extracellular forces and cytosolic cytoskeleton contributions. Transcriptomic regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis is equally concurrent with nuclear remodeling. Its putative role as a regulatory element is supported by morphological aberrations observed upon pharmacological impairment of several enzymatic steps of the pathway, most prominently the sterol ∆14-reductase activity of laminB-receptor and protein prenylation. Thus, we support the hypothesis of a nuclear-intrinsic mechanism for nuclear shape control with the putative involvement of the recently discovered GGTase III complex. Such process could be independent from or complementary to the better studied cytoskeleton-based nuclear remodeling essential for cell migration in both physiological and pathological contexts such as immune system function and cancer metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Nuclei: Function, Transport and Receptors)
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Review
Cardiovascular Manifestations of COVID-19 Infection
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112508 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 5319
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 induced the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, the most significant medical challenge in the last century. COVID-19 is associated with notable increases in morbidity and death worldwide. Preexisting conditions, like cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, are correlated with higher severity [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 induced the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, the most significant medical challenge in the last century. COVID-19 is associated with notable increases in morbidity and death worldwide. Preexisting conditions, like cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, are correlated with higher severity and a significant increase in the fatality rate of COVID-19. COVID-19 induces multiple cardiovascular complexities, such as cardiac arrest, myocarditis, acute myocardial injury, stress-induced cardiomyopathy, cardiogenic shock, arrhythmias and, subsequently, heart failure (HF). The precise mechanisms of how SARS-CoV-2 may cause myocardial complications are not clearly understood. The proposed mechanisms of myocardial injury based on current knowledge are the direct viral entry of the virus and damage to the myocardium, systemic inflammation, hypoxia, cytokine storm, interferon-mediated immune response, and plaque destabilization. The virus enters the cell through the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor and plays a central function in the virus’s pathogenesis. A systematic understanding of cardiovascular effects of SARS-CoV2 is needed to develop novel therapeutic tools to target the virus-induced cardiac damage as a potential strategy to minimize permanent damage to the cardiovascular system and reduce the morbidity. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of COVID-19 mediated damage to the cardiovascular system. Full article
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Article
Light-Regulated Transcription of a Mitochondrial-Targeted K+ Channel
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2507; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112507 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
The inner membranes of mitochondria contain several types of K+ channels, which modulate the membrane potential of the organelle and contribute in this way to cytoprotection and the regulation of cell death. To better study the causal relationship between K+ channel [...] Read more.
The inner membranes of mitochondria contain several types of K+ channels, which modulate the membrane potential of the organelle and contribute in this way to cytoprotection and the regulation of cell death. To better study the causal relationship between K+ channel activity and physiological changes, we developed an optogenetic platform for a light-triggered modulation of K+ conductance in mitochondria. By using the light-sensitive interaction between cryptochrome 2 and the regulatory protein CIB1, we can trigger the transcription of a small and highly selective K+ channel, which is in mammalian cells targeted into the inner membrane of mitochondria. After exposing cells to very low intensities (≤0.16 mW/mm2) of blue light, the channel protein is detectable as an accumulation of its green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag in the mitochondria less than 1 h after stimulation. This system allows for an in vivo monitoring of crucial physiological parameters of mitochondria, showing that the presence of an active K+ channel causes a substantial depolarization compatible with the effect of an uncoupler. Elevated K+ conductance also results in a decrease in the Ca2+ concentration in the mitochondria but has no impact on apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organelle Function)
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Article
Amyloid-β Precursor Protein APP Down-Regulation Alters Actin Cytoskeleton-Interacting Proteins in Endothelial Cells
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2506; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112506 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a ubiquitous membrane protein often associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Despite its role in the development of the pathogenesis, APP exerts several physiological roles that have been mainly investigated in neuronal tissue. [...] Read more.
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a ubiquitous membrane protein often associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Despite its role in the development of the pathogenesis, APP exerts several physiological roles that have been mainly investigated in neuronal tissue. To date, the role of APP in vasculature and endothelial cells has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we used molecular and proteomic approaches to identify and investigate major cellular targets of APP down-regulation in endothelial cells. We found that APP is necessary for endothelial cells proliferation, migration and adhesion. The loss of APP alters focal adhesion stability and cell–cell junctions’ expression. Moreover, APP is necessary to mediate endothelial response to the VEGF-A growth factor. Finally, we document that APP propagates exogenous stimuli and mediates cellular response in endothelial cells by modulating the Scr/FAK signaling pathway. Thus, the intact expression and processing of APP is required for normal endothelial function. The identification of molecular mechanisms responsible for vasoprotective properties of endothelial APP may have an impact on clinical efforts to preserve and protect healthy vasculature in patients at risk of the development of cerebrovascular disease and dementia including AD and CAA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Signalling)
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Review
Mechanisms of Action of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Incorporated in Extracellular Vesicles
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2505; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112505 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1924
Abstract
EGFR and some of the cognate ligands extensively traffic in extracellular vesicles (EVs) from different biogenesis pathways. EGFR belongs to a family of four homologous tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs). This family are one of the major drivers of cancer and is involved in [...] Read more.
EGFR and some of the cognate ligands extensively traffic in extracellular vesicles (EVs) from different biogenesis pathways. EGFR belongs to a family of four homologous tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs). This family are one of the major drivers of cancer and is involved in several of the most frequent malignancies such as non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer and ovarian cancer. The carrier EVs exert crucial biological effects on recipient cells, impacting immunity, pre-metastatic niche preparation, angiogenesis, cancer cell stemness and horizontal oncogene transfer. While EV-mediated EGFR signalling is important to EGFR-driven cancers, little is known about the precise mechanisms by which TKRs incorporated in EVs play their biological role, their stoichiometry and associations to other proteins relevant to cancer pathology and EV biogenesis, and their means of incorporation in the target cell. In addition, it remains unclear whether different subtypes of EVs incorporate different complexes of TKRs with specific functions. A raft of high spatial and temporal resolution methods is emerging that could solve these and other questions regarding the activity of EGFR and its ligands in EVs. More importantly, methods are emerging to block or mitigate EV activity to suppress cancer progression and drug resistance. By highlighting key findings and areas that remain obscure at the intersection of EGFR signalling and EV action, we hope to cross-fertilise the two fields and speed up the application of novel techniques and paradigms to both. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles: Biogenesis, Cargo and Disease)
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Retraction
Retraction: Li, X.; et al. Circular RNA circ-FoxO3 Inhibits Myoblast Cells Differentiation. Cells 2019, 8, 616
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2504; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112504 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
It has come to our attention that two images in Figure 2A (100%), and Figure 2C (GM) of the manuscript [...] Full article
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Review
Ribosomal Protein L10: From Function to Dysfunction
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2503; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112503 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes are highly structured macromolecular complexes made up of four different ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 80 ribosomal proteins (RPs), which play a central role in the decoding of genetic code for the synthesis of new proteins. Over the past 25 years, [...] Read more.
Eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes are highly structured macromolecular complexes made up of four different ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 80 ribosomal proteins (RPs), which play a central role in the decoding of genetic code for the synthesis of new proteins. Over the past 25 years, studies on yeast and human models have made it possible to identify RPL10 (ribosomal protein L10 gene), which is a constituent of the large subunit of the ribosome, as an important player in the final stages of ribosome biogenesis and in ribosome function. Here, we reviewed the literature to give an overview of the role of RPL10 in physiologic and pathologic processes, including inherited disease and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ribosome Biogenesis in Health and Disease)
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Article
Acid Sphingomyelinase Impacts Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels 6 (TRPC6) Activity in Primary Neuronal Systems
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2502; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112502 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1069
Abstract
The acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)/ceramide system exhibits a crucial role in the pathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). ASM hydrolyzes the abundant membrane lipid sphingomyelin to ceramide that regulates the clustering of membrane proteins via microdomain and lipid raft organization. Several commonly used antidepressants, [...] Read more.
The acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)/ceramide system exhibits a crucial role in the pathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). ASM hydrolyzes the abundant membrane lipid sphingomyelin to ceramide that regulates the clustering of membrane proteins via microdomain and lipid raft organization. Several commonly used antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, rely on the functional inhibition of ASM in terms of their antidepressive pharmacological effects. Transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) ion channels are located in the plasma membrane of neurons and serve as receptors for hyperforin, a phytochemical constituent of the antidepressive herbal remedy St. John’s wort. TRPC6 channels are involved in the regulation of neuronal plasticity, which likely contributes to their antidepressant effect. In this work, we investigated the impact of reduced ASM activity on the TRPC6 function in neurons. A lipidomic analysis of cortical brain tissue of ASM deficient mice revealed a decrease in ceramide/sphingomyelin molar ratio and an increase in sphingosine. In neurons with ASM deletion, hyperforin-mediated Ca2+-influx via TRPC6 was decreased. Consequently, downstream activation of nuclear phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) was changed, a transcriptional factor involved in neuronal plasticity. Our study underlines the importance of balanced ASM activity, as well as sphingolipidome composition for optimal TRPC6 function. A better understanding of the interaction of the ASM/ceramide and TRPC6 systems could help to draw conclusions about the pathology of MDD. Full article
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Article
Functional, Metabolic and Morphologic Results of Ex Vivo Donor Lung Perfusion with a Perfluorocarbon-Based Oxygen Carrier Nanoemulsion in a Large Animal Transplantation Model
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112501 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Background: Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a technology that allows the re-evaluation of questionable donor lung before implantation and it has the potential to repair injured donor lungs that are otherwise unsuitable for transplantation. We hypothesized that perfluorocarbon-based oxygen carrier, a novel [...] Read more.
Background: Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a technology that allows the re-evaluation of questionable donor lung before implantation and it has the potential to repair injured donor lungs that are otherwise unsuitable for transplantation. We hypothesized that perfluorocarbon-based oxygen carrier, a novel reconditioning strategy instilled during EVLP would improve graft function. Methods: We utilized perfluorocarbon-based oxygen carrier (PFCOC) during EVLP to recondition and improve lung graft function in a pig model of EVLP and lung transplantation. Lungs were retrieved and stored for 24 h at 4 °C. EVLP was done for 6 h with or without PFCOC. In the transplantation groups, left lung transplantation was done after EVLP with or without PFCOC. Allograft function was assessed by means of pulmonary gas exchange, lung mechanics and vascular pressures, histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: In the EVLP only groups, physiological and biochemical markers during the 6-h perfusion period were comparable. However, perfusate lactate potassium levels were lower and ATP levels were higher in the PFCOC group. Radiologic assessment revealed significantly more lung infiltrates in the controls than in the PFCOC group (p = 0.04). In transplantation groups, perfusate glucose consumption was higher in the control group. Lactate levels were significantly lower in the PFCOC group (p = 0.02). Perfusate flavin mononucleotide (FMN) was significantly higher in the controls (p = 0.008). Post-transplant gas exchange was significantly better during the 4-h reperfusion period in the PFCOC group (p = 0.01). Plasma IL-8 and IL-12 levels were significantly lower in the PFCOC group (p = 0.01, p = 0.03, respectively). ATP lung tissue levels at the end of the transplantation were higher and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in lung tissue were lower in the PFCOC group compared to the control group. In the PFCOC group, TEM showed better tissue preservation and cellular viability. Conclusion: PFCOC application is safe during EVLP in lungs preserved 24 h at 4 °C. Although this strategy did not significantly affect the EVLP physiology, metabolic markers of the donor quality such as lactate production, glucose consumption, neutrophil infiltration and preservation of mitochondrial function were better in the PFCOC group. Following transplantation, PFCOC resulted in better graft function and TEM showed better tissue preservation, cellular viability and improved gas transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immuno-Pathology in Organ and Cell Transplantation)
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Review
Linking Autism Risk Genes to Disruption of Cortical Development
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2500; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112500 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2636
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and social interaction, and the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or restricted interests. In the past few years, large-scale whole-exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have made enormous progress [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and social interaction, and the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or restricted interests. In the past few years, large-scale whole-exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have made enormous progress in our understanding of the genetic risk architecture of ASD. While showing a complex and heterogeneous landscape, these studies have led to the identification of genetic loci associated with ASD risk. The intersection of genetic and transcriptomic analyses have also begun to shed light on functional convergences between risk genes, with the mid-fetal development of the cerebral cortex emerging as a critical nexus for ASD. In this review, we provide a concise summary of the latest genetic discoveries on ASD. We then discuss the studies in postmortem tissues, stem cell models, and rodent models that implicate recently identified ASD risk genes in cortical development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Neocortical Circuit Formation)
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