Next Article in Journal
Synthesis of Terpolymers with Homogeneous Composition by Free Radical Copolymerization of Maleic Anhydride, Perfluorooctyl and Butyl or Dodecyl Methacrylates: Application of the Continuous Flow Monomer Addition Technique
Next Article in Special Issue
Short Oxygen Plasma Treatment Leading to Long-Term Hydrophilicity of Conductive PCL-PPy Nanofiber Scaffolds
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of CO2 Laser Treatment on the Fabric Hand of Cotton and Cotton/Polyester Blended Fabric
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bimetallic Catalytic Systems Based on Sb, Ge and Ti for the Synthesis of Poly(ethylene terephthalate-co-isosorbide terephthalate)
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 607;

Solid-State Polymerization of Poly(ethylene furanoate) Biobased Polyester, I: Effect of Catalyst Type on Molecular Weight Increase

Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés, Université de Monastir, 5000 Monastir, Tunisia
Chemistry Department, University of Ioannina, P.O. Box 1186, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Biobased Polyesters)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2755 KB, uploaded 15 November 2017]   |  


In this work, we report the synthesis of poly(ethylene furanoate) (PEF), catalyzed by three different catalysts, namely, titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TIS), tetrabutyltitanate (TBT), and dibutyltin (IV) oxide (DBTO), via the two-stage melt polycondensation method. Solid-state polymerization (SSP) was conducted at different reaction times (1, 2, 3.5, and 5 h) and temperatures 190, 200, and 205 °C, under vacuum. The resultant polymers were analyzed according to their intrinsic viscosity (IV), end groups (–COOH), and thermal properties, via differential scanning calorimetry. DSC results showed that the post polymerization process was favorable to enhance the melting point of the prepared PEF samples. As was expected, the intrinsic viscosity and the average molecular weight of PEF increased with the SSP time and temperature, whereas the number of carboxyl end-groups was decreased. A simple kinetic model was also developed and used to predict the time evolution of polymers IV, as well as the carboxyl and hydroxyl content of PEF during the SSP. From both the experimental measurements and the theoretical simulation results it was proved that the presence of the TIS catalyst resulted in higher transesterification kinetic rate constants and higher reaction rates. The activation energies were not much affected by the presence of different catalysts. Finally, using DBTO as a catalyst, the polyesters produced have higher crystallinity, and as a consequence, higher number of inactive carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: poly(ethylene furanoate); catalysts; solid state polymerization; thermal properties poly(ethylene furanoate); catalysts; solid state polymerization; thermal properties

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kasmi, N.; Majdoub, M.; Papageorgiou, G.Z.; Achilias, D.S.; Bikiaris, D.N. Solid-State Polymerization of Poly(ethylene furanoate) Biobased Polyester, I: Effect of Catalyst Type on Molecular Weight Increase. Polymers 2017, 9, 607.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top