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Polymers, Volume 8, Issue 3 (March 2016) – 41 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Application of Chitinous Materials in Production and Purification of a Poly(l-lactic acid) Depolymerase from Pseudomonas tamsuii TKU015
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030098 - 22 Mar 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
The management of fishery residues and plastics is considered to be a vital strategy for conserving resources and maintaining the quality of the environment. Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA) is a commercially promising, renewable, and biodegradable plastic. In this study, a PLA depolymerase [...] Read more.
The management of fishery residues and plastics is considered to be a vital strategy for conserving resources and maintaining the quality of the environment. Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA) is a commercially promising, renewable, and biodegradable plastic. In this study, a PLA depolymerase was produced in a squid pen powder (SPP) and recycled plastic waste (PLA powder)-containing medium by Pseudomonas tamsuii TKU015, a bacterial strain isolated from Taiwanese soil. This PLA depolymerase had a molecular weight of 58 kDa and was purified to homogeneity from the supernatant of a TKU015 culture. The optimum pH of TKU015 PLA depolymerase is 10, and the optimal temperature of the enzyme is 60 °C. In addition to PLA, TKU015 PLA depolymerase degraded fibrinogen and tributyrin, but did not hydrolyze casein, triolein, and poly(β-hydroxybutyrate). Taken together, these data demonstrate that P. tamsuii TKU015 produces a PLA depolymerase to utilize SPP and polylactide as carbon/nitrogen sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Electrospinning Parameters on Fiber Diameter and Mechanical Properties of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and Polyanilines (PANI) Blends
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030097 - 22 Mar 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Random and oriented fibers of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and their blends were manufactured using electrospinning using a co-solvent. The kind and the concentration of the co-solvent affected the diameter of electrospun fibers. The morphology, thermal analysis, and crystalline structure of electrospun fibers was [...] Read more.
Random and oriented fibers of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and their blends were manufactured using electrospinning using a co-solvent. The kind and the concentration of the co-solvent affected the diameter of electrospun fibers. The morphology, thermal analysis, and crystalline structure of electrospun fibers was studied using polarized optical microscop (POM), Differential scanning colametry (DSC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and FT-IR analysis. The diameter of the electrospun fibers decreases with increasing collector speed for the blends compared to pure PHB, which are about 6 µm in diameter. The fibers obtained from blends reduce to 2 µm. The aligned electrospun fiber mats obtained from pure PHB showed no signs of necking at different take-up speeds, but the blends show multiple necking. It was found by FT-IR that the peak intensity at 1379 cm−1 was lower by take up speed than in casting films; this peak is sensitive to crystallinity of PHB. The addition of polyanilines (PANIs) to (PHB) with a plasticizer decreases the diameter of the electrospun fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Polymers)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Water-Dispersible Silica-Polyelectrolyte Nanocomposites Prepared via Acid-Triggered Polycondensation of Silicic Acid and Directed by Polycations
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030096 - 22 Mar 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2869
Abstract
The present work describes the acid-triggered condensation of silicic acid, Si(OH)4, as directed by selected polycations in aqueous solution in the pH range of 6.5–8.0 at room temperature, without the use of additional solvents or surfactants. This process results in the [...] Read more.
The present work describes the acid-triggered condensation of silicic acid, Si(OH)4, as directed by selected polycations in aqueous solution in the pH range of 6.5–8.0 at room temperature, without the use of additional solvents or surfactants. This process results in the formation of silica-polyelectrolyte (S-PE) nanocomposites in the form of precipitate or water-dispersible particles. The mean hydrodynamic diameter (dh) of size distributions of the prepared water-dispersible S-PE composites is presented as a function of the solution pH at which the composite formation was achieved. Poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and block copolymers of DMAEMA and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) were used as weak polyelectrolytes in S-PE composite formation. The activity of the strong polyelectrolytes poly(methacryloxyethyl trimethylammonium iodide) (PMOTAI) and PMOTAI-b-POEGMA in S-PE formation is also examined. The effect of polyelectrolyte strength and the OEGMA block on the formation of the S-PE composites is assessed with respect to the S-PE composites prepared using the PDMAEMA homopolymer. In the presence of the PDMAEMA60 homopolymer (Mw = 9400 g/mol), the size of the dispersible S-PE composites increases with solution pH in the range pH 6.6–8.1, from dh = 30 nm to dh = 800 nm. S-PDMAEMA60 prepared at pH 7.8 contained 66% silica by mass (TGA). The increase in dispersible S-PE particle size is diminished when directed by PDMAEMA300 (Mw = 47,000 g/mol), reaching a maximum of dh = 75 nm. S-PE composites formed using PDMAEMA-b-POEGMA remain in the range dh = 20–30 nm across this same pH regime. Precipitated S-PE composites were obtained as spheres of up to 200 nm in diameter (SEM) and up to 65% mass content of silica (TGA). The conditions of pH for the preparation of dispersible and precipitate S-PE nanocomposites, as directed by the five selected polyelectrolytes PDMAEMA60, PDMAEMA300, PMOTAI60, PDMAEMA60-b-POEGMA38 and PMOTAI60-b-POEGMA38 is summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Aqueous Media)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Multilayer Graphene/Carbon Black/Chlorine Isobutyl Isoprene Rubber Nanocomposites
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030095 - 22 Mar 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3281
Abstract
High loadings of carbon black (CB) are usually used to achieve the properties demanded of rubber compounds. In recent years, distinct nanoparticles have been investigated to replace CB in whole or in part, in order to reduce the necessary filler content or to [...] Read more.
High loadings of carbon black (CB) are usually used to achieve the properties demanded of rubber compounds. In recent years, distinct nanoparticles have been investigated to replace CB in whole or in part, in order to reduce the necessary filler content or to improve performance. Multilayer graphene (MLG) is a nanoparticle made of just 10 graphene sheets and has recently become commercially available for mass-product nanocomposites. Three phr (part for hundred rubbers) of MLG are added to chlorine isobutyl isoprene rubber (CIIR)/CB composites in order to replace part of the CB. The incorporation of just 3 phr MLG triples the Young’s modulus of CIIR; the same effect is obtained with 20 phr CB. The simultaneous presence of three MLG and CB also delivers remarkable properties, e.g. adding three MLG and 20 phr CB increased the hardness as much as adding 40 phr CB. A comprehensive study is presented, showing the influence on a variety of mechanical properties. The potential of the MLG/CB combination is illustrated to reduce the filler content or to boost performance, respectively. Apart from the remarkable mechanical properties, the CIIR/CB/MLG nanocomposites showed an increase in weathering resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mussel-Inspired Anisotropic Nanocellulose and Silver Nanoparticle Composite with Improved Mechanical Properties, Electrical Conductivity and Antibacterial Activity
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030102 - 22 Mar 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4947
Abstract
Materials for wearable devices, tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications require both antibacterial activity to prevent bacterial infection and biofilm formation, and electrical conductivity to electric signals inside and outside of the human body. Recently, cellulose nanofibers have been utilized for various applications but [...] Read more.
Materials for wearable devices, tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications require both antibacterial activity to prevent bacterial infection and biofilm formation, and electrical conductivity to electric signals inside and outside of the human body. Recently, cellulose nanofibers have been utilized for various applications but cellulose itself has neither antibacterial activity nor conductivity. Here, an antibacterial and electrically conductive composite was formed by generating catechol mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the surface of cellulose nanofibers. The chemically immobilized catechol moiety on the nanofibrous cellulose network reduced Ag+ to form AgNPs on the cellulose nanofiber. The AgNPs cellulose composite showed excellent antibacterial efficacy against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the catechol conjugation and the addition of AgNP induced anisotropic self-alignment of the cellulose nanofibers which enhances electrical and mechanical properties of the composite. Therefore, the composite containing AgNPs and anisotropic aligned the cellulose nanofiber may be useful for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle
Amphiphilic Fluorinated Block Copolymer Synthesized by RAFT Polymerization for Graphene Dispersions
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030101 - 22 Mar 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2999
Abstract
Despite the superior properties of graphene, the strong π–π interactions among pristine graphenes yielding massive aggregation impede industrial applications. For non-covalent functionalization of highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (PTFEMA-b-PVP) block copolymers were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain [...] Read more.
Despite the superior properties of graphene, the strong π–π interactions among pristine graphenes yielding massive aggregation impede industrial applications. For non-covalent functionalization of highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (PTFEMA-b-PVP) block copolymers were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and used as polymeric dispersants in liquid phase exfoliation assisted by ultrasonication. The HOPG graphene concentrations were found to be 0.260–0.385 mg/mL in methanolic graphene dispersions stabilized with 10 wt % (relative to HOPG) PTFEMA-b-PVP block copolymers after one week. Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses revealed that HOPG could not be completely exfoliated during the sonication. However, on-line turbidity results confirmed that the dispersion stability of HOPG in the presence of the block copolymer lasted for one week and that longer PTFEMA and PVP blocks led to better graphene dispersibility. Force–distance (F–d) analyses of AFM showed that PVP block is a good graphene-philic block while PTFEMA is methanol-philic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ASEPFPM2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Rheological and Mechanical Behavior of Silk Fibroin Reinforced Waterborne Polyurethane
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030094 - 21 Mar 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2594
Abstract
Waterborne polyurethane (WPU) is a versatile and environment-friendly material with growing applications in both industry and academia. Silk fibroin (SF) is an attractive material known for its structural, biological and hemocompatible properties. The SF reinforced waterborne polyurethane (WPU) is a promising scaffold material [...] Read more.
Waterborne polyurethane (WPU) is a versatile and environment-friendly material with growing applications in both industry and academia. Silk fibroin (SF) is an attractive material known for its structural, biological and hemocompatible properties. The SF reinforced waterborne polyurethane (WPU) is a promising scaffold material for tissue engineering applications. In this work, we report synthesis and characterization of a novel nanocomposite using SF reinforced WPU. The rheological behaviors of WPU and WPU-SF dispersions with different solid contents were investigated with steady shear and dynamic oscillatory tests to evaluate the formation of the cross-linked gel structure. The average particle size and the zeta potential of WPU-SF dispersions with different SF content were examined at 25 °C to investigate the interaction between SF and WPU. FTIR, SEM, TEM and tensile testing were performed to study the effects of SF content on the structural morphology and mechanical properties of the resultant composite films. Experimental results revealed formation of gel network in the WPU dispersions at solid contents more than 17 wt %. The conjugate reaction between the WPU and SF as well as the hydrogen bond between them helped in dispersing the SF powder into the WPU matrix as small aggregates. Addition of SF to the WPU also improved the Young’s modulus from 0.30 to 3.91 MPa, tensile strength from 0.56 to 8.94 MPa, and elongation at break from 1067% to 2480%, as SF was increased up to 5 wt %. Thus, significant strengthening and toughening can be achieved by introducing SF powder into the WPU formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers Applied in Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Studies on Preparation of Poly(3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine)-Polylactide Copolymers and the Effect of the Structure of the Copolymers on Their Properties
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030092 - 18 Mar 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2396
Abstract
Properties of copolymers are generally influenced by the structure of the monomers and polymers. For the purpose of understanding the effect of polymer structure on the properties, two kinds of copolymers, poly(3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)-g-polylactide and poly(3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)-b-polylactide (PDOPA-g-PLA and PDOPA- [...] Read more.
Properties of copolymers are generally influenced by the structure of the monomers and polymers. For the purpose of understanding the effect of polymer structure on the properties, two kinds of copolymers, poly(3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)-g-polylactide and poly(3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)-b-polylactide (PDOPA-g-PLA and PDOPA-b-PLA) were designed and prepared by ring-opening polymerization of lactide with pre-prepared PDOPA as the initiator and the amidation of the functional PLA and PDOPA oligomer, respectively. The molecular weight and composition of the copolymers could be adjusted by changing the molar ratio of LA and DOPA and were confirmed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra. The obtained copolymers with graft and block structures showed high solubility even in common organic solvents. The effects of the graft and block structures on the thermal and degradation properties were also detected. The PDOPA-g-PLA copolymers showed higher thermal stability than the PDOPA-b-PLA copolymers, due to the PDOPA-g-PLA copolymers with regular structure and strong π-π stacking interactions among the intermolecular and intramolecular chains. In addition, the degradation results showed that the PDOPA-g-PLA copolymers and the copolymers with higher DOPA composition had quicker degradation speeds. Interestingly, both two kinds of copolymers, after degradation, became undissolved in the organic solvents because of the oxidation and crosslinking formation of the catechol groups in the DOPA units during degradation in alkaline solution. Moreover, fluorescent microscopy results showed good biocompatibility of the PDOPA-g-PLA and PDOPA-b-PLA copolymers. The PDOPA and PLA copolymers have the potential applications to the biomedical and industrial fields. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Uniform-Sized and Dual Stimuli-Responsive Microspheres of Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)/Poly(Acrylic acid) with Semi-IPN Structure by One-Step Method
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030090 - 17 Mar 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2811
Abstract
A novel strategy was developed to synthesize uniform semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) microspheres by premix membrane emulsification combined with one-step polymerization. Synthesized poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) polymer chains were added prior to the inner water phase, which contained N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer, N, [...] Read more.
A novel strategy was developed to synthesize uniform semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) microspheres by premix membrane emulsification combined with one-step polymerization. Synthesized poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) polymer chains were added prior to the inner water phase, which contained N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer, N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) cross-linker, and ammonium persulfate (APS) initiator. The mixtures were pressed through a microporous membrane to form a uniform water-in-oil emulsion. By crosslinking the NIPAM in a PAAc-containing solution, microspheres with temperature- and pH-responsive properties were fabricated. The semi-IPN structure and morphology of the microspheres were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average diameter of the obtained microspheres was approximately 6.5 μm, with Span values of less than 1. Stimuli-responsive behaviors of the microspheres were studied by the cloud-point method. The results demonstrated that semi-IPN microspheres could respond independently to both pH and temperature changes. After storing in a PBS solution (pH 7.0) at 4 °C for 6 months, the semi-IPN microspheres remained stable without a change in morphology or particle size. This study demonstrated a promising method for controlling the synthesis of semi-IPN structure microspheres with a uniform size and multiple functionalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ASEPFPM2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Decorating Nanoparticle Surface for Targeted Drug Delivery: Opportunities and Challenges
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030083 - 17 Mar 2016
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 5570
Abstract
The size, shape, stiffness (composition) and surface properties of nanoparticles (NPs) have been recognized as key design parameters for NP-mediated drug delivery platforms. Among them, the surface functionalization of NPs is of great significance for targeted drug delivery. For instance, targeting moieties are [...] Read more.
The size, shape, stiffness (composition) and surface properties of nanoparticles (NPs) have been recognized as key design parameters for NP-mediated drug delivery platforms. Among them, the surface functionalization of NPs is of great significance for targeted drug delivery. For instance, targeting moieties are covalently coated on the surface of NPs to improve their selectively and affinity to cancer cells. However, due to a broad range of possible choices of surface decorating molecules, it is difficult to choose the proper one for targeted functions. In this work, we will review several representative experimental and computational studies in selecting the proper surface functional groups. Experimental studies reveal that: (1) the NPs with surface decorated amphiphilic polymers can enter the cell interior through penetrating pathway; (2) the NPs with tunable stiffness and identical surface chemistry can be selectively accepted by the diseased cells according to their stiffness; and (3) the NPs grafted with pH-responsive polymers can be accepted or rejected by the cells due to the local pH environment. In addition, we show that computer simulations could be useful to understand the detailed physical mechanisms behind these phenomena and guide the design of next-generation NP-based drug carriers with high selectivity, affinity, and low toxicity. For example, the detailed free energy analysis and molecular dynamics simulation reveals that amphiphilic polymer-decorated NPs can penetrate into the cell membrane through the “snorkeling” mechanism, by maximizing the interaction energy between the hydrophobic ligands and lipid tails. We anticipate that this work will inspire future studies in the design of environment-responsive NPs for targeted drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Modeling and Simulation in Polymer)
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Open AccessArticle
A Heterobimetallic Anionic 3,6-Connected 2D Coordination Polymer Based on Nitranilate as Ligand
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030089 - 16 Mar 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
In order to synthesize new coordination polymers with original architectures and interesting magnetic properties, we used the nitranilate ligand (C6O4(NO2)22− = C6N2O82−), derived from the dianionic ligand dhbq [...] Read more.
In order to synthesize new coordination polymers with original architectures and interesting magnetic properties, we used the nitranilate ligand (C6O4(NO2)22− = C6N2O82−), derived from the dianionic ligand dhbq2− (2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone = H2C6O42−). The use of this bis-bidentate bridging ligand led to [(DAMS)2{FeNa(C6N2O8)3}·CH3CN]n (1) (DAMS+ = C16H17N2+ = 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-α-styryl]-1-methylpyridinium), a 2D heterometallic coordination polymer presenting an unprecedented structure for any anilato-based compound. This structural type is a 3,6-connected 2D coordination polymer derived from the well-known honeycomb hexagonal structure, where Fe(III) ions alternate with Na+ dimers (as Na2O12 units) in the vertices of the hexagons and with an additional [Fe(C6N2O8)3]3− anion located in the center of the hexagons connecting the three Na+ dimers. The magnetic properties of compound 1 show the presence of paramagnetic isolated high spin Fe(III) complexes with a zero field splitting, |D| = 8.5 cm−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Polymers: New Materials for Multiple Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Stability Study of Flexible 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene Thin-Film Transistors with a Cross-Linked Poly(4-vinylphenol)/Yttrium Oxide Nanocomposite Gate Insulator
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030088 - 16 Mar 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3002
Abstract
We investigated the electrical and mechanical stability of flexible 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylehtynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that were fabricated on polyimide (PI) substrates using cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol) (c-PVP) and c-PVP/yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanocomposite films as gate insulators. Compared with the electrical characteristics [...] Read more.
We investigated the electrical and mechanical stability of flexible 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylehtynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that were fabricated on polyimide (PI) substrates using cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol) (c-PVP) and c-PVP/yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanocomposite films as gate insulators. Compared with the electrical characteristics of TIPS-pentacene TFTs with c-PVP insulators, the TFTs with c-PVP/Y2O3 nanocomposite insulators exhibited enhancements in the drain current and the threshold voltage due to an increase in the dielectric capacitance. In electrical stability experiments, a gradual decrease in the drain current and a negative shift in the threshold voltage occurred during prolonged bias stress tests, but these characteristic variations were comparable for both types of TFT. On the other hand, the results of mechanical bending tests showed that the characteristic degradation of the TIPS-pentacene TFTs with c-PVP/Y2O3 nanocomposite insulators was more critical than that of the TFTs with c-PVP insulators. In this study, the detrimental effect of the nanocomposite insulator on the mechanical stability of flexible TIPS-pentacene TFTs was found to be caused by physical adhesion of TIPS-pentacene molecules onto the rough surfaces of the c-PVP/Y2O3 nanocomposite insulator. These results indicate that the dielectric and morphological properties of polymeric nanocomposite insulators are significant when considering practical applications of flexible electronics operated at low voltages. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Silicon-Containing Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Charge Transport in LDPE Nanocomposites Part I—Experimental Approach
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030087 - 16 Mar 2016
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 2719
Abstract
This work presents results of bulk conductivity and surface potential decay measurements on low-density polyethylene and its nanocomposites filled with uncoated MgO and Al2O3, with the aim to highlight the effect of the nanofillers on charge transport processes. Material [...] Read more.
This work presents results of bulk conductivity and surface potential decay measurements on low-density polyethylene and its nanocomposites filled with uncoated MgO and Al2O3, with the aim to highlight the effect of the nanofillers on charge transport processes. Material samples at various filler contents, up to 9 wt %, were prepared in the form of thin films. The performed measurements show a significant impact of the nanofillers on reduction of material’s direct current (dc) conductivity. The investigations thus focused on the nanocomposites having the lowest dc conductivity. Various mechanisms of charge generation and transport in solids, including space charge limited current, Poole-Frenkel effect and Schottky injection, were utilized for examining the experimental results. The mobilities of charge carriers were deduced from the measured surface potential decay characteristics and were found to be at least two times lower for the nanocomposites. The temperature dependencies of the mobilities were compared for different materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Structures and Luminescence Properties of Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Lithium-Lanthanide and Terephthalate
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030086 - 16 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2759
Abstract
Metal-organic frameworks assembled from Ln(III), Li(I) and rigid dicarboxylate ligand, formulated as [LiLn(BDC)2(H2O)·2(H2O)] (MS1-6,7a) and [LiTb(BDC)2] (MS7b) (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Y0.96Eu0.04, Y0.93Tb0.07, and [...] Read more.
Metal-organic frameworks assembled from Ln(III), Li(I) and rigid dicarboxylate ligand, formulated as [LiLn(BDC)2(H2O)·2(H2O)] (MS1-6,7a) and [LiTb(BDC)2] (MS7b) (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Y0.96Eu0.04, Y0.93Tb0.07, and H2BDC = terephthalic acid), were obtained under hydrothermal conditions. The isostructural MS1-6 crystallize in monoclinic P21/c space group. While, in the case of Tb3+ a mixture of at least two phases was obtained, the former one (MS7a) and a new monoclinic C2/c phase (MS7b). All compounds have been studied by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TGA), vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX). The structures of MS1-6 and MS7a are built up of inorganic-organic hybrid chains. These chains constructed from unusual four-membered rings, are formed by edge- and vertex-shared {LnO8} and {LiO4} polyhedra through oxygen atoms O3 (vertex) and O6-O7 (edge). Each chain is cross-linked to six neighboring chains through six terephthalate bridges. While, the structure of MS7b is constructed from double inorganic chains, and each chain is, in turn, related symmetrically to the adjacent one through the c glide plane. These chains are formed by infinitely alternating {LiO4} and {TbO8} polyhedra through (O2-O3) edges to create Tb–O–Li connectivity along the c-axis. Both MS1-6,7a and MS7b structures possess a 3D framework with 1D trigonal channels running along the a and c axes, containing water molecules and anhydrous, respectively. Topological studies revealed that MS1-6 and MS7a have a new 2-nodal 3,10-c net, while MS7b generates a 3D net with unusual β-Sn topology. The photoluminescence properties Eu- and Tb-doped compounds (MS5-6) are also investigated, exhibiting strong red and green light emissions, respectively, which are attributed to the efficient energy transfer process from the BDC ligand to Eu3+ and Tb3+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Polymers: New Materials for Multiple Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Systematic Limitations in Concentration Analysis via Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering in the Small Structure Limit
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030085 - 16 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5343
Abstract
Anomalous small angle scattering measurements have been applied to diluted solutions of anionic polyacrylates decorated by specifically-interacting Pb2+ cations, revealing partial collapse of the polyacrylate into pearl-like subdomains with a size on the order of a few nanometers. From the pure-resonant scattering [...] Read more.
Anomalous small angle scattering measurements have been applied to diluted solutions of anionic polyacrylates decorated by specifically-interacting Pb2+ cations, revealing partial collapse of the polyacrylate into pearl-like subdomains with a size on the order of a few nanometers. From the pure-resonant scattering contribution of the Pb2+ cations, and from subsequent analysis of the resonant-invariant, the amount of Pb2+ cations condensed onto the polyanions with respect to the total amount of Pb2+ cations in the solvent was estimated. In order to scrutinize systematic limitations in the determination of the chemical concentrations of resonant scattering counterions in the collapsed phase, Monte Carlo simulations have been performed. The simulations are based on structural confinements at variable size in the range of few nanometers, which represent the collapsed subdomains in the polyanions. These confinements were gradually filled to a high degree of the volume fraction with resonant scattering counterions giving access to a resonant-invariant at a variable degree of filling. The simulations revealed in the limit of small structures a significant underestimation of the true degree of filling of the collapsed subdomains when determining chemical concentrations of Pb2+ cations from the resonant invariant. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Polyelectrolytes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrophilic Sugar Based Polyesters and Their Modification with Stearic Acid
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030080 - 16 Mar 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3887
Abstract
Biodegradable and hydrophilic functional polyesters were synthesized enzymatically using xylitol or d-sorbitol together with divinyl adipate and lipase B from Candida antartica (CAL-B). The resulting polyesters had pendant OH-groups from their sugar units which were esterified to different degrees with stearic acid [...] Read more.
Biodegradable and hydrophilic functional polyesters were synthesized enzymatically using xylitol or d-sorbitol together with divinyl adipate and lipase B from Candida antartica (CAL-B). The resulting polyesters had pendant OH-groups from their sugar units which were esterified to different degrees with stearic acid chloride. The structure and the degrees of polymerization of the resulting graft copolymers based on poly(xylitol adipate) and poly(d-sorbitol adipate) were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and SEC. DSC, WAXS and SAXS measurements indicated that a phase separation between polymer backbone and stearoyl side chains occurred in the graft copolymers, and, additionally, the side chains were able to crystallize which resulted in the formation of a lamellar morphology. Additionally, nanoparticles of the graft copolymers in an aqueous environment were studied by DLS and negative stain TEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Aqueous Media)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Hybrid Polymer-Network Hydrogels with Tunable Mechanical Response
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030082 - 15 Mar 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3154
Abstract
Hybrid polymer-network gels built by both physical and covalent polymer crosslinking combine the advantages of both these crosslinking types: they exhibit high mechanical strength along with excellent fracture toughness and extensibility. If these materials are extensively deformed, their physical crosslinks can break such [...] Read more.
Hybrid polymer-network gels built by both physical and covalent polymer crosslinking combine the advantages of both these crosslinking types: they exhibit high mechanical strength along with excellent fracture toughness and extensibility. If these materials are extensively deformed, their physical crosslinks can break such that strain energy is dissipated and irreversible fracturing is restricted to high strain only. This mechanism of energy dissipation is determined by the kinetics and thermodynamics of the physical crosslinking contribution. In this paper, we present a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based material toolkit to control these contributions in a rational and custom fashion. We form well-defined covalent polymer-network gels with regularly distributed additional supramolecular mechanical fuse links, whose strength of connectivity can be tuned without affecting the primary polymer-network composition. This is possible because the supramolecular fuse links are based on terpyridine–metal complexation, such that the mere choice of the fuse-linking metal ion adjusts their kinetics and thermodynamics of complexation–decomplexation, which directly affects the mechanical properties of the hybrid gels. We use oscillatory shear rheology to demonstrate this rational control and enhancement of the mechanical properties of the hybrid gels. In addition, static light scattering reveals their highly regular and well-defined polymer-network structures. As a result of both, the present approach provides an easy and reliable concept for preparing hybrid polymer-network gels with rationally designed properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Aqueous Media)
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Open AccessArticle
Polymer Inclusion Membranes (PIM) for the Recovery of Potassium in the Presence of Competitive Cations
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030076 - 15 Mar 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4242
Abstract
Potassium is an important nutrient used in fertilizers but is not always naturally available We investigated the properties of polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) regarding their selective recovery of K+ over competitive ions typically present in urine (Na+ and NH4+ [...] Read more.
Potassium is an important nutrient used in fertilizers but is not always naturally available We investigated the properties of polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) regarding their selective recovery of K+ over competitive ions typically present in urine (Na+ and NH4+). The greatest flux was observed when the ratio of mass 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (2-NPOE) used as plasticizer to cellulose triacetate (CTA) used as polymer was 0.25. The highest flux was achieved with a content of 24.8 wt % of dicyclohexan-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) used as carrier, although the highest selectivity was observed with a content of 14.0 wt % of DCH18C6. We also studied whether the transport mechanism occurring in our system was based on co-transport of a counter-ion or ion exchange. Two different receiving phases (ultrapure water and 100 mM HCl) were tested. Results on transport mechanisms suggest that co-transport of cations and anions is taking place across our PIMs. The membrane deteriorated and lost its properties when the receiving phase was acidic; we suggested that this was due to hydrolysis of CTA. The greatest flux and selectivity were observed in ultrapure water as receiving phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Thin Films and Membranes 2015)
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Property Modification of Silver Nanoparticles with Dopamine-Functionalized Poly(pentafluorostyrene) via RAFT Polymerization
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030081 - 14 Mar 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2926
Abstract
This research aims to synthesize a dopamine-functionalized macromolecular anchor to perform surface modification on the target nanostructures. A molecular anchor, 3,4-dichloro-1-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione, was successfully synthesized from dopamine and 2,3-dichloromaleic anhydride. The anchor acted as a linkage to couple the chains of poly(pentafluorostyrene) [...] Read more.
This research aims to synthesize a dopamine-functionalized macromolecular anchor to perform surface modification on the target nanostructures. A molecular anchor, 3,4-dichloro-1-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione, was successfully synthesized from dopamine and 2,3-dichloromaleic anhydride. The anchor acted as a linkage to couple the chains of poly(pentafluorostyrene) (PPFS) which were synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Modification was successfully performed to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by deposition of the dopamine-functionalized coupled PPFS onto the surface of the particles. The modified AgNPs had demonstrated improved dispersibility in organic solvent due to the hydrophobic nature of PPFS. To modify the surface chemistry of the nanoparticles further, thioglucose was grafted onto the structure of the coupled PPFS via thiol-fluoro nucleophilic substitution at the para-position of the pentafluorophenyl groups on the monomer units. The presence of sugar moieties on the coupled PPFS increased its hydrophilicity, which allowed the modified AgNPs to be readily dispersed in aqueous solvent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization)
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Open AccessArticle
The Backfolded Odijk Regime for Wormlike Chains Confined in Rectangular Nanochannels
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030079 - 14 Mar 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
We confirm Odijk’s scaling laws for (i) the average chain extension; (ii) the variance about the average extension; and (iii) the confinement free energy of a wormlike chain confined in a rectangular nanochannel smaller than its chain persistence length through pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method [...] Read more.
We confirm Odijk’s scaling laws for (i) the average chain extension; (ii) the variance about the average extension; and (iii) the confinement free energy of a wormlike chain confined in a rectangular nanochannel smaller than its chain persistence length through pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) simulations of asymptotically long, discrete wormlike chains. In the course of this analysis, we also computed the global persistence length of ideal wormlike chains for the modestly rectangular channels that are used in many experimental systems. The results are relevant to genomic mapping systems that confine DNA in channel sizes around 50 nm, since fabrication constraints generally lead to rectangular cross-sections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiflexible Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Highly Active Copolymerization of Ethylene and N-Acetyl-O-(ω-Alkenyl)-l-Tyrosine Ethyl Esters Catalyzed by Titanium Complex
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030064 - 10 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3062
Abstract
A series of N-acetyl-O-(ω-alkenyl)-l-tyrosine ethyl esters were synthesized by the reaction of vinyl bromides (4-bromo-1-butene, 6-bromo-1-hexene, 8-bromo-1-octene and 10-bromo-1-decene) with N-acetyl-l-tyrosine ethyl ester. 1H NMR, elemental analysis, FT-IR, and mass spectra were performed for [...] Read more.
A series of N-acetyl-O-(ω-alkenyl)-l-tyrosine ethyl esters were synthesized by the reaction of vinyl bromides (4-bromo-1-butene, 6-bromo-1-hexene, 8-bromo-1-octene and 10-bromo-1-decene) with N-acetyl-l-tyrosine ethyl ester. 1H NMR, elemental analysis, FT-IR, and mass spectra were performed for these N-acetyl-O-(ω-alkenyl)-l-tyrosine ethyl esters. The novel titanium complex can catalyze the copolymerization of ethylene and N-acetyl-O-(ω-alkenyl)-l-tyrosine ethyl esters efficiently and the highest catalytic activity was up to 6.86 × 104 gP·(molTi)−1·h−1. The structures and properties of the obtained copolymers were characterized by FT-IR, (1H)13C NMR, GPC, DSC, and water contact angle. The results indicated that the obtained copolymers had a uniformly high average molecular weight of 2.85 × 105 g·mol−1 and a high incorporation ratio of N-acetyl-O-(but-3-enyl)-l-tyrosine ethyl ester of 2.65 mol % within the copolymer chain. The units of the comonomer were isolated within the copolymer chains. The insertion of the polar comonomer into a copolymer chain can effectively improve the hydrophilicity of a copolymer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Mediated Polymer Synthesis)
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Open AccessCommunication
Polylactide/Montmorillonite Hybrid Latex as a Barrier Coating for Paper Applications
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030075 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2635
Abstract
We developed a paper coating for the potential application in food packaging based on polylactide and montmorillonite. It is applied to the paper in the form of a stable, water-based latex with a solid content of 25–28 wt %. The latex is prepared [...] Read more.
We developed a paper coating for the potential application in food packaging based on polylactide and montmorillonite. It is applied to the paper in the form of a stable, water-based latex with a solid content of 25–28 wt %. The latex is prepared from a commercially available polylactide, surfactants, montmorillonite, a plasticizer, chloroform (to be removed later) and water by an emulsion/solvent evaporation procedure. This coating formulation is applied to the paper substrate by bar-coating, followed by hot-pressing at 150 °C. The coated papers achieved up to an 85% improvement in water vapor transmission rates when compared to the pristine papers. The coating latex is prepared from inexpensive materials and can be used for a solvent-free coating process. In addition, the ingredients of the latex are non-toxic; thus, the coated papers can be safely used for food packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Alkoxyamine-Functionalized Magnetic Core-Shell Microspheres via Reflux Precipitation Polymerization for Glycopeptide Enrichment
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030074 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3320
Abstract
As a facile method to prepare hydrophilic polymeric microspheres, reflux precipitation polymerization has been widely used for preparation of polymer nanogels. In this article, we synthesized a phthalamide-protected N-aminooxy methyl acrylamide (NAMAm-p) for preparation of alkoxyamine-functionalized polymer composite microspheres via [...] Read more.
As a facile method to prepare hydrophilic polymeric microspheres, reflux precipitation polymerization has been widely used for preparation of polymer nanogels. In this article, we synthesized a phthalamide-protected N-aminooxy methyl acrylamide (NAMAm-p) for preparation of alkoxyamine-functionalized polymer composite microspheres via reflux precipitation polymerization. The particle size and functional group density of the composite microspheres could be adjusted by copolymerization with the second monomers, N-isopropyl acrylamide, acrylic acid or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The resultant microspheres have been characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA and DLS. The experimental results showed that the alkoxyamine group density of the microspheres could reach as high as 1.49 mmol/g, and these groups showed a great reactivity with ketone/aldehyde compounds. With the aid of magnetic core, the hybrid microspheres could capture and magnetically isolate glycopeptides from the digested mixture of glycopeptides and non-glycopeptides at a 1:100 molar ratio. After that, we applied the composite microspheres to profile the glycol-proteome of a normal human serum sample, 95 unique glycopeptides and 64 glycoproteins were identified with these enrichment substrates in a 5 μL of serum sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ASEPFPM2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Processing-Induced Inhomogeneity of Yield Stress in Polycarbonate Product and Its Influence on the Impact Behavior
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030072 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
In this study, an integrated methodology for impact analysis of polycarbonate (PC) product is proposed which incorporates the processing-induced inhomogeneity of yield stress. A previously developed model is extended to predict the inhomogeneous yield stress distribution along the specimen by using the thermal [...] Read more.
In this study, an integrated methodology for impact analysis of polycarbonate (PC) product is proposed which incorporates the processing-induced inhomogeneity of yield stress. A previously developed model is extended to predict the inhomogeneous yield stress distribution along the specimen by using the thermal history experienced during injection molding. A strain rate-dependent elastic-plastic model combining the processing-induced yield stress is applied to model the mechanical behavior of PC. Finite element simulation for notched Izod impact test is then conducted to analyze the impact behaviors of PC specimens with different thermal histories. Numerical results of the fracture energies are compared with experimental measurements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polyelectrolyte Threading through a Nanopore
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030073 - 03 Mar 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2393
Abstract
Threading charged polymers through a nanopore, driven by electric fields E, is investigated by means of Langevin dynamics simulations. The mean translocation time ⟨ τ ⟩ is shown to follow a scaling law Nα, and the exponent α increases monotonically from [...] Read more.
Threading charged polymers through a nanopore, driven by electric fields E, is investigated by means of Langevin dynamics simulations. The mean translocation time 〈 τ 〉 is shown to follow a scaling law Nα, and the exponent α increases monotonically from 1.16 (4) to 1.40 (3) with E. The result is double-checked by the calculation of mean square displacement of translocation coordinate, which asserts a scaling behavior tβ (for t near τ) with β complying with the relation αβ = 2. At a fixed chain length N, 〈τ〉 displayed a reciprocal scaling behavior E−1 in the weak and also in the strong fields, connected by a transition E−1.64(5) in the intermediate fields. The variations of the radius of gyration of chain and the positions of chain end are monitored during a translocation process; far-from-equilibrium behaviors are observed when the driving field is strong. A strong field can strip off the condensed ions on the chain when it passes the pore. The total charges of condensed ions are hence decreased. The studies for the probability and density distributions reveal that the monomers in the trans-region are gathered near the wall and form a pancake-like density profile with a hump cloud over it in the strong fields, due to fast translocation. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Polyelectrolytes)
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Open AccessArticle
Near Surface Mounted Composites for Flexural Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030067 - 03 Mar 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4243
Abstract
Existing structural components require strengthening after a certain period of time due to increases in service loads, errors in design, mechanical damage, and the need to extend the service period. Externally-bonded reinforcement (EBR) and near-surface mounted (NSM) reinforcement are two preferred strengthening approach. [...] Read more.
Existing structural components require strengthening after a certain period of time due to increases in service loads, errors in design, mechanical damage, and the need to extend the service period. Externally-bonded reinforcement (EBR) and near-surface mounted (NSM) reinforcement are two preferred strengthening approach. This paper presents a NSM technique incorporating NSM composites, namely steel and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars, as reinforcement. Experimental and analytical studies carried out to explore the performance of reinforced concrete (RC) members strengthened with the NSM composites. Analytical models were developed in predicting the maximum crack spacing and width, concrete cover separation failure loads, and deflection. A four-point bending test was applied on beams strengthened with different types and ratios of NSM reinforcement. The failure characteristics, yield, and ultimate capacities, deflection, strain, and cracking behavior of the beams were evaluated based on the experimental output. The test results indicate an increase in the cracking load of 69% and an increase in the ultimate load of 92% compared with the control beam. The predicted result from the analytical model shows good agreement with the experimental result, which ensures the competent implementation of the present NSM-steel and CFRP technique. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Biopolymeric Mucin and Synthetic Polymer Analogs: Their Structure, Function and Role in Biomedical Applications
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030071 - 02 Mar 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4419
Abstract
Mucin networks are viscoelastic fibrillar aggregates formed through the complex self-association of biopolymeric glycoprotein chains. The networks form a lubricious, hydrated protective shield along epithelial regions within the human body. The critical role played by mucin networks in impacting the transport properties of [...] Read more.
Mucin networks are viscoelastic fibrillar aggregates formed through the complex self-association of biopolymeric glycoprotein chains. The networks form a lubricious, hydrated protective shield along epithelial regions within the human body. The critical role played by mucin networks in impacting the transport properties of biofunctional molecules (e.g., biogenic molecules, probes, nanoparticles), and its effect on bioavailability are well described in the literature. An alternate perspective is provided in this paper, presenting mucin’s complex network structure, and its interdependent functional characteristics in human physiology. We highlight the recent advances that were achieved through the use of mucin in diverse areas of bioengineering applications (e.g., drug delivery, biomedical devices and tissue engineering). Mucin network formation is a highly complex process, driven by wide variety of molecular interactions, and the network possess structural and chemical variations, posing a great challenge to understand mucin’s bulk behavior. Through this review, the prospective potential of polymer based analogs to serve as mucin mimic is suggested. These analog systems, apart from functioning as an artificial model, reducing the current dependency on animal models, can aid in furthering our fundamental understanding of such complex structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers Applied in Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessEditorial
Organic Photovoltaics: More than Ever, an Interdisciplinary Field
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030070 - 02 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
Despite the growing interest and rapid advancement of alternative photovoltaic (PV) technologies such as perovskite based PV devices, we still believe that organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices have a significant potential for stable, low-cost solar power generation. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Photovoltaics)
Open AccessArticle
ICAR ATRP of Acrylonitrile under Ambient and High Pressure
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030059 - 02 Mar 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2489
Abstract
It is well known that well-defined polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with high molecular weight (Mw > 106 g·mol−1) is an excellent precursor for high performance carbon fiber. In this work, a strategy for initiators for a continuous activator regeneration atom transfer [...] Read more.
It is well known that well-defined polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with high molecular weight (Mw > 106 g·mol−1) is an excellent precursor for high performance carbon fiber. In this work, a strategy for initiators for a continuous activator regeneration atom transfer radical polymerization (ICAR ATRP) system for acrylonitrile (AN) was firstly established by using CuCl2·2H2O as the catalyst and 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as the thermal initiator in the presence of ppm level catalyst under ambient and high pressure (5 kbar). The effect of catalyst concentration and polymerization temperature on the polymerization behaviors was investigated. It is important that PAN with ultrahigh viscosity and average molecular weight (Mη = 1,034,500 g·mol−1) could be synthesized within 2 h under high pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization)
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Open AccessArticle
Homo- and Copolymerization of Ethylene and Norbornene with Anilido–Imine Chromium Catalysts
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030069 - 01 Mar 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2608
Abstract
A series of anilido–imine chromium complexes have been used as precursors to catalyze homo- and copolymerization of ethylene and norbornene. The chromium complexes activated with methylalumoxane (MAO) exhibit good activities for homopolymerization of ethylene (E) to produce linear polyethylene and moderate activities for [...] Read more.
A series of anilido–imine chromium complexes have been used as precursors to catalyze homo- and copolymerization of ethylene and norbornene. The chromium complexes activated with methylalumoxane (MAO) exhibit good activities for homopolymerization of ethylene (E) to produce linear polyethylene and moderate activities for norbornene (N) polymerization to afford vinyl-type polynorbornene. Ethylene–norbornene copolymers with high incorporation of norbornene can be also produced by these catalysts. 13C NMR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses show that the copolymers are random products, and –NNN– and –EEE– units can be observed in the microstructure of the copolymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Mediated Polymer Synthesis)
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