Special Issue "Textile and Textile-Based Materials"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Hong Hu
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Textile and Clothing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
Interests: knitting technology; technical textiles; auxetic textiles; textile structural composites and mechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue on “Textile and Textile-Based Materials” is dedicated to recent advances in research and development of textile and textile based materials, including, but not limited to, new fibers, new yarn and fabric structures, new textile technologies and processes, textile composites, textile based energy generation and storage systems, textile based materials for applications in sports, health care, construction, defense, transportation, protection, etc. We invite you to submit research articles or reviews on the latest research work in these areas, with emphasis of applications in all areas of science and engineering.

Prof. Dr. Hong Hu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Textile
  • Textile based materials
  • Fibers
  • Yarns
  • Fabrics
  • Textile composites
  • Textile technologies
  • Technical textiles

Published Papers (38 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Design and Electromagnetic Properties of a Conformal Ultra Wideband Antenna Integrated in Three-Dimensional Woven Fabrics
Polymers 2018, 10(8), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10080861 - 03 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Wearable antennas play an important role in transmitting signals wirelessly in body-worn systems, helping body-worn applications to achieve real-time monitoring and improving the working efficiency as well as the life quality of the users. Over conventional antenna types, ultra wideband (UWB) antennas have [...] Read more.
Wearable antennas play an important role in transmitting signals wirelessly in body-worn systems, helping body-worn applications to achieve real-time monitoring and improving the working efficiency as well as the life quality of the users. Over conventional antenna types, ultra wideband (UWB) antennas have advantages of very large operating bandwidth, low power consumption, and high data transmission speed, therefore, they become of great interest for body-worn applications. One of the strategies for making the antenna comfortable to wear is replacing the conventional rigid printed circuit board with textile materials in the manufacturing process. In this study, a novel three-dimensional woven fabric integrated UWB antenna was proposed and fabricated with pure textile materials. The antenna electromagnetic properties were simulated and measured and its properties under bending were investigated. The antenna operated in a wide bandwidth from 2.7 to 13 GHz with the proper radiation pattern and gain value. At the same time, the antenna performance under bending varied in a reasonable range indicating that the antenna is prospectively applied on the curved surfaces of the human body. Additionally, the current distribution of the antenna showed that different conductive parts had different current densities indicating the uniqueness of the three-dimensional textile-based antenna. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensionally Conformal Porous Polymeric Microstructures of Fabrics for Electrothermal Textiles with Enhanced Thermal Management
Polymers 2018, 10(7), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10070748 - 06 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Three-dimensionally conformal porous microstructured fabrics (3CPMFs) are a new kind of modified fabrics with three-dimensionally conformal porous microstructures of introduced materials recently developed for wearable technology. They can effectively introduce customized functional performance based on the choice of brick materials, while at the [...] Read more.
Three-dimensionally conformal porous microstructured fabrics (3CPMFs) are a new kind of modified fabrics with three-dimensionally conformal porous microstructures of introduced materials recently developed for wearable technology. They can effectively introduce customized functional performance based on the choice of brick materials, while at the same time maintain the excellent inherent properties of textiles. In this paper, based on the introduction of polystyrene with low thermal conductivity at only 8 × 10−4 g cm−2, we developed a kind of polyester fabric-based 3CPMF with enhanced thermal insulation, while maintaining its unique fabric texture, flexibility, moisture permeability, and light weight. It was demonstrated to be a good textile material for the fabrication of wearable electrothermal textile (ET) devices with enhanced thermal management. Compared to pristine fabric-based ET devices, this kind of 3CPMF-based ET devices can obtain higher temperatures under the same input power to provide thermal comfort for human beings, while saving more electric power to achieve the same thermal equilibrium temperature. We believe that, based on the choice of different functional materials and textiles, a wide range of 3CPMFs with customized functionalities and properties can be designed and developed for the realization of a brand-new class of truly wearable devices with desired functional performance and daily garment-like safety and comfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Breathable and Flexible Piezoelectric [email protected] Fibrous Nanogenerator for Wearable Applications
Polymers 2018, 10(7), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10070745 - 05 Jul 2018
Cited by 30
Abstract
A novel breathable piezoelectric membrane has been developed by growing zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods on the surface of electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers using a low-temperature hydrothermal method. Significant improvement in the piezoelectric response of the PVDF membrane was achieved without compromising breathability [...] Read more.
A novel breathable piezoelectric membrane has been developed by growing zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods on the surface of electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers using a low-temperature hydrothermal method. Significant improvement in the piezoelectric response of the PVDF membrane was achieved without compromising breathability and flexibility. PVDF is one of the most frequently used piezoelectric polymers due to its high durability and reasonable piezoelectric coefficient values. However, further enhancement of its piezoelectric response is highly desirable for sensor and energy-harvester applications. Previous studies have demonstrated that piezoelectric ceramic and polymer composites can have remarkable piezoelectric properties and flexibility. However, devices made of such composites lack breathability and some present health risks in wearable applications for containing heavy metals. Unlike other piezoelectric ceramics, ZnO is non-toxic material and has been widely used in many applications including cosmetics. The fabrication of [email protected] porous electrospun membrane involves a simple low-temperature ZnO growth in aqueous solution, which does not weaken the polarization of PVDF created during electrospinning in the high electric field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
High-Performance Polyimide Filaments and Composites Improved by O2 Plasma Treatment
Polymers 2018, 10(7), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10070695 - 22 Jun 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
Interface issues urgently need to be addressed in high-performance fiber reinforced composites. In this study, different periods of O2 plasma treatment are proposed to modify twist-free polyimide (PI) filaments to improve hydrophilicity and mechanical and interfacial properties. Feeding O2 produces chemically [...] Read more.
Interface issues urgently need to be addressed in high-performance fiber reinforced composites. In this study, different periods of O2 plasma treatment are proposed to modify twist-free polyimide (PI) filaments to improve hydrophilicity and mechanical and interfacial properties. Feeding O2 produces chemically active particles to modify the filament surface via chemical reactions and physical etching. According to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results, the PI filaments exhibit an 87.16% increase in O/C atomic ratio and a 135.71% increase in the C–O functional group after 180 s O2 plasma treatment. The atomic force microscope (AFM) results show that the root mean square roughness (Rq) of the treated PI filaments increases by 105.34%, from 38.41 to 78.87 nm. Owing to the increased surface oxygenic functional groups and roughness after O2 plasma treatment, the contact angle between treated PI filaments and water reduces drastically from the pristine state of 105.08° to 56.15°. The O2 plasma treated PI filaments also demonstrate better mechanical properties than the pristine PI filaments. Moreover, after O2 plasma treatment, the adhesion between PI filaments and poly(amic acid) (PAA) is enhanced, and the tensile strength of the polyimide/poly(amic acid) (PI/PAA) self-reinforced composites increases from 136 to 234 MPa, even causing the failure mode of the composite changes from adhesive failure to partly cohesive failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabric Coated with Shape Memory Polyurethane and Its Properties
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060681 - 19 Jun 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
In order to provide thermo-physiological comfort to the wearer, textile materials should have some functional property like water-resistance or water vapor transmission (WVT), so that perspiration can evaporate and be transmitted from the body surface to the environment even in extreme weather conditions [...] Read more.
In order to provide thermo-physiological comfort to the wearer, textile materials should have some functional property like water-resistance or water vapor transmission (WVT), so that perspiration can evaporate and be transmitted from the body surface to the environment even in extreme weather conditions that require wind and rain proof. Shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) could possibly be a candidate; it is a functional textile material that meets such requirements. In this research, we synthesized a series of SMPUs, which are responsive materials, to test whether these coated cotton fabrics could provide thermal insulation with lower permeability at low temperature or low relative humidity (RH), and high permeability at room temperature or above, or high relative humidity with its water-resistance property. In this paper, we have proposed a segmented shape memory polyurethane for coated textiles in order to have a water-resistant textile with good water vapor transmitting ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A Numerical and Experimental Study on a Pre-Twisted Ring Spinning System
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060671 - 16 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The ring spinning process is the most widely used method in the spinning industry. Nowadays, the labor cost become more and more expensive, and it is essential to improve productivity. For increasing the productivity, a modification of adding a pre-twister and holding roller [...] Read more.
The ring spinning process is the most widely used method in the spinning industry. Nowadays, the labor cost become more and more expensive, and it is essential to improve productivity. For increasing the productivity, a modification of adding a pre-twister and holding roller on the traditional ring spinning system have been discussed in this paper. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are introduced to study the effects of pre-twister and spinning tests are implemented for verification. The numerical simulations show that the cavity conical degree and nozzle numbers of the pre-twister are the key parameters which affect the airflow fluctuation in the cavity, and have obvious effects on the resultant yarn twist. By contrast, the axial angle and tangential angle of the nozzle have less effect on the resultant yarn twist. When the fiber bundles pass by the front nip, they are affected by the vortex and result in a partially strengthened and wrapped structure which could be subsequently twisted less by the traveler and ring, so the productivity could be potentially increased. According to the spinning tests, an evident productivity increase by nearly 30% for medium cotton yarns can be achieved, and the yarns have an acceptable reduction in nearly all properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Reactive Pad-Steam Dyeing of Cotton Fabric Modified with Cationic P(St-BA-VBT) Nanospheres
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060564 - 23 May 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
The Poly[Styrene-Butyl acrylate-(P-vinylbenzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)] P(St-BA-VBT) nanospheres with N+(CH3)3 functional groups were successfully prepared and applied to modify cotton fabrics using a pad-dry process. The obtained cationic cotton fabrics were dyed with pad-steam dyeing with reactive dye. [...] Read more.
The Poly[Styrene-Butyl acrylate-(P-vinylbenzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)] P(St-BA-VBT) nanospheres with N+(CH3)3 functional groups were successfully prepared and applied to modify cotton fabrics using a pad-dry process. The obtained cationic cotton fabrics were dyed with pad-steam dyeing with reactive dye. The results show that the appropriate concentration of nanospheres was 4 g/L. The sodium carbonate of 25 g/L and steaming time of 3 min were suitable for dyeing cationic cotton with 25 g/L of C.I. Reactive Blue 222. The color strength and dye fixation rates of dyed cationic cotton fabrics increased by 39.4% and 14.3% compared with untreated fabrics. Moreover, sodium carbonate and steaming time were reduced by 37.5% and 40%, respectively. The rubbing and washing fastness of dyed fabrics were equal or higher 3 and 4–5 grades, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that the P(St-BA-VBT) nanospheres randomly distributed and did not form a continuous film on the cationic cotton fiber surfaces. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis further demonstrated the presence of cationic nanospheres on the fiber surfaces. The cationic modification did not affect the breaking strength of cotton fabrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Hybridization on the Flexural Performances of Carbon/Glass Interlayer and Intralayer Composites
Polymers 2018, 10(5), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10050549 - 20 May 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The effects of hybridization on the flexural properties of interlayer and intralayer Carbon/Glass (C/G) composites were explored in this work. First, the theoretical analysis of stress distribution on interlayer hybrid composites was discussed. The experimental results showed that the layer structure is the [...] Read more.
The effects of hybridization on the flexural properties of interlayer and intralayer Carbon/Glass (C/G) composites were explored in this work. First, the theoretical analysis of stress distribution on interlayer hybrid composites was discussed. The experimental results showed that the layer structure is the critical factor affecting the flexural properties for interlayer hybrid composites, and the mixed ratio has no obvious impact. Since the carbon fiber is distributed at the top or bottom surface, the interlayer composites can obtain the maximum flexural modulus. Some structures can even achieve the same modulus as the pure carbon composites, and an excellent flexural strength can be attained with the carbon fiber located in the bottom layer. In terms of the intralayer hybrid composites, the fracture strain, flexural modulus, and flexural strength basically change linearly as the glass fiber content increases, which is consistent with the calculated values via the rule of mixture (ROM). Additionally, the C/G mixed ratio has a decisive effect on the flexural properties of intralayer hybrid composites; however, they are affected weakly by the layer structure. In general, some structures of the interlayer hybrid composites exhibit better flexural properties than that of the intralayer hybrid composites at the same C/G hybrid ratio; the alterations in layer structures make it possible to obtain excellent flexural properties for interlayer hybrid composites with less carbon fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Growing ZnO Nanoparticles on Polydopamine-Templated Cotton Fabrics for Durable Antimicrobial Activity and UV Protection
Polymers 2018, 10(5), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10050495 - 03 May 2018
Cited by 21
Abstract
This work aims to develop durable functional cotton fabrics by growing zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on polydopamine (PDA) templates. ZnO nanoparticles were grown on the PDA-templated cotton fabrics by the hydrothermal method at room temperature. The surface morphology, chemical composition, and crystalline structure [...] Read more.
This work aims to develop durable functional cotton fabrics by growing zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on polydopamine (PDA) templates. ZnO nanoparticles were grown on the PDA-templated cotton fabrics by the hydrothermal method at room temperature. The surface morphology, chemical composition, and crystalline structure of the ZnO-coated cotton fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ZnO nanoparticles were found to disperse evenly on the surface of cotton fabrics. The ultraviolet (UV) protection factor (UPF) value of the ZnO-coated cotton fabrics was maintained at 122.5, and 99% reduction in bacterial load was observed against Gluconobacter cerinus even after five cycles of laundering. The PDA was found to be effective in fixing the ZnO seeds tightly on the surface of cotton fabrics, resulting in excellent durability of the coating of ZnO nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Durably Superhydrophobic Cotton Fabrics by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment with a Siloxane Precursor
Polymers 2018, 10(4), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10040460 - 22 Apr 2018
Cited by 18
Abstract
The surface treatment of fabrics in an atmospheric environment may pave the way for commercially viable plasma modifications of fibrous matters. In this paper, we demonstrate a durably superhydrophobic cotton cellulose fabric prepared in a single-step graft polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) by N [...] Read more.
The surface treatment of fabrics in an atmospheric environment may pave the way for commercially viable plasma modifications of fibrous matters. In this paper, we demonstrate a durably superhydrophobic cotton cellulose fabric prepared in a single-step graft polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) by N2 and O2 atmospheric pressure plasma. We systematically investigated effects on contact angle (CA) and surface morphology of the cotton fabric under three operational parameters: precursor value; ionization gas flow rate; and plasma cycle time. Surface morphology, element composition, chemical structure and hydrophobic properties of the treated fabric were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS, FTIR and CA on the fabrics. The results indicated that a layer of thin film and nano-particles were evenly deposited on the cotton fibers, and graft polymerization occurred between cellulose and HMDSO. The fabric treated by O2 plasma exhibited a higher CA of 162° than that treated by N2 plasma which was about 149°. Furthermore, the CA of treated fabrics decreased only 0°~10° after storing at the ambient conditions for four months, and treated fabrics could also endure the standard textile laundering procedure in AATCC 61-2006 with minimum change. Therefore, this single-step plasma treatment method is shown to be a novel and environment-friendly way to make durable and superhydrophobic cotton fabrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Facile and Eco-Friendly Fabrication of Colored and Bioactive Silk Materials Using Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Two Flavonoids
Polymers 2018, 10(4), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10040404 - 04 Apr 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Recently, there has been an increasing tendency towards the functionalization of silk using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to inhibit bacterial multiplication and disease spread. Considering environmental factors and sustainable development, the preparation of AgNPs using natural extracts is becoming a research hotspot. This study [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been an increasing tendency towards the functionalization of silk using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to inhibit bacterial multiplication and disease spread. Considering environmental factors and sustainable development, the preparation of AgNPs using natural extracts is becoming a research hotspot. This study aims at fabricating colored and bioactive silk fabric using AgNPs synthesized by two representative flavonoids (quercetin and rutin). The effects of pH, temperature, and flavonoid concentration on the yield and particle size of AgNPs were studied. The color features and functionalities of the AgNPs-treated silk were also evaluated. The results showed that the AgNPs synthesized by quercetin were generated faster but displayed poorer size uniformity than those prepared by rutin. The as-prepared AgNPs showed good stability. The AgNPs prepared by rutin displayed a more uniform distribution on silk than those synthesized by quercetin. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs-treated silk remained over 90% against E. coli and S. aureus even after 30 washing cycles. The antioxidant activity of the treated silk gradually decreased during washing. The present research proposes a facile and eco-friendly method for the preparation of AgNPs-coated silk material using flavonoids, which can serve as hygiene-related and medical textile materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Finite Element Analysis of Three-Dimensional (3D) Auxetic Textile Composite under Compression
Polymers 2018, 10(4), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10040374 - 27 Mar 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper reports a finite element (FE) analysis of three-dimensional (3D) auxetic textile composite by using commercial software ANSYS 15 under compression. The two-dimensional (2D) FE model was first developed and validated by experiment. Then, the validated model was used to evaluate effects [...] Read more.
This paper reports a finite element (FE) analysis of three-dimensional (3D) auxetic textile composite by using commercial software ANSYS 15 under compression. The two-dimensional (2D) FE model was first developed and validated by experiment. Then, the validated model was used to evaluate effects of structural parameters and constituent material properties. For the comparison, 3D non-auxetic composite that was made with the same constituent materials and structural parameters, but with different yarn arrangement in the textile structure was also analyzed at the same time. The analysis results showed that the auxetic and non-auxetic composites have different compression behaviors and the auxetic composite has better the energy absorption capacity than the non-auxetic composite under the same compression stress. The study has provided us a guidance to design and fabricate auxetic composites with the required mechanical behavior by appropriately selecting structural parameters and constituent materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Measurement System and Precision Analysis for Tactile Property Evaluation of Porous Polymeric Materials
Polymers 2018, 10(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10040373 - 27 Mar 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Tactile properties are one of the most important attributes of porous polymeric materials such as textiles, comprising a subjective evaluation index for textile materials and functional clothing, primarily affecting the sensation of comfort during the wearing of a garment. A new test method [...] Read more.
Tactile properties are one of the most important attributes of porous polymeric materials such as textiles, comprising a subjective evaluation index for textile materials and functional clothing, primarily affecting the sensation of comfort during the wearing of a garment. A new test method was proposed, and a mechanical measurement system was developed to objectively characterize the tactile properties of porous polymeric materials by simulating the dynamic contact processes during human skin contact with the materials and in consideration of different aspects of tactile sensations. The measurement system can measure the bending, compression, friction, and thermal transfer properties in one apparatus, and is capable of associating the objective measurements with the subjective tactile sensations. The test and evaluation method, the components of the mechanical measurement system, the definition and grading method of the evaluation indices, and the neural network prediction model from objective test results to subjective sensations of tactile properties were presented. The experiments were conducted for the objective tests and correlation tests. Seven types of porous polymeric sheet materials from seven categories for the tactile properties were cut to a size of 200 mm × 200 mm and tested. Each index of tactile properties was significantly different (P < 0.05) between different sheet materials. The correlations of bending, compression, friction, and thermal transfer properties with Kawabata KES test methods were analyzed. An intra-laboratory test was conducted and an analysis of the variance was performed to determine the critical differences of within laboratory precisions of the measurement system. This mechanical measurement system provides a method and system for objective measurement and evaluation of tactile properties of porous polymeric sheet materials in industrial application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Compression Properties of Interlayer and Intralayer Carbon/Glass Hybrid Composites
Polymers 2018, 10(4), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10040343 - 21 Mar 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The compression properties and mechanisms of interlayer and intralayer Carbon/Glass (C/G) hybrid composites were investigated in this work. As revealed from the experimental results, the compression modulus increases linearly with the increase of carbon fiber content, following the rule of mixtures (ROM). The [...] Read more.
The compression properties and mechanisms of interlayer and intralayer Carbon/Glass (C/G) hybrid composites were investigated in this work. As revealed from the experimental results, the compression modulus increases linearly with the increase of carbon fiber content, following the rule of mixtures (ROM). The C/G hybrid ratio is regarded as the decisive factor for the compression modulus of hybrid composites. The positive mixing effect exists on compression strength for interlayer and intralayer hybrid composites, whereas the experimental values are above the theoretical calculation values. The compressive strength of interlayer hybrid composites taking on various hybrid structures differs largely at the same mixed ratio, at which the compressive strength of glass fiber sandwiching carbon fiber is higher than that of carbon fiber sandwiching glass fiber. Through comparing interlayer and intralayer hybrid composites, the impact exerted by layer structures on the compressive strength of interlayer hybrid composites is higher than that of intralayer hybrid composites, which leads to more designable characteristics for interlayer hybrid composites. This work makes it possible to optimize the compression strength of interlayer hybrid structures so that it achieves or basically exceeds pure carbon fiber composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Bioinspired Fabrication of Polyurethane/Regenerated Silk Fibroin Composite Fibres with Tubuliform Silk-Like Flat Stress–Strain Behaviour
Polymers 2018, 10(3), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10030333 - 19 Mar 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Tubuliform silk is one of the seven different types of spider silks, which is well known for its unique tensile behaviour with Flat Tensile Stress–Strain (FTSS) curve. It is found that anisotropic microstructure of β-sheets is responsible for this property. In recent years, [...] Read more.
Tubuliform silk is one of the seven different types of spider silks, which is well known for its unique tensile behaviour with Flat Tensile Stress–Strain (FTSS) curve. It is found that anisotropic microstructure of β-sheets is responsible for this property. In recent years, bioinspired approaches to engineer fibres supported by modern manufacturing systems have been attracting considerable interest. The present paper aims to investigate a strategy to biomimic the FTSS behaviour of tubuliform silk in synthetic polymer composite fibres by blending polyurethane (PU) and regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) at different ratios. Wet spinning of composite fibres results in the reconstruction of β-sheets in the synthetic fibre matrix. PU/RSF composite fibre at a ratio of 75/25 produce a tensile curve with FTSS characteristics. Secondary structural changes in RSF and interchain directions of β-sheets within the fibre are studied using Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), respectively. Interestingly, results of TEM patterns confirm transverse anisotropic properties of RSF β-sheets. The composite fibres also display tuneable mechanical properties with respect to RSF contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Characterisation of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treated Cotton Fabric—Effect of Operation Parameters
Polymers 2018, 10(3), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10030250 - 28 Feb 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The surface of cotton fibre was modified by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment (APPT), using gas as the carrier. Effects of variations in four operational parameters, discharge power, oxygen flow rate, jet-to-substrate distance and speed of the jet movement were examined. Morphology of surface [...] Read more.
The surface of cotton fibre was modified by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment (APPT), using gas as the carrier. Effects of variations in four operational parameters, discharge power, oxygen flow rate, jet-to-substrate distance and speed of the jet movement were examined. Morphology of surface of cotton fabrics was examined by generating Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. Elementary composition of the surface of the fabric was examined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-Attenuated. Total Internal Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) was used for examining functionality of the surface. In this study, we revealed that the operational parameters would physical and chemically after the surface characteristics of the cotton fibre. Physically, cracks and grooves were noted in the cotton fibre surface after APPT. Chemically, the oxygen content in the cotton fibre surface was increased after APPT. When the O/C ratio is taken into consideration, the surface oxidation was a steady effect in applying APPT for treating cotton fibre in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Fique Fabric: A Promising Reinforcement for Polymer Composites
Polymers 2018, 10(3), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10030246 - 28 Feb 2018
Cited by 31
Abstract
A relatively unknown natural fiber extracted from the leaves of the fique plant, native of the South American Andes, has recently shown potential as reinforcement of polymer composites for engineering applications. Preliminary investigations indicated a promising substitute for synthetic fibers, competing with other [...] Read more.
A relatively unknown natural fiber extracted from the leaves of the fique plant, native of the South American Andes, has recently shown potential as reinforcement of polymer composites for engineering applications. Preliminary investigations indicated a promising substitute for synthetic fibers, competing with other well-known natural fibers. The fabric made from fique fibers have not yet been investigated as possible composite reinforcement. Therefore, in the present work a more thorough characterization of fique fabric as a reinforcement of composites with a polyester matrix was performed. Thermal mechanical properties of fique fabric composites were determined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The ballistic performance of plain woven fique fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as a second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS). The results revealed a sensible improvement in thermal dynamic mechanical behavior. Both viscoelastic stiffness and glass transition temperature were increased with the amount of incorporated fique fabric. In terms of ballistic results, the fique fabric composites present a performance similar to that of the much stronger KevlarTM as an MAS second layer with the same thickness. A cost analysis indicated that armor vests with fique fabric composites as an MAS second layer would be 13 times less expensive than a similar creation made with Kevlar™. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Parametric Study of Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment on the Wettability of Cotton Fabric
Polymers 2018, 10(3), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10030233 - 26 Feb 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
In textiles processing, wettability of fabric plays a very important role in enhancing processes such as dyeing and printing. Although well-prepared cotton fabric has very good wettability, further enhancement of its wettability can effectively improve the subsequent dyeing and printing processes. Plasma treatment, [...] Read more.
In textiles processing, wettability of fabric plays a very important role in enhancing processes such as dyeing and printing. Although well-prepared cotton fabric has very good wettability, further enhancement of its wettability can effectively improve the subsequent dyeing and printing processes. Plasma treatment, especially atmospheric pressure plasma treatment (APPT), a continuous process, is now drawing attention of the industry. In this study, we investigated the effect of APPT under four operational parameters: (1) discharge power; (2) flow rate of oxygen; (3) jet travelling speed; and (4) jet-to-substrate distance on wettability (in terms of wickability and wetting area) of cotton fabric. Experimental results revealed that the four parameters interact with each other in affecting the wettability of the cotton fabric. The results are discussed comprehensively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance of Plain Woven Jute Fabric-Reinforced Polyester Matrix Composite in Multilayered Ballistic System
Polymers 2018, 10(3), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10030230 - 26 Feb 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
The ballistic performance of plain woven jute fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as the second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS). Volume fractions of jute fabric, up to 30 vol %, were mixed with orthophthalic polyester to fabricate laminate composites. Ballistic [...] Read more.
The ballistic performance of plain woven jute fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as the second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS). Volume fractions of jute fabric, up to 30 vol %, were mixed with orthophthalic polyester to fabricate laminate composites. Ballistic tests were conducted using high velocity 7.62 mm ammunition. The depth of penetration caused by the bullet in a block of clay witness, simulating a human body, was used to evaluate the MAS ballistic performance according to the international standard. The fractured materials after tests were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that jute fabric composites present a performance similar to that of the much stronger Kevlar™, which is an aramid fabric laminate, as MAS second layer with the same thickness. The mechanism of this similar ballistic behavior as well as the comparative advantages of the jute fabric composites over the Kevlar™ are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Woven Fabrics Made of Auxetic Plied Yarns
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020226 - 24 Feb 2018
Cited by 17
Abstract
Auxetic plied yarns are specially constructed with two types of single yarns of different sizes and moduli. This paper investigates how to use these types of yarns to produce woven fabrics with auxetic effects. Four-ply auxetic yarns were first incorporated into a series [...] Read more.
Auxetic plied yarns are specially constructed with two types of single yarns of different sizes and moduli. This paper investigates how to use these types of yarns to produce woven fabrics with auxetic effects. Four-ply auxetic yarns were first incorporated into a series of woven fabrics with different design parameters to study their auxetic behavior and percent open area during extension. Effects of auxetic plied yarn arrangement, single component yarn properties, weft yarn type, and weave structure were then evaluated. Additional double helical yarn (DHY) and 6-ply auxetic yarn woven fabrics were also made for comparison. The results show that the alternative arrangement of S- and Z-twisted 4-ply auxetic yarns in a woven fabric can generate a higher negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) of the fabric. While the higher single stiff yarn modulus of auxetic yarn can result in greater NPR behavior, finer soft auxetic yarn does not necessarily generate such an effect. Weft yarns with low modulus and short float over the 4-ply auxetic yarns in fabric structure are favorable for producing high NPR behavior. The weft cover factor greatly affects the variation of the percent open area of the 4-ply auxetic yarn fabrics during extension. When different kinds of helical auxetic yarns (HAYs) are made into fabrics, the fabric made of DHY does not have the highest NPR effect but it has the highest percent open area, which increases with increasing tensile strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Superabsorbent Spacer Fabrics as Exuding Wound Dressing
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020210 - 22 Feb 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Exuding wound care requires a dressing to quickly absorb exudates and properly manage moisture during the healing process. In this study, the superabsorbent spacer fabrics were designed and fabricated for application in exuding wound dressings. The fabric structure consists of three layers, including [...] Read more.
Exuding wound care requires a dressing to quickly absorb exudates and properly manage moisture during the healing process. In this study, the superabsorbent spacer fabrics were designed and fabricated for application in exuding wound dressings. The fabric structure consists of three layers, including two outer hydrophobic layers made of polyester/spandex yarns and one superabsorbent middle layer made of superabsorbent yarns. In order to confirm the performance of these superabsorbent spacer fabrics, their dressing properties were tested and compared with two commercial foam dressings. The results showed that all the superabsorbent spacer fabrics had much faster wetting speeds (less than 2 s) than the foam dressings (6.04 s for Foam A and 63.69 s for Foam B). The absorbency of the superabsorbent spacer fabrics was at least twice higher than that of the foam dressings. The air permeability of the superabsorbent spacer fabrics (higher than 15 mL/s/cm2 at 100 Pa) was much higher than that of the foam dressings which had a too low permeability to be measured by the testing device. In addition, the water vapor permeability, thermal insulation, and conformability of superabsorbent spacer fabrics were comparable to foam dressings. The study indicates that the superabsorbent spacer fabrics are suitable for exuding wound dressing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Controlled Surface Modification of Polyamide 6.6 Fibres Using CaCl2/H2O/EtOH Solutions
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020207 - 21 Feb 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Polyamide 6.6 is one of the most widely used polymers in the textile industry due to its durability; however, it has rather limited modification potential. In this work, the controlled surface modification of polyamide 6.6 fibres using the solvent system CaCl2/H2O/EtOH was studied. [...] Read more.
Polyamide 6.6 is one of the most widely used polymers in the textile industry due to its durability; however, it has rather limited modification potential. In this work, the controlled surface modification of polyamide 6.6 fibres using the solvent system CaCl2/H2O/EtOH was studied. The effects of solvent composition (relative proportions of the three components) and treatment time on fibre properties were studied both in situ (with fibres in solvent) and ex situ (after the solvent was washed off). The fibres swell and/or dissolve in the solvent depending on its composition and the treatment time. We believe that the fibre–solvent interaction is through complex formation between the fibre carbonyl groups and the CaCl2. On washing, there is decomplexation and precipitation of the polymer. The treated fibres exhibit greater diameters and surface roughness, structural difference between an outer shell and an inner core is observable, and water retention is higher. The solvent system is more benign than current alternatives, and through suitable tailoring of the treatment conditions, e.g., composition and time, it may be used in the design of advanced materials for storage and release of active substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Kinetics of Low Temperature Polyester Dyeing with High Molecular Weight Disperse Dyes by Solvent Microemulsion and AgroSourced Auxiliaries
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020200 - 16 Feb 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
This work focused on the evaluation of the kinetics of dyeing polyester fabrics with high molecular weight disperse dyes, at low temperature by solvent microemulsion. This study also compared the effect of two non-toxic agro-sourced auxiliaries (o-vanillin and coumarin) using a [...] Read more.
This work focused on the evaluation of the kinetics of dyeing polyester fabrics with high molecular weight disperse dyes, at low temperature by solvent microemulsion. This study also compared the effect of two non-toxic agro-sourced auxiliaries (o-vanillin and coumarin) using a non-toxic organic solvent. A dyeing bath consisting of a micro-emulsion system involving a small proportion of n-butyl acetate was used, and the kinetics of dyeing were analysed at four temperatures (83, 90, 95 and 100 °C). Moreover, the dyeing rate constants, correlation coefficient and activation energies were proposed for this system. It was found that o-vanillin yielded higher dye absorption levels than coumarin, leading to exhaustions of 88% and 87% for Disperse Red 167 and Disperse Blue 79, respectively. K/S values of dyed polyester were also found to be higher for dye baths containing o-vanillin with respect to the ones with coumarin. In terms of hot pressing fastness and wash fastness, generally no adverse influence on fastness properties was reported, while o-vanillin showed slightly better results compared to coumarin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Minimizing Freshwater Consumption in the Wash-Off Step in Textile Reactive Dyeing by Catalytic Ozonation with Carbon Aerogel Hosted Bimetallic Catalyst
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020193 - 15 Feb 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
In textile reactive dyeing, dyed fabrics have to be rinsed in the wash-off step several times to improve colorfastness. Thus, the multiple rinsing processes drastically increase the freshwater consumption and meanwhile generate massive waste rinsing effluents. This paper addresses an innovative alternative to [...] Read more.
In textile reactive dyeing, dyed fabrics have to be rinsed in the wash-off step several times to improve colorfastness. Thus, the multiple rinsing processes drastically increase the freshwater consumption and meanwhile generate massive waste rinsing effluents. This paper addresses an innovative alternative to recycle the waste effluents to minimize freshwater consumption in the wash-off step. Accordingly, catalytic ozonation with a highly effective catalyst has been applied to remedy the waste rinsing effluents for recycling. The carbon aerogel (CA) hosted bimetallic hybrid material (Ag–Fe2O3@CA) was fabricated and used as the catalyst in the degradation of residual dyes in the waste rinsing effluents by ozonation treatments. The results indicate the participation of Ag–Fe2O3@CA had strikingly enhanced the removal percentage of chemical oxidation demand by 30%. In addition, it has been validated that waste effluents had been successfully reclaimed after catalytic ozonation with Ag–Fe2O3@CA. They could be additionally reused to reduce freshwater consumption in the wash-off step, but without sacrificing the color quality of corresponding fabrics in terms of color difference and colorfastness. This study may be the first to report the feasibility of catalytic ozonation in minimization of freshwater consumption in the wash-off step in textile reactive dyeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Load on the Thermal Expansion Behavior of T700 Carbon Fiber Bundles
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020152 - 06 Feb 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
T700 carbon fiber bundles (CFBs) are the primary material used for manufacturing cable-net in a deployable antenna. In this paper, the relationships between the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of T700 CFBs and the experimental load were investigated. The microstructure of T700 CFBs [...] Read more.
T700 carbon fiber bundles (CFBs) are the primary material used for manufacturing cable-net in a deployable antenna. In this paper, the relationships between the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of T700 CFBs and the experimental load were investigated. The microstructure of T700 CFBs was analyzed with Raman spectra and XRD before and after the thermomechanical test. The measured results indicated that the T700 CFBs that were parallel to the axis had negative expansion characteristics when in a temperature range of −150–+150 °C. The thermal strain that occurred during the heating and the cooling thermal cycles had an unclosed curve that served as the loop. When the thermal cycles were the same, the position of the strain loop and the length of the sample exhibited regular change. The average of the CTEs decreased as the experimental load increased. The microstructural analysis suggested that the degree of structural order and the degree of orientation along the fiber axis improved with the experimental load increase. The change of microstructure parameters could be the primary cause of the negative CTE’s variation within the T700 CFBs. The experimental results provide some guidelines for improving the cable-net material selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Color Attributes of Colored-Yarn Mixed Woven Fabrics Made of Raw-White Warps and Multicolored Wefts and Based on Weft-Backed Structures
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020146 - 05 Feb 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper reports the development of colored-yarn mixed woven fabrics by using raw white warps and multicolored-wefts, as well as a study of the influential factors on the color attributes of the resultant fabrics. Weft yarns in six colors, together with the white [...] Read more.
This paper reports the development of colored-yarn mixed woven fabrics by using raw white warps and multicolored-wefts, as well as a study of the influential factors on the color attributes of the resultant fabrics. Weft yarns in six colors, together with the white warp yarns, were used to create a series of fabric colors. Two types of new weft-backed structures were designed to assign the desired wefts for color mixing, as well as to reduce the white warp floats on the surface and thus, the lightness of the fabric. The effects of the proportion of yarn color components, weft density, and the introduction of black weft floats on the color attributes of fabrics, were investigated. The results show that through varying the proportion of mixing yarn color components, via fabric structure, a series of mixed red-blue and green-yellow colors for fabrics are created, respectively. Colored yarn mixed fabric presents a lowered lightness after a middle regulating layer is introduced into the structure. Compared to fabrics with a lower density, higher density fabrics possess lower lightness, higher redness and blueness in the blue-red fabrics, and higher greenness and yellowness in the yellow-green fabric. The lightness of fabric lowers after adding black yarn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Studies of Interfacial Interaction between Polymer Components on Helical Nanofiber Formation via Co-Electrospinning
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020119 - 26 Jan 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Helical fibers in nanoscale have been of increasing interest due to their unique characteristics. To explore the effect of polymer type on helical fiber formation, three polymer systems, Poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (Nomex)/polyurethane (TPU), polystyrene (PS)/TPU and polyacrylonitril (PAN)/TPU are used to fabricate [...] Read more.
Helical fibers in nanoscale have been of increasing interest due to their unique characteristics. To explore the effect of polymer type on helical fiber formation, three polymer systems, Poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (Nomex)/polyurethane (TPU), polystyrene (PS)/TPU and polyacrylonitril (PAN)/TPU are used to fabricate helical nanofibers via co-electrospinning. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Zeta potential were employed to investigate the interfacial interaction between the two phases of the polymer system. The larger rigidity differential of Nomex and TPU leads to a larger interfacial interaction. The hydrogen bonds help to increase the interfacial interaction between Nomex and TPU components. The attractive force between the chloride-ions contained in Nomex molecules and the free charges on the solution surface lead to a longitudinal interfacial interaction in the Nomex/TPU system. The analysis results provide the explanation of the experimental results that the Nomex/TPU system has the greatest potential for producing helical nanofibers, while the PS/TPU and PAN/TPU systems cannot fabricate helical fibers effectively. This study based on the interfacial interaction between polymer components provides an insight into the mechanism of helical fiber formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Flexural Behaviour of Carbon Textile-Reinforced Concrete with Prestress and Steel Fibres
Polymers 2018, 10(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10010098 - 20 Jan 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Four-point bending tests were adopted to investigate the influences of the number of textile layers, volume content of steel fibres, and prestress on the flexural behaviour of carbon textile-reinforced concrete (TRC). The failure mode of the specimen changed from debonding failure to shear [...] Read more.
Four-point bending tests were adopted to investigate the influences of the number of textile layers, volume content of steel fibres, and prestress on the flexural behaviour of carbon textile-reinforced concrete (TRC). The failure mode of the specimen changed from debonding failure to shear failure, accompanied by the matrix-textile interfacial debonding with an increasing number of textile layers. The interfacial bonding performance between the textile and matrix improved with the addition of steel fibres in the TRC specimens. The presence of prestress or steel fibres improved first-crack and ultimate stresses of the TRC specimen. In comparison with the first-crack stress, a more pronounced enhancement in the ultimate stress was achieved by the addition of steel fibres. However, the effect of prestress on the first-crack stress was found to be more significant than on the ultimate stress. The prestress combined with steel fibres further improved the flexural behaviour of the TRC specimens. The prestressed TRC specimens with 1% volume content of steel fibres effectively avoided debonding. Thus, the utilization of the textiles could be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Searching for Natural Conductive Fibrous Structures via a Green Sustainable Approach Based on Jute Fibers and Silver Nanoparticles
Polymers 2018, 10(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10010063 - 11 Jan 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
This paper provides new insights regarding jute fibers functionalization with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with improved conductivity values and highlights the sustainability of the processes involved. These NPs were applied onto jute fabrics by two different sustainable methods: ultraviolet (UV) photoreduction and by [...] Read more.
This paper provides new insights regarding jute fibers functionalization with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with improved conductivity values and highlights the sustainability of the processes involved. These NPs were applied onto jute fabrics by two different sustainable methods: ultraviolet (UV) photoreduction and by using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a reducing agent and stabilizer. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) images demonstrated that the Ag NPs were incorporated on the jute fibers surface by the two different approaches, with sizes ranging from 70 to 100 nm. Diffuse reflectance spectra revealed the plasmon absorption band, corresponding to the formation of metallic Ag NPs, in all samples under study. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to characterize the obtained samples, demonstrating NPs adsorption to the surface of the fibers. The resistivity value obtained by the two-point probe method of the jute fabric without functionalization is about 1.5 × 107 Ω·m, whereas, after NPs functionalization, it decreased almost 15,000 times, reaching a value of 1.0 × 103 Ω·m. Further research work is being undertaken for improving these values, however, 1000 Ω·m of resistivity (conductivity = 0.001 S/m) is already a very reasonable value when compared with those obtained with other developed systems based on natural fibers. In summary, this work shows that the use of very simple methodologies enabled the functionalization of jute fibers with reasonable values of conductivity. This achievement has a huge potential for use in smart textile composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal, Mechanical and Optical Features of Aluminosilicate-Coated Cotton Textiles via the Crosslinking Method
Polymers 2018, 10(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10010057 - 09 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The presented study focuses on the development of a pad-dry-thermofix functional coating process using a mixture of microporous aluminosilicate particles in diverse bath formulations to impart UV-ray-blocking, thermal stability and easy-care properties to the cotton fabric. The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) [...] Read more.
The presented study focuses on the development of a pad-dry-thermofix functional coating process using a mixture of microporous aluminosilicate particles in diverse bath formulations to impart UV-ray-blocking, thermal stability and easy-care properties to the cotton fabric. The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder Diffraction (XRD) revealed the presence of three different types of zeolites within the examined sample, i.e., the largest amount being zeolite A, followed by the zeolite X, and the zeolite ZSM-5. The surface characterization results of zeolite-coated/cross-linked textiles provided evidence of acceptable UV-ray-blocking properties and increased thermal stability, as well as enhanced tensile strength and breaking tenacity without considerably decreasing the whiteness degree. Moreover, the dry crease recovery angle increased for the cotton fabric cross-linked via an mDMDHEU, and decreased significantly using 30 g/L zeolites negatively influencing qualitative values. TG/DTA results have proven the enlarged thermal stability of aluminosilicate-coated cotton, although combustion was not prevented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment for Grey Cotton Knitted Fabric
Polymers 2018, 10(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10010053 - 08 Jan 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
100% grey cotton knitted fabric contains impurities and yellowness and needs to be prepared for processing to make it suitable for coloration and finishing. Therefore, conventionally 100% grey cotton knitted fabric undergoes a process of scouring and bleaching, which involves the use of [...] Read more.
100% grey cotton knitted fabric contains impurities and yellowness and needs to be prepared for processing to make it suitable for coloration and finishing. Therefore, conventionally 100% grey cotton knitted fabric undergoes a process of scouring and bleaching, which involves the use of large amounts of water and chemicals, in order to remove impurities and yellowness. Due to increased environmental awareness, pursuing a reduction of water and chemicals is a current trend in textile processing. In this study, we explore the possibility of using atmospheric pressure plasma as a dry process to treat 100% grey cotton knitted fabric (single jersey and interlock) before processing. Experimental results reveal that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can effectively remove impurities from 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics and significantly improve its water absorption property. On the other hand, if 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics are pretreated with plasma and then undergo a normal scouring process, the treatment time is reduced. In addition, the surface morphological and chemical changes in plasma-treated fabrics were studied and compared with the conventionally treated fabrics using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The decrease in carbon content, as shown in XPS, reveal the removal of surface impurities. The oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratios of the plasma treated knitted fabrics reveal enhanced hydrophilicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polyelectrolyte Multilayer onto PET Fabric for Highly Tunable Dyeing with Water Soluble Dyestuffs
Polymers 2017, 9(12), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9120735 - 20 Dec 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) is a multi-purpose and widely used synthetic polymer in many industrial fields because of its remarkable advantages such as low cost, light weight, high toughness and resistance to chemicals, and high abrasion resistance. However, PET suffers from poor dyeability due to [...] Read more.
Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) is a multi-purpose and widely used synthetic polymer in many industrial fields because of its remarkable advantages such as low cost, light weight, high toughness and resistance to chemicals, and high abrasion resistance. However, PET suffers from poor dyeability due to its non-polar nature, benzene ring structure as well as high crystallinity. In this study, PET fabrics were firstly treated with an alkaline solution to produce carboxylic acid functional groups on the surface of the PET fabric, and then was modified by polyelectrolyte polymer through the electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly technology. The polyelectrolyte multilayer-deposited PET fabric was characterized using scanning electron microscopy SEM, contact angle, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The dyeability of PET fabrics before and after surface modification was systematically investigated. It showed that the dye-uptake of the polyelectrolyte multilayer-deposited PET fabric has been enhanced compared to that of the pristine PET fabric. In addition, its dyeability is strongly dependent on the surface property of the polyelectrolyte multilayer-deposited PET fabric and the properties of dyestuffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Evaluation of a Polyimide-Coated Ultrafine Gilt Molybdenum Wire and Its Knitted Mesh Used for Electromagnetic Reflectors
Polymers 2017, 9(12), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9120734 - 20 Dec 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
In this work, polyimide (PI) was coated onto an ultrafine gilt molybdenum wire in order to protect the gilt surface and prepare an electrically stable wire mesh material which can be widely used in space. The surface of the PI-coated gilt molybdenum wires [...] Read more.
In this work, polyimide (PI) was coated onto an ultrafine gilt molybdenum wire in order to protect the gilt surface and prepare an electrically stable wire mesh material which can be widely used in space. The surface of the PI-coated gilt molybdenum wires was characterized using FTIR, SEM, and EDS. Factors such as temperature stability of the PI coating, mechanical properties of the PI-coated gilt molybdenum wires, contact resistance stability, and electromagnetic microwave reflectivity of the their knitted meshes were also investigated. The results indicate that the PI coating conformed uniformly to the surface of the gilt molybdenum wires. The prepared PI coating exhibited excellent temperature stability in the −196 to 300 °C range and could efficiently protect the gilt surface and improve the stability of contact resistance, while the reflection of its wire meshes showed only a slight decrease of 1.4% with the PI coating thickness of 3 μm for electromagnetic microwaves in the S band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Octane-Assisted Reverse Micellar Dyeing of Cotton with Reactive Dyes
Polymers 2017, 9(12), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9120678 - 06 Dec 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the computer colour matching (CCM) of cotton fabrics dyed with reactive dye using the octane-assisted reverse micellar approach. The aim of this study is to evaluate the colour quality and compare the accuracy between CCM forecasting and simulated [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the computer colour matching (CCM) of cotton fabrics dyed with reactive dye using the octane-assisted reverse micellar approach. The aim of this study is to evaluate the colour quality and compare the accuracy between CCM forecasting and simulated dyeing produced by conventional water-based dyeing and octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing. First, the calibration of dyeing databases for both dyeing methods was established. Standard samples were dyed with known dye concentrations. Computer colour matching was conducted by using the colour difference formula of International Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*a*b*. Experimental results revealed that the predicted concentrations were nearly the same as the expected known concentrations for both dyeing methods. This indicates that octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing system can achieve colour matching as good as the conventional water-based dyeing system. In addition, when comparing the colour produced by the conventional water-based dyeing system and the octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing system, the colour difference (ΔE) is ≤1, which indicates that the reverse micellar dyeing system could be applied for industrial dyeing with CCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Coating of TPU-PDMS-TMS on Polycotton Fabrics for Versatile Protection
Polymers 2017, 9(12), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9120660 - 30 Nov 2017
Cited by 16
Abstract
This research aims to develop a non-fluorine based and durable coating technology that brings excellent hydrophobic, oleophobic and aqueous liquid repellent properties to polycotton fabrics (blend ratio 80/20 for cotton/polyester) while maintaining comfort to an acceptable level. A crosslinked network from thermoplastic polyurethane [...] Read more.
This research aims to develop a non-fluorine based and durable coating technology that brings excellent hydrophobic, oleophobic and aqueous liquid repellent properties to polycotton fabrics (blend ratio 80/20 for cotton/polyester) while maintaining comfort to an acceptable level. A crosslinked network from thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and trimethylated silica (TMS) has been formed on the surface of polycotton fabrics by the conventional padding-knife coating-padding-curing technique. A series of characterizations have been conducted to understand the chemical components, morphology, versatile protection and comfort of the coated fabrics. The TPU-PDMS-TMS (TPT) coated fabrics showed a high hydrophobic surface with a high water contact angle of 142°, and the coating was durable against different cycles of laundering and crocking. The coated fabrics also showed excellent repellency against oils, liquids and chemicals for a long period of time. The coating has affected the air permeability and water vapor permeability together with the moisture management property of the polycotton fabrics, and the thermal resistance of the polycotton fabric has been enhanced at the same time. The coating technology developed can be further applied in protective clothing and functional textiles in different areas including military, mining and outdoor protection gear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of CO2 Laser Treatment on the Fabric Hand of Cotton and Cotton/Polyester Blended Fabric
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110609 - 13 Nov 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper compares the impact of laser treatment on cotton and cotton/polyester blended fabric hand properties, using the PhabrOmeter system. Five fabric hand properties, namely, stiffness, smoothness, softness, wrinkle recovery rate, and drapability, were obtained, and it was proven that laser treatment could [...] Read more.
This paper compares the impact of laser treatment on cotton and cotton/polyester blended fabric hand properties, using the PhabrOmeter system. Five fabric hand properties, namely, stiffness, smoothness, softness, wrinkle recovery rate, and drapability, were obtained, and it was proven that laser treatment could be successfully used to change the fabric hand. In the case of pure cotton woven fabrics, the fabrics were found to have better drapability and wrinkle recovery after laser treatment. In cotton/polyester blended fabrics, stiffness was found to be relatively higher after laser irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessReview
Advances in Flame Retardant Poly(Lactic Acid)
Polymers 2018, 10(8), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10080876 - 06 Aug 2018
Cited by 24
Abstract
PLA has become a commodity polymer with wide applications in a number of fields. However, its high flammability with the tendency to flow in fire has limited its viability as a perfect replacement for the petrochemically-engineered plastics. Traditional flame retardants, which may be [...] Read more.
PLA has become a commodity polymer with wide applications in a number of fields. However, its high flammability with the tendency to flow in fire has limited its viability as a perfect replacement for the petrochemically-engineered plastics. Traditional flame retardants, which may be incorporated into PLA without severely degrading the mechanical properties, are the organo-halogen compounds. Meanwhile, these compounds tend to bioaccumulate and pose a risk to flora and fauna due to their restricted use. Research into PLA flame retardants has largely focused on organic and inorganic compounds for the past few years. Meanwhile, the renewed interest in the development of environmentally sustainable flame retardants (FRs) for PLA has increased significantly in a bid to maintain the integrity of the polymer. A review on the development of new flame retardants for PLA is presented herein. The focus is on metal oxides, phosphorus-based systems, 2D and 1D nanomaterials, hyperbranched polymers, and their combinations, which have been applied for flame retarding PLA are discussed. The paper also reviews briefly the correlation between FR loadings and efficiency for various FR systems, and their effects on processing and mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Compression Garments for Medical Therapy and Sports
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060663 - 14 Jun 2018
Cited by 18
Abstract
Compression garments are elastic clothing with an engineered compression gradient that can be worn on limbs, upper, lower, or full body to use for therapy and sports. This article presents an overview and review on the compression garments and concentrates on the design [...] Read more.
Compression garments are elastic clothing with an engineered compression gradient that can be worn on limbs, upper, lower, or full body to use for therapy and sports. This article presents an overview and review on the compression garments and concentrates on the design of compression garments with an appropriate pressure for specific applications. It covers the types of compression garments, fibers and yarns, knitted fabric construction, garment design, an evaluation system, and pressure measurement and modeling. The material properties, fabric properties, pressure modeling, and the garment design system presents the prediction, design, and fabrication of the compression garments. Lastly, the research status and directions are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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