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Polymers, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) A new copolymer with a temperature-responsive block and a cationic block was prepared by reversible [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Polyisoprene-Silica Nanoparticles Synthesized via RAFT Emulsifier-Free Emulsion Polymerization Using Water-Soluble Initiators
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110637
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Polyisoprene-silica (PIP-co-RAFT-SiO2) nanoparticles were prepared via reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization using water-soluble initiators, 4,4′-Azobis (4-cyanopentanoic acid) (ACP) and 2,2′-Azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (V50). The particle size of emulsion prepared using ACP initiator was smaller than that using V50 initiator
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Polyisoprene-silica (PIP-co-RAFT-SiO2) nanoparticles were prepared via reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization using water-soluble initiators, 4,4′-Azobis (4-cyanopentanoic acid) (ACP) and 2,2′-Azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (V50). The particle size of emulsion prepared using ACP initiator was smaller than that using V50 initiator because the V50 initiator was more active toward decomposition than the ACP initiator. A high monomer conversion (84%), grafting efficiency (83%) and small particle size (38 nm) with narrow size distribution were achieved at optimum condition. The PIP-co-RAFT-SiO2 nanoparticles exhibited core–shell morphology with silica encapsulated with polyisoprene (PIP). The new PIP-SiO2 nanoparticles could be applied as effective filler in rubber composites that possess good mechanical and thermal properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RAFT Living Radical Polymerization and Self-Assembly)
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Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Study on Chemical and Hot Press-Treated Silver Nanowires for Efficient Polymer Solar Cell Application
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110635
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
In this study, chemical treatment (CT; oxidation–reduction method) and physical treatment (HP; hot-pressing methods) were applied to improve the performance of silver nanowire (AgNW)-derived electrodes on a glass or flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The four-point probe method, UV-Vis spectroscopy and scanning electron
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In this study, chemical treatment (CT; oxidation–reduction method) and physical treatment (HP; hot-pressing methods) were applied to improve the performance of silver nanowire (AgNW)-derived electrodes on a glass or flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The four-point probe method, UV-Vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to measure the properties of AgNW electrodes and compare them with those of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes for exploring the possibility of using CT- and HP-based AgNW electrodes for polymer solar cell (PSC) applications. Using the CT or HP method, the sheet resistance of electrodes decreased to lower than 40 Ω sq−1 with an average high transmittance of more than 80%. Furthermore, HP reduced the surface roughness of AgNWs, which solved the inter-electrode short circuiting problem for devices. We studied the performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) and zinc oxide-based PSC devices. The power conversion efficiency of HP-AgNW-derived poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl] (PTB7-Th):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) devices was 7.83%, which was slightly lower than the performance of the device using ITO (8.03%) as a substrate. After a bend test (100 times) at a 2-cm curvature radius, the efficiency of AgNW/PET-derived PSCs was more than 70%. The performance of PSCs made with AgNWs and ITO electrodes is comparable, but the cost of using AgNWs for electrodes is much lower; therefore, HP-derived AgNWs demonstrate great potential for optoelectronic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Solar Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Design of Thermochromic Polynorbornene Bearing Spiropyran Chromophore Moieties: Synthesis, Thermal Behavior and Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110630
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
A new class of thermochromic polynorbornene with pendent spiropyran moieties has been synthesized. Functionalization of norbornene monomers with spirobenzopyran moieties has been achieved using Steglich esterification. These new monomeric materials were polymerized via Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP). In spite of their poor
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A new class of thermochromic polynorbornene with pendent spiropyran moieties has been synthesized. Functionalization of norbornene monomers with spirobenzopyran moieties has been achieved using Steglich esterification. These new monomeric materials were polymerized via Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP). In spite of their poor solubility, polynorbornenes with spirobenzopyran exhibited thermochromic behavior due to the conversion of their closed spiropyran moieties to the open merocyanine form. Moreover, these polymers displayed bathochromic shifts in their optical response, which was attributed to the J-aggregation of the attached merocyanine moieties that were associated with their high concentration in the polymeric chain. The surface of the obtained polymers was exposed to atmospheric pressure air Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma system, which resulted in the reduction of the surface porosity and converted some surface area into completely non-porous regions. Moreover, the plasma system created some areas with highly ordered J-aggregates of the merocyanine form in thread-like structures. This modification of the polymers’ morphology may alter their applications and allow for these materials to be potential candidates for new applications, such as non-porous membranes for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, or molecular separation in the gas phase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Substituent Effects of Adamantyl Group on Amido Ligand in Syndiospecific Polymerization of Propylene with Ansa-Dimethylsilylene(Fluorenyl)(Amido) Zirconium Complex
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110632
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
A series of new fluorenylamido-ligated zirconium complexes bearing an electron-donating adamantyl group on the amido ligand were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, and single crystal X-ray analysis. The coordination mode of the fluorenyl ligand to the zirconium metal was
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A series of new fluorenylamido-ligated zirconium complexes bearing an electron-donating adamantyl group on the amido ligand were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, and single crystal X-ray analysis. The coordination mode of the fluorenyl ligand to the zirconium metal was η3 manner, and all the complexes were Cs-symmetric in solution. The complexes showed moderate activity (1.0 × 105 g-polymer mol-Zr−1·h−1), even at a low Al/Zr ratio of 50. The increase of propylene pressure improved the activity by one order of magnitude (up to 1.0 × 106 g-polymer mol-Ti−1·h−1). All catalyst systems gave syndiotactic polypropylene, where the complex containing the 3,6-di-t-butyl fluorenyl ligand was more effective for the enhancement of the syndiospecificity. The increase of propylene pressure also improved the syndiospecificity with the syndiotactic pentad of 0.96 and the melting point of 159 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olefin Polymerization and Polyolefin)
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Open AccessArticle Bulk Oriented UHMWPE/FMWCNT Films for Tribological Applications
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110629
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 19 November 2017
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Abstract
Bulk oriented films based on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with a drawing ratio of 35 were prepared by using a low solvent concentration. Bulk oriented films were filled with fluorinated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (FMWCNTs). The structure of bulk oriented films on UHMWPE,
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Bulk oriented films based on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with a drawing ratio of 35 were prepared by using a low solvent concentration. Bulk oriented films were filled with fluorinated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (FMWCNTs). The structure of bulk oriented films on UHMWPE, which were manufactured at different stages of orientation, was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The addition of FMWCNTs at a concentration of 0.05 wt % in bulk oriented UHMWPE films led to an increase in the tensile strength by 10% (up to 1020 ± 23 MPa) compared to unfilled oriented films. However, the addition of FMWCNTs at a concentration of more than 0.5 wt % led to a decrease in tensile strength due to excessive accumulation of nanotubes and hindering of self-diffusion of UHMWPE macromolecules. The multiple increase in tensile strength, doubling the hardness, the formation of fibrillar structure, and the presence of carbon nanotubes led to a significant increase in tribological properties in bulk oriented films. Bulk oriented UHMWPE/1% FMWCNT films can be operated at a maximum contact pressure that is 18 times higher and exhibit a specific wear rate more than an order of magnitude and less than the traditional UHMWPE of isotropic structure. Bulk oriented UHMWPE/1% FMWCNT films have an extremely low dry coefficient of friction (COF) of 0.075 at a contact pressure of 31 MPa. The developed bulk oriented films can be used for manufacturing frictional surfaces for sliding bearings, or for acetabular cups for knee and hip endoprostheses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Highly Filled Rice Husk Biochar/High-Density Polyethylene Composites
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110628
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
In this study, rice husk biochar/high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were prepared via melt mixing followed by extrusion. Effects of biochar content and testing temperature on the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the composites were studied. Morphological analysis of the rice husk biochar and
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In this study, rice husk biochar/high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were prepared via melt mixing followed by extrusion. Effects of biochar content and testing temperature on the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the composites were studied. Morphological analysis of the rice husk biochar and composites were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that biochar had a positive effect on dynamic viscoelasticity, creep resistance and stress relaxation properties of the composites, but the creep resistance and stress relaxation of the composites decreased with the increase of temperature. SEM analysis showed that HDPE components were embedded in the holes of the rice husk biochar, and it is believed that strong interaction was achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olefin Polymerization and Polyolefin)
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Open AccessArticle MgCl2-Supported Titanium Ziegler-Natta Catalyst Using Carbon Dioxide-Based Poly(propylene ether carbonate) Diols as Internal Electron Donor for 1-Butene Polymerization
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110627
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
MgCl2-supported titanium Ziegler-Natta catalyst containing CO2-based poly(propylene ether carbonate) diols as a potential internal electron donor (IED) was synthesized and employed for 1-butene polymerization. When compared with the Ziegler-Natta catalyst using poly(polypropylene glycol) as IED, the catalyst prepared with
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MgCl2-supported titanium Ziegler-Natta catalyst containing CO2-based poly(propylene ether carbonate) diols as a potential internal electron donor (IED) was synthesized and employed for 1-butene polymerization. When compared with the Ziegler-Natta catalyst using poly(polypropylene glycol) as IED, the catalyst prepared with poly(propylene ether carbonate) diols showed good particle morphology, higher activity and stereoselectivity. The results suggested that existence of the carbonate group within the structure of poly(propylene ether carbonate) diols truly plays an important role in improving the performance of the catalyst for the 1-butene polymerization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olefin Polymerization and Polyolefin)
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Open AccessArticle From Insulating PMMA Polymer to Conjugated Double Bond Behavior: Green Chemistry as a Novel Approach to Fabricate Small Band Gap Polymers
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110626
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Dye-doped polymer films of Poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA have been prepared with the use of the conventional solution cast technique. Natural dye has been extracted from environmentally friendly material of green tea (GT) leaves. Obvious Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra for the GT extract
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Dye-doped polymer films of Poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA have been prepared with the use of the conventional solution cast technique. Natural dye has been extracted from environmentally friendly material of green tea (GT) leaves. Obvious Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra for the GT extract were observed, showing absorption bands at 3401 cm−1, 1628 cm−1, and 1029 cm−1, corresponding to O–H/N–H, C=O, and C–O groups, respectively. The shift and decrease in the intensity of the FTIR bands in the doped PMMA sample have been investigated to confirm the complex formation between the GT dye and PMMA polymer. Different types of electronic transition could be seen in the absorption spectra of the dye-doped samples. For the PMMA sample incorporated with 28 mL of GT dye, distinguishable intense peak around 670 nm appeared, which opens new frontiers in the green chemistry field that are particularly suitable for laser technology and optoelectronic applications. The main result of this study showed that the doping of the PMMA polymer with green tea dye exhibited a strong absorption peak around 670 nm in the visible range. The absorption edge was found to be shifted towards the lower photon energy for the doped samples. Optical dielectric loss and Tauc’s model were used to estimate the optical band gaps of the samples and to specify the transition types between the valence band (VB) and conduction band (CB), respectively. A small band gap of around 2.6 eV for the dye-doped PMMA films was observed. From the scientific and engineering viewpoints, this topic has been found to be very important and relevant. The amorphous nature of the doped samples was found and ascribed to the increase of Urbach energy. The Urbach energy has been correlated to the analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) to display the structure-properties relationships. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Equilibrium Melting Temperature of Polymorphic Poly(l-lactide) and Its Supercooling Dependence on Growth Kinetics
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110625
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
In this study, the isothermal crystallization process of poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) has been investigated using in situ XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and polarized optical microscopy (POM). Linear and nonlinear extrapolation methods have been deployed to estimate the equilibrium melting temperature (
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In this study, the isothermal crystallization process of poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) has been investigated using in situ XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and polarized optical microscopy (POM). Linear and nonlinear extrapolation methods have been deployed to estimate the equilibrium melting temperature ( T m 0 ), which is used for analyzing the supercooling dependence of the PLLA spherulitic growth rate (G). A double-melting behavior observed for PLLA under crystallization Tc < 120 °C has been attributed to the formation of both α′ and α crystals. The T m 0 values of both α′ and α crystals have been evaluated using the linear method (172.8 °C) and nonlinear method (196.4 °C), with the nonlinear estimate being 23.6 °C higher. A discontinuity in the temperature dependence of spherulite growth rate is observed around 128.3 °C. Regime II–III transition is found to occur at 128.3 °C when T m 0 = 196.4 °C as estimated by the nonlinear extrapolation method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Polymeric Amines and Ampholytes Derived from Poly(acryloyl chloride): Synthesis, Influence on Silicic Acid Condensation and Interaction with Nucleic Acid
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110624
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (12853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polymeric amines are intensively studied due to various valuable properties. This study describes the synthesis of new polymeric amines and ampholytes by the reaction of poly(acryloyl chloride) with trimethylene-based polyamines containing one secondary and several (1–3) tertiary amine groups. The polymers contain polyamine
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Polymeric amines are intensively studied due to various valuable properties. This study describes the synthesis of new polymeric amines and ampholytes by the reaction of poly(acryloyl chloride) with trimethylene-based polyamines containing one secondary and several (1–3) tertiary amine groups. The polymers contain polyamine side chains and carboxylic groups when the polyamine was in deficiency. These polymers differ in structure of side groups, but they are identical in polymerization degree and polydispersity, which facilitates the study of composition-properties relationships. The structure of the obtained polymers was confirmed with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance infrared spectroscopy, and acid-base properties were studied with potentiometry titration. Placement of the amine groups in the side chains influences their acid-base properties: protonation of the amine group exerts a larger impact on the amine in the same side chain than on the amines in the neighboring side chains. The obtained polymers are prone to aggregation in aqueous solutions tending to insolubility at definite pH values in the case of polyampholytes. Silicic acid condensation in the presence of new polymers results in soluble composite nanoparticles and composite materials which consist of ordered submicrometer particles according to dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Polymeric amines, ampholytes, and composite nanoparticles are capable of interacting with oligonucleotides, giving rise to complexes that hold promise for gene delivery applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Addition of Carbon Nanomaterials on Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110620
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 11 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) are a new generation of green composites that could optimize the use of harvested trees and increase the entire value chain. In this study, the electrical and mechanical properties of WPCs containing carbon blacks (CB), flake graphite (FG) and
[...] Read more.
Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) are a new generation of green composites that could optimize the use of harvested trees and increase the entire value chain. In this study, the electrical and mechanical properties of WPCs containing carbon blacks (CB), flake graphite (FG) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated. The electrical property of WPCs is improved significantly owing to the introduction of these carbon nanomaterial fillers. The volume and surface resistivity values of the investigated composites all obviously decreased with the increase in filler content, especially CNTs, which displayed the most satisfactory results. Based on a series of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the mechanical performance, it can be concluded that the addition of the carbon nanomaterial fillers decreases the mechanical properties of WPCs slightly with the increase in filler content because of the weak interfacial interactions between the fillers and polymer matrix. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Styrene-Assisted Maleic Anhydride Grafted Poly(lactic acid) as an Effective Compatibilizer for Wood Flour/Poly(lactic acid) Bio-Composites
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110623
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of styrene-assisted maleic anhydride-grafted poly(lactic acid) (PLA-g-St/MAH) on the interfacial properties of wood flour/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) bio-composites. PLA-g-St/MAH was synthesized by free-radical melt grafting using styrene as a comonomer and dicumyl peroxide
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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of styrene-assisted maleic anhydride-grafted poly(lactic acid) (PLA-g-St/MAH) on the interfacial properties of wood flour/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) bio-composites. PLA-g-St/MAH was synthesized by free-radical melt grafting using styrene as a comonomer and dicumyl peroxide as an initiator. The structure of PLA-g-St/MAH was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Wood flour/PLA composites were prepared by compression molding using PLA-g-St/MAH as a compatibilizer. The effects of PLA-g-St/MAH on the rheological and mechanical properties, as well as on the fractured surface morphology of the composites were investigated. Results indicated that storage modulus, complex viscosity, equilibrium torque, and shear heat were significantly increased. The mechanical properties of the wood flour/PLA composites were also significantly increased after the addition of PLA-g-St/MAH. The maximum values were achieved at the loading rate of 3 wt % because of the improved interfacial adhesion between the wood flour and the PLA matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Resins and Crosslinked Polymers from Renewable Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of PVA Blending on Structural and Ion Transport Properties of CS:AgNt-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membrane
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110622
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
In this work, the role of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blending on structural and electrical properties of chitosan:silver nitrate systems is studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the crystalline phase of chitosan (CS) is greatly scarified by silver nitrate (AgNt) salt. The
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In this work, the role of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blending on structural and electrical properties of chitosan:silver nitrate systems is studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the crystalline phase of chitosan (CS) is greatly scarified by silver nitrate (AgNt) salt. The crystalline domain of CS:AgNt is more broadened at 10 wt % of PVA. The spike and semicircular arcs can be separated in impedance plots. At high temperatures, the spike regions remained. The direct current (DC) conductivity was calculated from the bulk resistance obtained from the impedance plots. The dielectric constant and DC conductivity versus PVA content exhibited similar behavior. The maximum DC conductivity at ambient temperature was 1.1 × 10−6 S/cm for 10 wt % of PVA. The DC ionic conductivity increased to 9.95 × 10−5 S/cm at 80 °C. Above 10 wt % of PVA, the drop in DC conductivity and dielectric constant were observed due to the increase in viscosity. Shifting of relaxation peaks towards the lower frequency revealed the increase of resistivity of the samples. The linear increase of DC conductivity versus 1000/T indicated that ion transport followed the Arrhenius model. The incomplete semicircular arc in Argand plots indicated the non-Debye type of relaxation process. The Argand plots were used to distinguish between conductivity relaxation and viscoelastic relaxation. Three regions were distinguished in the alternating current (AC) spectra of the blend electrolyte samples. The plateau region in AC spectra was used to estimate the DC conductivity. The estimated DC conductivity from the AC spectra was close to those calculated from the impedance plots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Membranes)
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Open AccessArticle Cardanol Groups Grafted on Poly(vinyl chloride)—Synthesis, Performance and Plasticization Mechanism
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110621
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 11 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Internally plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) materials are investigated via grafting of propargyl ether cardanol (PEC). The chemical structure of the materials was studied by FT-IR and 1H NMR. The performace of the obtained internally plasticized PVC materials was also investigated with TGA,
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Internally plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) materials are investigated via grafting of propargyl ether cardanol (PEC). The chemical structure of the materials was studied by FT-IR and 1H NMR. The performace of the obtained internally plasticized PVC materials was also investigated with TGA, DSC and leaching tests. The results showed that grafting of propargyl ether cardanol (PEC) on PVC increased the free volume and distance of PVC chains, which efficiently decreased the glass transition temperature (Tg). No migration was found in the leaching tests for internally plasticized PVC films compared with plasticized PVC materials with commercial plasticizer dioctyl phthalate (DOP). The internal plasticization mechanism was also disscussed according to lubrication theory and free volume theory. This work provides a meaningful strategy for designing no-migration PVC materials by introducing cardanol groups as branched chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers from Renewable Resources)
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Open AccessReview Generation of Polymer Nanocomposites through Shear-Driven Aggregation of Binary Colloids
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110619
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
Design of polymer nanocomposites has been an intense research topic in recent decades because hybrid nanomaterials are widely used in many fields. Throughout their development, there has often been a challenging issue how one can uniformly distribute nanoparticles (NPs) in a polymer matrix,
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Design of polymer nanocomposites has been an intense research topic in recent decades because hybrid nanomaterials are widely used in many fields. Throughout their development, there has often been a challenging issue how one can uniformly distribute nanoparticles (NPs) in a polymer matrix, avoiding their agglomeration. In this short review, we first introduce the theory of colloidal aggregation/gelation purely based on intense shear forces. Then, we illustrate a methodology for preparing polymer nanocomposites where the NPs (as fillers) are uniformly and randomly distributed inside a matrix of polymer NPs, based on intense shear-driven aggregation of binary colloids, without using any additives. Its feasibility has been demonstrated using two stable binary colloids composed of (1) poly-methyl methacrylate fillers and polystyrene NPs, and (2) graphene oxide sheets (fillers) and poly-vinylidene fluoride NPs. The mechanism leading to capturing and distribution of the fillers inside the polymer NP matrix has been illustrated, and the advantages of the proposed methodology compared with the other common methods are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Fluid Shear Stress on the In Vitro Release Kinetics of Sirolimus from PLGA Films
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110618
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
Drug-carrying coatings of stents implanted in blood vessels are exposed to various blood flows. This study investigated the effect of fluid shear stress on the in vitro release kinetics of sirolimus from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films. The homemade parallel plate flow
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Drug-carrying coatings of stents implanted in blood vessels are exposed to various blood flows. This study investigated the effect of fluid shear stress on the in vitro release kinetics of sirolimus from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films. The homemade parallel plate flow chamber was used to exert quantitative shear stress on the sirolimus-carrying film. By adjusting the flow rate of the release media in the chamber, three levels of shear stress (3.6, 12.0, and 36.0 dyn/cm2) were respectively applied. For each level of shear stress employed, the release kinetics of sirolimus from the PLGA films exhibited a four-phase profile: an initial burst release phase (Phase I), a lag phase (Phase II), a second burst release phase (Phase III), and a terminal release phase (Phase IV). During Phases I and II, sirolimus was released slowly and in small amounts (<10%); however, during Phases III and IV, the drug release increased considerably. Comparisons of different shear stresses indicated that greater shear stress resulted in earlier and faster sirolimus release, with more cumulative drug release observed. PLGA film degradations (molecular weight reduction, mass loss, and surface topographical variations) were also investigated to better explain the observed drug release behavior. Consequently, fluid shear stress was found to significantly accelerate the release of sirolimus from the PLGA matrices. Therefore, this study could provide a practical method for evaluating the in vitro drug release from polymer matrices under uniform shear stress, and might help improve the design of biodegradable coatings on drug-eluting stents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Thiolated Chitosan Masked Polymeric Microspheres with Incorporated Mesocellular Silica Foam (MCF) for Intranasal Delivery of Paliperidone
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110617
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
In this study, mesocellular silica foam (MCF) was used to encapsulate paliperidone, an antipsychotic drug used in patients suffering from bipolar disorder. MCF with the drug adsorbed was further encapsulated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) 75/25 w/w
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In this study, mesocellular silica foam (MCF) was used to encapsulate paliperidone, an antipsychotic drug used in patients suffering from bipolar disorder. MCF with the drug adsorbed was further encapsulated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) 75/25 w/w microspheres and these have been coated with thiolated chitosan. As found by TEM analysis, thiolated chitosan formed a thin layer on the polymeric microspheres’ surface and was used in order to enhance their mucoadhesiveness. These microspheres aimed at the intranasal delivery of paliperidone. The DSC and XRD studies showed that paliperidone was encapsulated in amorphous form inside the MCF silica and for this reason its dissolution profile was enhanced compared to the neat drug. In coated microspheres, thiolated chitosan reduced the initial burst effect of the paliperidone dissolution profile and in all cases sustained release formulations have been prepared. The release mechanism was also theoretically studied and three kinetic models were proposed and successfully fitted for a dissolution profile of prepared formulations to be found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers from Renewable Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Ionic Conductivity and Assembled Structures of Imidazolium Salt-Based Block Copolymers with Thermoresponsive Segments
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110616
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ionic liquid-based block copolymers composed of ionic (solubility tunable)–nonionic (water-soluble and thermoresponsive) segments were synthesized to explore the relationship between ionic conductivity and assembled structures. Three block copolymers, comprising poly(N-vinylimidazolium bromide) (poly(NVI-Br)) as a hydrophilic poly(ionic liquid) segment and thermoresponsive poly(
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Ionic liquid-based block copolymers composed of ionic (solubility tunable)–nonionic (water-soluble and thermoresponsive) segments were synthesized to explore the relationship between ionic conductivity and assembled structures. Three block copolymers, comprising poly(N-vinylimidazolium bromide) (poly(NVI-Br)) as a hydrophilic poly(ionic liquid) segment and thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAM)), having different compositions, were initially prepared by RAFT polymerization. The anion-exchange reaction of the poly(NVI-Br) in the block copolymers with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiNTf2) proceeded selectively to afford amphiphilic block copolymers composed of hydrophobic poly(NVI-NTf2) and hydrophilic poly(NIPAM). Resulting poly(NVI-NTf2)-b-poly(NIPAM) exhibited ionic conductivities greater than 10−3 S/cm at 90 °C and 10−4 S/cm at 25 °C, which can be tuned by the comonomer composition and addition of a molten salt. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity and assembled structures of these block copolymers were investigated, in terms of the comonomer composition, nature of counter anion and sample preparation procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers and Block Copolymers at Interfaces and Surfaces)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Ammonium Polyphosphate to Aluminum Hydroxide Mass Ratio on the Properties of Wood-Flour/Polypropylene Composites
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110615
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Two halogen-free inorganic flame retardants, ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and aluminum hydroxide (ATH) were added to wood-flour/polypropylene composites (WPCs) at different APP to ATH mass ratios (APP/ATH ratios), with a constant total loading of 30 wt % (30% by mass). Water soaking tests indicated
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Two halogen-free inorganic flame retardants, ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and aluminum hydroxide (ATH) were added to wood-flour/polypropylene composites (WPCs) at different APP to ATH mass ratios (APP/ATH ratios), with a constant total loading of 30 wt % (30% by mass). Water soaking tests indicated a low hygroscopicity and/or solubility of ATH as compared to APP. Mechanical property tests showed that the flexural properties were not significantly affected by the APP/ATH ratio, while the impact strength appeared to increase with the increasing ATH/APP ratio. Cone calorimetry indicated that APP appeared to be more effective than ATH in reducing the peak of heat release rate (PHRR). However, when compared to the neat WPCs, total smoke release decreased with the addition of ATH but increased with the addition of APP. Noticeably, WPCs containing the combination of 20 wt % APP and 10 wt % ATH (WPC/APP-20/ATH-10) showed the lowest PHRR and total heat release in all of the formulations. WPCs combustion residues were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify the organic volatiles that were produced during the thermal decomposition of WPCs. WPC/APP-20/ATH-10 showed the most compact carbonaceous residue with the highest degree of graphitization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Short Oxygen Plasma Treatment Leading to Long-Term Hydrophilicity of Conductive PCL-PPy Nanofiber Scaffolds
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110614
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Electrically conductive scaffolds are of significant interest in tissue regeneration. However, the chemistry of the existing scaffolds usually lacks the bioactive features for effective interaction with cells. In this study, poly(ε-caprolactone) was electrospun into aligned nanofibers with 0.58 µm average diameter. Electrospinning was
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Electrically conductive scaffolds are of significant interest in tissue regeneration. However, the chemistry of the existing scaffolds usually lacks the bioactive features for effective interaction with cells. In this study, poly(ε-caprolactone) was electrospun into aligned nanofibers with 0.58 µm average diameter. Electrospinning was followed by polypyrrole coating on the surface of the fibers, which resulted in 48 kΩ/sq surface resistivity. An oxygen plasma treatment was conducted to change the hydrophobic surface of the fiber mats into a hydrophilic substrate. The water contact angle was reduced from 136° to 0°, and this change remained on the surface of the material even after one year. An indirect cytotoxicity test was conducted, which showed cytocompatibility of the fibrous scaffolds. To measure the cell growth on samples, fibroblast cells were cultured on fibers for 7 days. The cell distribution and density were observed and calculated based on confocal images taken of the cell culture experiment. The number of cells on the plasma-treated sample was more than double than that of sample without plasma treatment. The long-lasting hydrophilicity of the plasma treated fibers with conductive coating is the significant contribution of this work for regeneration of electrically excitable tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Biobased Polyesters)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the GO Reduction Method on the Dielectric Properties, Electrical Conductivity and Crystalline Behavior of PEO/rGO Nanocomposites
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110613
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The effect of the reduction method to prepare reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on the melt linear viscoelastic properties, electrical conductivity, polymer matrix crystalline behavior and dielectric properties of PEO-rGO nanocomposites was investigated. Reduction was performed chemically with either sodium borohydride (NaBH4)
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The effect of the reduction method to prepare reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on the melt linear viscoelastic properties, electrical conductivity, polymer matrix crystalline behavior and dielectric properties of PEO-rGO nanocomposites was investigated. Reduction was performed chemically with either sodium borohydride (NaBH4) or hydrazine monohydrate (N2H4·H2O) or both reduction agents consecutively as well as thermally at 1000 °C. The different reduction methods resulted in exfoliated rGO sheets with different types and amounts of remaining functional groups, as indicated by FT-IR, Raman, TGA and XRD characterization. Moreover, their electrical conductivity ranged between 10−4 and 10−1 S/cm, with the consecutive use of both chemical reduction agents being far superior. PEO nanocomposites with filler loadings of 0.5 wt %, 1 wt % and 2 wt % were prepared by solvent mixing. The rGO fillers affected the melt linear viscoelastic and crystalline behavior of the PEO matrix and resulted in nanocomposites with a substantially increased electrical conductivity. Despite the wide variability in filler conductivity, the effects on the polymer nanocomposite properties were less distinctive. A correlation was obtained between the reduction of the mobility of the polymer chains (evaluated by the glass transition temperature) and the dielectric strength of the interfacial polarisation originating from the effective entrapment of GO/rGO filler charges at the interface with the less conductive PEO. Thus, favorable interactions of the polar PEO with the filler led to reduced mobility of the PEO chains and thereby a more effective entrapment of the filler charges at the PEO interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Binding of the GTPase Sar1 to a Lipid Membrane Monolayer: Insertion and Orientation Studied by Infrared Reflection–Absorption Spectroscopy
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110612
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
PDF Full-text (7312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Membrane-interacting proteins are polyphilic polymers that engage in dynamic protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions while undergoing changes in conformation, orientation and binding interfaces. Predicting the sites of interactions between such polypeptides and phospholipid membranes is still a challenge. One example is the small eukaryotic
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Membrane-interacting proteins are polyphilic polymers that engage in dynamic protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions while undergoing changes in conformation, orientation and binding interfaces. Predicting the sites of interactions between such polypeptides and phospholipid membranes is still a challenge. One example is the small eukaryotic GTPase Sar1, which functions in phospholipid bilayer remodeling and vesicle formation as part of the multimeric coat protein complex (COPII). The membrane interaction of Sar1 is strongly dependent on its N-terminal 23 amino acids. By monolayer adsorption experiments and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), we elucidate the role of lipids in inducing the amphipathicity of this N-terminal stretch, which inserts into the monolayer as an amphipathic helix (AH). The AH inserting angle is determined and is consistent with the philicities and spatial distribution of the amino acid monomers. Using an advanced method of IRRAS data evaluation, the orientation of Sar1 with respect to the lipid layer prior to the recruitment of further COPII proteins is determined. The result indicates that only a slight reorientation of the membrane-bound Sar1 is needed to allow coat assembly. The time-course of the IRRAS analysis corroborates a role of slow GTP hydrolysis in Sar1 desorption from the membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Amphiphilic to Polyphilic Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Aggregation Behavior of Nano-Silica in Polyvinyl Alcohol/Polyacrylamide Hydrogels Based on Dissipative Particle Dynamics
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110611
Received: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Due to the aggregation behavior of nano-silica in aqueous solution, the use of nano-silica without surface modification for synthesizing hydrogels is still a challenging task. This paper presents our study on the use of dissipative particle dynamics simulations to discover the aggregation behavior
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Due to the aggregation behavior of nano-silica in aqueous solution, the use of nano-silica without surface modification for synthesizing hydrogels is still a challenging task. This paper presents our study on the use of dissipative particle dynamics simulations to discover the aggregation behavior of nano-silica in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyacrylamide (PAM) blended hydrogels. By simulations, we aimed at investigating the effects of such factors as nano-silica content, polymer component ratio, temperature and shear rate on the aggregation behavior of nano-silica in terms of the mesoscopic morphologies and the relative concentration distribution functions. Our results reveal that the dispersion of nano-silica is seen if the nano-silica content is increased to 1.5%, and the aggregation of nano-silica becomes noticeable in blended hydrogels with an increase in the nano-silica content. This finding agrees well with the experimental results obtained by means of scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, it is also found that the dispersion of nano-silica becomes more uniform with an increase in PAM content, temperature and shear rate. These findings greatly enrich our understanding of the aggregation behavior of nano-silica in PVA/PAM blended hydrogels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of a Fluorocarbon Polymerizable Surfactant and Its Application in Emulsion Polymerization of Fluorine-Containing Acrylate
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110606
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
A novel polymerizable fluorocarbon surfactant, perfluoro (4–methyl–3, 6–dioxaoct–7–ene) sodium sulfonate (PSVNa), was synthesized and characterized. The fluorocarbon surfactant PSVNa and its mixture PSVNa/SDS were used as emulsifiers during the emulsion polymerization of DFHMA/MMA. The investigation of polymerization kinetics, particle size, and stability of
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A novel polymerizable fluorocarbon surfactant, perfluoro (4–methyl–3, 6–dioxaoct–7–ene) sodium sulfonate (PSVNa), was synthesized and characterized. The fluorocarbon surfactant PSVNa and its mixture PSVNa/SDS were used as emulsifiers during the emulsion polymerization of DFHMA/MMA. The investigation of polymerization kinetics, particle size, and stability of the emulsions revealed that PSVNa has excellent emulsifying properties. The NMR spectrum of the copolymer and the detection of residual PSVNa show that more than 95% of the fluorocarbon surfactants have been linked to the polymer chains by radical polymerization, which will greatly reduce the environmental pollution caused by fluorinated surfactants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorinated Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Terpolymers with Homogeneous Composition by Free Radical Copolymerization of Maleic Anhydride, Perfluorooctyl and Butyl or Dodecyl Methacrylates: Application of the Continuous Flow Monomer Addition Technique
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110610
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3039 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Terpolymers of homogeneous composition were prepared by free radical copolymerization of butyl or dodecyl methacrylate, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate and maleic anhydride using the continuous monomer addition technique. The copolymerization reactions were performed at 65 °C in
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Terpolymers of homogeneous composition were prepared by free radical copolymerization of butyl or dodecyl methacrylate, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate and maleic anhydride using the continuous monomer addition technique. The copolymerization reactions were performed at 65 °C in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator in a mixture of methyl ethyl ketone and 1,3-bis (trifluoromethyl)benzene. The monomers and initiator are added to the reaction mixture with the same rate they are consumed in 5- and 10-fold excess compared to the initial monomer stock. The obtained terpolymers with molecular weights Mn = 50,000–70,000 are of uniform composition, close to the composition determined in low conversion experiments, proving the principle of the chosen concept. The kinetic data necessary for the design of the continuous addition experiment were obtained from binary copolymerization experiments at low monomer conversion (to avoid compositional drift). In addition, the so-called terpolymerization parameter was determined from ternary copolymerization experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorinated Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of CO2 Laser Treatment on the Fabric Hand of Cotton and Cotton/Polyester Blended Fabric
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110609
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
This paper compares the impact of laser treatment on cotton and cotton/polyester blended fabric hand properties, using the PhabrOmeter system. Five fabric hand properties, namely, stiffness, smoothness, softness, wrinkle recovery rate, and drapability, were obtained, and it was proven that laser treatment could
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This paper compares the impact of laser treatment on cotton and cotton/polyester blended fabric hand properties, using the PhabrOmeter system. Five fabric hand properties, namely, stiffness, smoothness, softness, wrinkle recovery rate, and drapability, were obtained, and it was proven that laser treatment could be successfully used to change the fabric hand. In the case of pure cotton woven fabrics, the fabrics were found to have better drapability and wrinkle recovery after laser treatment. In cotton/polyester blended fabrics, stiffness was found to be relatively higher after laser irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Allylthioketone Mediated Free Radical Polymerization of Methacrylates
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110608
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
By combination of high trapping free radical efficiency of the thioketone and resonance of the allylic radical, a new type of mediating agent, 1,3,3-triphenylprop-2-ene-1-thione (TPPT) has been successfully synthesized, and then is used to study controlled free radical polymerization of methacrylates. Very stable
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By combination of high trapping free radical efficiency of the thioketone and resonance of the allylic radical, a new type of mediating agent, 1,3,3-triphenylprop-2-ene-1-thione (TPPT) has been successfully synthesized, and then is used to study controlled free radical polymerization of methacrylates. Very stable TPPT radicals at the end of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are detected in the polymerization of MMA using TPPT and AIBN as the control agent and initiator. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra are used to identify terminal groups of the resultant poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA), and major component of the obtained polymer has the structure, (CH3)2(CN)C-PGMA-C7H9O3. Chain extension reaction tests ascertain formation of the dead polymers during the polymer storage and purification process of the polymers. Owing to very slow fragmentation reaction of the TPPT-terminated polymethacrylate radical and addition reaction of this radical with a primary radical, the growing chain radicals are difficult to be regenerated, leading to an unobvious change of the molecular weight with monomer conversion. The molecular weights of polymers can be controlled by the ratios of monomer/initiator and TPPT/initiator. However, the first order kinetics of the polymerization and the polymers with narrow polydispersity are obtained, and these phenomena are discussed. This study provides useful information on how to design a better controlling agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Living Polymerization)
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Open AccessArticle Solid-State Polymerization of Poly(ethylene furanoate) Biobased Polyester, I: Effect of Catalyst Type on Molecular Weight Increase
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110607
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2755 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, we report the synthesis of poly(ethylene furanoate) (PEF), catalyzed by three different catalysts, namely, titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TIS), tetrabutyltitanate (TBT), and dibutyltin (IV) oxide (DBTO), via the two-stage melt polycondensation method. Solid-state polymerization (SSP) was conducted at different reaction times
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In this work, we report the synthesis of poly(ethylene furanoate) (PEF), catalyzed by three different catalysts, namely, titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TIS), tetrabutyltitanate (TBT), and dibutyltin (IV) oxide (DBTO), via the two-stage melt polycondensation method. Solid-state polymerization (SSP) was conducted at different reaction times (1, 2, 3.5, and 5 h) and temperatures 190, 200, and 205 °C, under vacuum. The resultant polymers were analyzed according to their intrinsic viscosity (IV), end groups (–COOH), and thermal properties, via differential scanning calorimetry. DSC results showed that the post polymerization process was favorable to enhance the melting point of the prepared PEF samples. As was expected, the intrinsic viscosity and the average molecular weight of PEF increased with the SSP time and temperature, whereas the number of carboxyl end-groups was decreased. A simple kinetic model was also developed and used to predict the time evolution of polymers IV, as well as the carboxyl and hydroxyl content of PEF during the SSP. From both the experimental measurements and the theoretical simulation results it was proved that the presence of the TIS catalyst resulted in higher transesterification kinetic rate constants and higher reaction rates. The activation energies were not much affected by the presence of different catalysts. Finally, using DBTO as a catalyst, the polyesters produced have higher crystallinity, and as a consequence, higher number of inactive carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Biobased Polyesters)
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Open AccessArticle The In Vitro Enzymatic Degradation of Cross-Linked Poly(trimethylene carbonate) Networks
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110605
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
PDF Full-text (5674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The in vitro enzymatic degradation of cross-linked poly(trimethylene carbonate) networks (PTMC-Ns) was performed in lipase solutions at 37 °C, and the effect of the initial molecular weight and cross-linker amount as well as the cross-linker type on the degradation rate of PTMC-Ns was
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The in vitro enzymatic degradation of cross-linked poly(trimethylene carbonate) networks (PTMC-Ns) was performed in lipase solutions at 37 °C, and the effect of the initial molecular weight and cross-linker amount as well as the cross-linker type on the degradation rate of PTMC-Ns was investigated. Due to their denser structure and more hydrophobic surface as well as the higher glass transition temperature, a slower degradation rate was seen for PTMC-Ns with high initial molecular weight at a given cross-linker amount. Similar results could be observed as the cross-linker amount increased, and cross-linker type also influenced the degradation rate of PTMC-Ns. Furthermore, the enzymatic degradation of PTMC-Ns was accelerated by the surfactants role of lipase via surface erosion mechanism, the enzymatic degradation rate was higher than that of hydrolysis case. The results indicated that PTMC-Ns were promising candidates for clinical subcutaneous implants, especially due to their tunable degradation rate and enhanced form-stability as well as no acidic degradation products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Durability and Mechanical Performance of PMMA/Stone Sludge Nanocomposites for Acrylic Solid Surface Applications
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110604
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acrylic solid surface sheets were prepared by mixing different kinds of stone sludge fillers (SSF) in Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. PMMA nanocomposite syrups were made using free radical polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA), then two kinds of nanofillers were added, namely, hydrophilic nanosilica
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Acrylic solid surface sheets were prepared by mixing different kinds of stone sludge fillers (SSF) in Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. PMMA nanocomposite syrups were made using free radical polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA), then two kinds of nanofillers were added, namely, hydrophilic nanosilica and clay Halloysite nanotubules (HNTs). Acrylic solid surface sheets were manufactured by mixing the syrups with SSFs. The morphology of the produced sheets was studied using optical, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that revealed the uniform distribution of stone sludge in the polymeric matrix. The study of the physical properties showed promising mechanical performance and durability of PMMA/SSF nanocomposites for acrylic solid surface applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Clay (Nano)Composites)
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