Special Issue "Renewable Polymeric Adhesives"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Antonio Pizzi

LERMAB, Laboratoire d’Etude et de Recherche sur le MAteriau Bois, Université de Lorraine, 27 rue Philippe Seguin, CS60036, 88021 Epinal, France
Website | E-Mail
Phone: (+33) 623126940
Interests: polycondensation; resins; adhesives; thermosetting polymers for adhesives; natural polymers for industrial use; fibrous and wood composites; polymeric wood constituents (cellulose, lignin, tannins)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today’s intense search for non-oil derived polymeric materials from renewable resources is also evident in the field of adhesives and binders. This Special Issue is aimed at collecting cutting-edge original research papers and reviews on the main areas where biosourced polymeric adhesives from renewable materials are under development and under particular focus, and throughout the vast variety of adhesives in use to day, from acrylics to epoxies, to polyurethanes and others.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Pizzi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Biosourced polyurethane adhesives
  • Biosourced acrylic adhesives
  • Biosourced epoxy adhesives
  • Biosourced phenolic adhesives
  • Biosourced aminoplastic adhesives
  • Biosourced furanic adhesives
  • Protein adhesives

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (30 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Renewable Polymeric Adhesives
Polymers 2017, 9(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9040126
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (143 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The field of renewable polymeric adhesives has become a very active field of research in the last few years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Study of Organosolv Lignins as Adhesives in Wood Panel Production
Polymers 2017, 9(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9020046
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 29 January 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organosolv lignins obtained from sugar maple bark and wood were studied as adhesives for wood particleboard production. Organosolv pulping of sugar maple wood and bark was carried out in the presence of Lewis acid FeCl3 as a catalyst. The organosolv lignins recovered
[...] Read more.
Organosolv lignins obtained from sugar maple bark and wood were studied as adhesives for wood particleboard production. Organosolv pulping of sugar maple wood and bark was carried out in the presence of Lewis acid FeCl3 as a catalyst. The organosolv lignins recovered from this process were investigated by determination of Klason plus acid-soluble lignin content, of sugars by HPLC analysis, and of ash content. Structural characterizations of these lignins were performed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and by 31P NMR. The results of the latter studies indicate that the content of free phenolic groups was more important in bark than in wood lignin. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analyses results suggested that the weight-average molecular mass of wood lignin was higher than that of bark lignin. The studied organosolv lignins were used for the preparation of particleboards as recovered and in combination with glyoxal or isocyanate. It was found that sugar maple bark lignin, as such or modified with isocyanate, was a more efficient adhesive than its wood counterpart. On the contrary, it was the organosolv wood lignin combined with glyoxal which was a more efficient adhesive than its bark counterpart. In combination with isocyanate, it was the sugar maple bark organosolv lignin which was determined to have the best adhesive performance of all studied lignins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Theoretical Confirmation of the Quinone Methide Hypothesis for the Condensation Reactions in Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin Synthesis
Polymers 2017, 9(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9020045
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 29 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanisms for the base-catalyzed condensation reactions in phenol-formaldehyde resin synthesis were investigated by using the density functional theory method. The structures of the intermediates and transition states, as well as the potential energy barriers of the involved reactions, were obtained. The hypothesis
[...] Read more.
The mechanisms for the base-catalyzed condensation reactions in phenol-formaldehyde resin synthesis were investigated by using the density functional theory method. The structures of the intermediates and transition states, as well as the potential energy barriers of the involved reactions, were obtained. The hypothesis of quinine methide (QM) formation was theoretically confirmed. Two mechanisms were identified for QM formation, namely E1cb (elimination unimolecular conjugate base) and water-aided intra-molecular water elimination. The latter is energetically more favorable and is proposed for the first time in this work. Based on the QM mechanism, the condensation should be a unimolecular reaction because the following condensation between an ionized species (dissociated phenol or hydroxymethylphenol) with QM is much faster. The previously proposed SN2 condensation mechanism was found to be not competitive over the QM mechanism due to a much higher energy barrier. The condensation reaction between neutral phenol or hydroxymethylphenol and QM was also found to be possible. The energy barrier of this reaction is close to or higher than that of QM formation. Therefore, the overall condensation reaction may appear to be bimolecular if such a reaction is incorporated. The theoretical calculations in this work rationalized the discrepant results reported in previous kinetics studies well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Ammoxidized Fenton-Activated Pine Kraft Lignin Accelerates Synthesis and Curing of Resole Resins
Polymers 2017, 9(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9020043
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 19 January 2017 / Accepted: 22 January 2017 / Published: 28 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ammoxidation of pine kraft lignin in aqueous 5 wt % ammonia affords a novel type of phenol substitute that significantly accelerates resole synthesis and curing as demonstrated for 40 wt % phenol replacement. Compared to non-ammoxidized lignin, which already shortens significantly the cooking
[...] Read more.
Ammoxidation of pine kraft lignin in aqueous 5 wt % ammonia affords a novel type of phenol substitute that significantly accelerates resole synthesis and curing as demonstrated for 40 wt % phenol replacement. Compared to non-ammoxidized lignin, which already shortens significantly the cooking time required to reach a resole viscosity of 1000 Pa·s (250 vs. 150 s) and reduces the typical curing B-time by about 25% at 100 °C, the use of ammoxidized lignin has an even more pronounced impact in this respect. Activation of lignin by Fenton-type oxidation prior to ammoxidation further boosts both synthesis and curing of the resole. This is presumably due to the intermediary formation of polyvalent cross-linkers like N,N,N-tris (methylol) trimethylene triamine triggered by saponification of a larger fraction of nitrogenous moieties present in such a treated lignin (ammonium salts, amide-type nitrogen, urea) and reaction of the released ammonia with formaldehyde. Except for the fact that phenol replacement by ammoxidized lignin results in a somewhat less brittle cured adhesive polymer and higher elastic modulus, the aforementioned acceleration in curing could no longer be observed in the presence of wood, where a significantly delayed wood-adhesive bond formation was observed for the lignin-containing adhesives as evident from the automated bonding evaluation system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Polycondensation Resins by Flavonoid Tannins Reaction with Amines
Polymers 2017, 9(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9020037
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 25 January 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Reaction of a condensed flavonoid tannin, namely mimosa tannin extract with a hexamethylene diamine, has been investigated. For that purpose, catechin was also used as a flavonoid model compound and treated in similar conditions. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle spinning (CP-MAS) carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance
[...] Read more.
Reaction of a condensed flavonoid tannin, namely mimosa tannin extract with a hexamethylene diamine, has been investigated. For that purpose, catechin was also used as a flavonoid model compound and treated in similar conditions. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle spinning (CP-MAS) carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectroscopy studies revealed that polycondensation compounds leading to resins were obtained by the reaction of the amines with the phenolic hydroxy groups of the tannin. Simultaneously, a second reaction leading to the formation of ionic bonds between the two groups occurred. These new reactions have been shown to clearly lead to the reaction of several phenolic hydroxyl groups, and flavonoid unit oligomerisation, to form hardened resins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Biochemical Modification on the Properties of Adhesive Compounds
Polymers 2017, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9010009
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 31 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of biochemical modification of epoxy adhesive compounds on the mechanical properties of a cured adhesive exposed to various climatic factors. The epoxy adhesive was modified by lyophilized fungal metabolites and prepared by
[...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of biochemical modification of epoxy adhesive compounds on the mechanical properties of a cured adhesive exposed to various climatic factors. The epoxy adhesive was modified by lyophilized fungal metabolites and prepared by three methods. Additionally, the adhesive compound specimens were seasoned for two months at a temperature of 50 °C and 50% humidity in a climate test chamber, Espec SH 661. The tensile strength tests of the adhesive compounds were performed using a Zwick/Roell Z150 testing machine in compliance with the DIN EN ISO 527-1 standard. The examination of the adhesive specimens was performed using two microscopes: a LEO 912AB transmission electron microscope equipped with Quantax 200 for EDS X-ray spectroscopy and a Zeiss 510 META confocal microscope coupled to an AxioVert 200M. The experiments involved the use of a CT Skyscan 1172 tomograph. The results revealed that some mechanical properties of the modified adhesives were significantly affected by both the method of preparation of the adhesive compound and the content of the modifying agent. In addition, it was found that seasoning of the modified adhesives does not lead to a decrease in some of their mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Sustainable Phenolic Fractions as Basis for Furfuryl Alcohol-Based Co-Polymers and Their Use as Wood Adhesives
Polymers 2016, 8(11), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8110396
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Furfuryl alcohol is a very interesting green molecule used in the production of biopolymers. In the present paper, the copolymerization in acid environment with natural, easily-available, phenolic derivatives is investigated. The processes of polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol with: (i) spent-liquor from the
[...] Read more.
Furfuryl alcohol is a very interesting green molecule used in the production of biopolymers. In the present paper, the copolymerization in acid environment with natural, easily-available, phenolic derivatives is investigated. The processes of polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol with: (i) spent-liquor from the pulping industry and (ii) commercial tannin from acacia mimosa were investigated though viscometry and IR-spectroscopy. The curing kinetics of the formulations highlighted the importance of the amount of furfuryl alcohol and catalyst as well as the effect of temperature for both phenolic-furanic polymers. Evidence of covalent copolymerization has been observed through infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmed with additional solubility tests. These bio-based formulations were applied as adhesives for solid wood and particleboards with interesting results: at 180 °C, the spent-liquor furanic formulations allow wood bonding slightly with lower performance than PVA in dry conditions, while mixed formulations allow the gluing of particleboard with only satisfactory internal bonding tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle High Bonding Temperatures Greatly Improve Soy Adhesive Wet Strength
Polymers 2016, 8(11), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8110394
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1143 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soy wood adhesive bond strengths reported in different literature studies are difficult to compare because a variety of temperatures and other conditions have been used for the bonding and testing step. Some reports have indicated bond strengths are sensitive to bonding temperature, but
[...] Read more.
Soy wood adhesive bond strengths reported in different literature studies are difficult to compare because a variety of temperatures and other conditions have been used for the bonding and testing step. Some reports have indicated bond strengths are sensitive to bonding temperature, but the reason(s) for this has not been intensively investigated. Although these prior studies differ in other ways (such as type of soy, wood species, and test method), the effect of bonding temperature has not been clearly examined, which is important for focusing commercial applications. A tensile shear test using two-parallel-ply veneer specimens with smooth maple was used to measure both the dry and wet cohesive strength of soy adhesives. Although the soy adhesives gave very good strengths and dry wood failure, they often have low wood failure and shear strengths under wet conditions when bonded at 120 °C. However, wet strength greatly increased as the bonding temperature increased (120, 150 and 180 °C) for these two-ply tests with. This study examined the use of different types of soys (flours, concentrates and isolates) and different bonding temperatures and bonding conditions to evacuate several possible mechanisms for this temperature sensitivity, with coalescence being the most likely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle A 13C-NMR Study on the 1,3-Dimethylolurea-Phenol Co-Condensation Reaction: A Model for Amino-Phenolic Co-Condensed Resin Synthesis
Polymers 2016, 8(11), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8110391
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1608 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The reactions of di-hydroxymethylurea with phenol under alkaline (pH = 10), weak (pH = 6) and strong acidic (pH = 2) conditions were investigated via the 13C-NMR method. Based on the proposed reaction mechanisms, the variations of the structures of different condensed
[...] Read more.
The reactions of di-hydroxymethylurea with phenol under alkaline (pH = 10), weak (pH = 6) and strong acidic (pH = 2) conditions were investigated via the 13C-NMR method. Based on the proposed reaction mechanisms, the variations of the structures of different condensed products were analyzed and the competitive relationship between self- and co-condensation reactions was elucidated. The required experimental conditions for co-condensations were clearly pointed out. The main conclusions include: (1) the self-condensation between urea formaldehyde (UF) or phenol formaldehyde (PF) monomers were dominant while the co-condensations were very limited under alkaline conditions. This is because the intermediates produced from urea, methylolurea and phenol are less reactive in co-condensations with respect to self-condensations; (2) under weak acidic conditions, the self-condensations occurred exclusively among the UF monomers. The co-condensation structures were not observed; and (3) the co-condensations became much more competitive under strong acidic conditions as the relative content of the co-condensed methylenic carbon accounts for 53.3%. This result can be rationalized by the high reactivity of the methylolphenol carbocation intermediate toward urea and methylolurea. The revealed reaction selectivity and mechanisms may also be applied to the synthesis of those more complex co-condensed adhesives based on natural phenolic and amino compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Low Density Wood-Based Particleboards Bonded with Foamable Sour Cassava Starch: Preliminary Studies
Polymers 2016, 8(10), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8100354
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 8 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work investigates the feasibility of producing low density particleboards using an adhesive system based on sour cassava starch, taking advantage of its adhesive and self-expansion properties. Relevant properties of the produced particleboards were evaluated according to European Standards including: density, internal bond,
[...] Read more.
This work investigates the feasibility of producing low density particleboards using an adhesive system based on sour cassava starch, taking advantage of its adhesive and self-expansion properties. Relevant properties of the produced particleboards were evaluated according to European Standards including: density, internal bond, moisture content and thickness swelling. Low density particleboards were produced with densities between 207 kg/m3 and 407 kg/m3. The best performance corresponded to particleboard with a density of 318 kg/m3, an internal bond strength of 0.67 N/mm2, and a thickness swelling of 8.7%. These values meet the standard requirements of general purpose lightweight boards for use in dry conditions. Heat post-treatment (24 h at 80 °C) led to lower internal bond strength, due to retrogradation (recrystallization of amylose and amylopectin chains upon cooling) causing higher rigidity of the starch binder. However, it showed to have a significant effect on decreasing the thickness swelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle A New Flexible Soy-Based Adhesive Enhanced with Neopentyl Glycol Diglycidyl Ether: Properties and Application
Polymers 2016, 8(9), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8090346
Received: 19 June 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soy-based adhesives inherently possess low water resistance and brittleness, which limit their application on plywood fabrication. This investigation involves using a long chain cross-linker, neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether (NGDE), to produce an intrinsic toughening effect to reduce the brittleness and improve the water
[...] Read more.
Soy-based adhesives inherently possess low water resistance and brittleness, which limit their application on plywood fabrication. This investigation involves using a long chain cross-linker, neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether (NGDE), to produce an intrinsic toughening effect to reduce the brittleness and improve the water resistance of a soybean meal–based adhesive. The solids content, viscosity, functional groups, fracture surface micrographs, and thermal stability of the adhesives were measured. Three-layer plywood was fabricated using the resultant adhesive, and the tensile shear strength of the plywood was measured. All adhesive properties were compared with a soybean meal/polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE) adhesive and commercial melamine urea formaldehyde resin. The results showed that adding 6 g NGDE improved the water resistance of the soybean meal-based adhesive by 12.5%. This improvement is attributed to the following reasons: (1) a dense cross-linked network is formed by the chemical reaction between NGDE and protein molecules; (2) the toughness of the adhesive increases and a smooth and homogeneous fracture surface is created, which effectively prevents moisture intrusion; (3) the addition of NGDE increases the thermostability of the cured adhesive. The tensile shear strength of the plywood bonded with the soybean meal-based adhesive with 6 g NGDE was 286.2% higher than that without NGDE and attained 1.12 MPa, which was attributed to the reduction in the adhesive’s viscosity, and the improvement in the water resistance and toughness of the adhesive. The tensile shear strength of the plywood bonded with 6 g NGDE was 19.1% higher than that with 6 g PAE and was similar to the MUF resin, which validated the novel adhesive being suitable for use as an industrial plywood adhesive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Organosolv Lignin-Based Wood Adhesive. Influence of the Lignin Extraction Conditions on the Adhesive Performance
Polymers 2016, 8(9), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8090340
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 30 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ethanol organosolv alfa grass lignins were extracted in the presence of sulfuric acid or Lewis acids (Sc(OTf)3, FeCl3) as catalysts and subjected to a comprehensive structural characterization by solid state 13C NMR, GPC, MALDI-TOF, and ASAP-MS/MS. The impact
[...] Read more.
Ethanol organosolv alfa grass lignins were extracted in the presence of sulfuric acid or Lewis acids (Sc(OTf)3, FeCl3) as catalysts and subjected to a comprehensive structural characterization by solid state 13C NMR, GPC, MALDI-TOF, and ASAP-MS/MS. The impact of the severity of the treatment and of the nature of the acid catalyst on the recovered lignin structure was investigated. The lignins isolated at high severity were highly recondensed and partly composed of regular structures composed of furan-like rings. The alfa (Stipa tenacissima L.) organosolv lignins were used for the preparation of formaldehyde-free adhesives which were characterized by TMA and used for the preparation of particleboard without any addition of synthetic resin. It has been demonstrated for the first time that: (1) the addition of 10% to 30% of organosolv alfa lignin in a tannin-based adhesive improved the adhesive performance; and (2) the conditions of the lignin extraction strongly impact the lignin-based adhesive performances. The highly recondensed lignin extracted with sulfuric acid as a catalyst allowed the production of resins with improved performances. Formulations composed of 50% glyoxalated alfa lignin and 50% of Aleppo Pine tannins yielded good internal bond strength results for the panels (IB = 0.45 MPa) and satisfied relevant international standard specifications for interior-grade panels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Properties of Waterborne Polyurethane (WBPU)/Modified Lignin Amine (MLA) Adhesive: A Promising Adhesive Material
Polymers 2016, 8(9), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8090318
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 August 2016 / Published: 25 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of waterborne polyurethane (WBPU)/modified lignin amine (MLA) adhesives was prepared using MLA as a chain extender by a prepolymer mixing process. A successful Mannich reaction was achieved during the synthesis of MLA by reacting lignin with bis(3-aminopropyl)amine. Higher tensile strength, Young’s
[...] Read more.
A series of waterborne polyurethane (WBPU)/modified lignin amine (MLA) adhesives was prepared using MLA as a chain extender by a prepolymer mixing process. A successful Mannich reaction was achieved during the synthesis of MLA by reacting lignin with bis(3-aminopropyl)amine. Higher tensile strength, Young’s modulus, and thermal stability were recorded for WBPU/MLA adhesives with higher MLA contents. The WBPU/MLA adhesive materials were used to coat polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrates. The adhesive strength increased with increasing MLA content. More importantly, the MLA also enhanced the WBPU/MLA coating in terms of adhesive strength at moderately high temperatures as well as under natural weather exposed conditions. The adhesive strength was essentially unaffected with 6.48 mol % MLA in the WBPU/MLA coating after exposure to natural weather conditions for 180 days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Optimized Synthesis According to One-Step Process of a Biobased Thermoplastic Polyacetal Derived from Isosorbide
Polymers 2016, 8(8), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8080294
Received: 7 June 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes both the synthesis and characterization of a biobased and non-aromatic polyacetal produced from the reaction between isosorbide and methylene chloride. The reaction was conducted in an aprotic dipolar and harmless solvent using a one-step, fast and economical procedure. The chemical
[...] Read more.
This paper describes both the synthesis and characterization of a biobased and non-aromatic polyacetal produced from the reaction between isosorbide and methylene chloride. The reaction was conducted in an aprotic dipolar and harmless solvent using a one-step, fast and economical procedure. The chemical composition of this polymer was investigated using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopies. The molecular weights were examined by size exclusion chromatography and MALDI-TOF spectrometry. The synthesis conditions (concentration, mixing speed, solvent nature, stoichiometry, addition mode of one reactan) were found to strongly influence both polymer architecture and reaction yield. Under moderated stirring conditions, the polyacetal was characterized by a larger amount of macro-cycles. Inversely, under higher intensity mixing and with an excess of methylene chloride, it was mainly composed of linear chains. In this latter case, the polymeric material presented an amorphous morphology with a glass transition temperature (Tg) close to 55 °C. Its degradation temperature was evaluated to be close to 215 °C using thermogravimetry according to multi-ramp methodology. The chemical approach and the physicochemical properties are valuable in comparison with that characteristic of other isosorbide-based polyacetals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle A Bio Polymeric Adhesive Produced by Photo Cross-Linkable Technique
Polymers 2016, 8(8), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8080292
Received: 22 May 2016 / Revised: 23 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4557 KB) | HTML Full-textRetraction
Abstract
The advantages of photo polymerization methods compared to thermal techniques are: rapid cure reactions, low energy demands, solvent free requirements and room temperature use. In order to form a macromer, polycaprolactone (PCL) was cross-linked via ultraviolet power with 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate. Different methods of
[...] Read more.
The advantages of photo polymerization methods compared to thermal techniques are: rapid cure reactions, low energy demands, solvent free requirements and room temperature use. In order to form a macromer, polycaprolactone (PCL) was cross-linked via ultraviolet power with 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate. Different methods of characterization were carried out: estimation of swelling capacity, adhesive capacity (using aminated substrates), surface energy (by contact angle), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared. In addition to these experiments, we carried out dynamical mechanical thermal analysis, thermogravimetry and thermorphology characterizations of PCL. Thus, it has been concluded that the prepared macromer could be transformed into membranes that were effective as a medical adhesive. The degree of cross linking has been estimated using two different techniques: swelling of the samples and photo cross linking of the samples with different periods of irradiation at relatively high UV-power (600 mW/cm2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancing the Adhesive Strength of a Plywood Adhesive Developed from Hydrolyzed Specified Risk Materials
Polymers 2016, 8(8), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8080285
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 8 August 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current production of wood composites relies mostly on formaldehyde-based adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins. As these resins are produced from non-renewable resources, and there are some ongoing issues with possible health hazard due to formaldehyde emission
[...] Read more.
The current production of wood composites relies mostly on formaldehyde-based adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins. As these resins are produced from non-renewable resources, and there are some ongoing issues with possible health hazard due to formaldehyde emission from such products, the purpose of this research was to develop a formaldehyde-free plywood adhesive utilizing waste protein as a renewable feedstock. The feedstock for this work was specified risk material (SRM), which is currently being disposed of either by incineration or by landfilling. In this report, we describe a technology for utilization of SRM for the development of an environmentally friendly plywood adhesive. SRM was thermally hydrolyzed using a Canadian government-approved protocol, and the peptides were recovered from the hydrolyzate. The recovered peptides were chemically crosslinked with polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE) resin to develop an adhesive system for bonding of plywood specimens. The effects of crosslinking time, peptides/crosslinking agent ratio, and temperature of hot pressing of plywood specimens on the strength of formulated adhesives were investigated. Formulations containing as much as 78% (wt/wt) peptides met the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) specifications of minimum dry and soaked shear strength requirement for UF resin type adhesives. Under the optimum conditions tested, the peptides–PAE resin-based formulations resulted in plywood specimens having comparable dry as well as soaked shear strength to that of commercial PF resin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Study of Water-Based Lithium Titanate Electrode Processing: The Role of pH and Binder Molecular Structure
Polymers 2016, 8(8), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8080276
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 22 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 2 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This work elucidates the manufacturing of lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12, LTO) electrodes via the aqueous process using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG) or pectin as binders. To avoid aluminum current collector dissolution due to the rising slurries’
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This work elucidates the manufacturing of lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12, LTO) electrodes via the aqueous process using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG) or pectin as binders. To avoid aluminum current collector dissolution due to the rising slurries’ pH, phosphoric acid (PA) is used as a pH-modifier. The electrodes are characterized in terms of morphology, adhesion strength and electrochemical performance. In the absence of phosphoric acid, hydrogen evolution occurs upon coating the slurry onto the aluminum substrate, resulting in the formation of cavities in the coated electrode, as well as poor cohesion on the current collector itself. Consequently, the electrochemical performance of the coated electrodes is also improved by the addition of PA in the slurries. At a 5C rate, CMC/PA-based electrodes delivered 144 mAh·g−1, while PA-free electrodes reached only 124 mAh·g−1. When GG and pectin are used as binders, the adhesion of the coated layers to the current collector is reduced; however, the electrodes show comparable, if not slightly better, electrochemical performance than those based on CMC. Full lithium-ion cells, utilizing CMC/PA-made Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2 (NMC) cathodes and LTO anodes offer a stable discharge capacity of ~120 mAh·g−1(NMC) with high coulombic efficiencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Oxidized Xanthan Gum and Chitosan as Natural Adhesives for Cork
Polymers 2016, 8(7), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8070259
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
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Abstract
Natural cork stopper manufacturing produces a significant amount of cork waste, which is granulated and combined with synthetic glues for use in a wide range of applications. There is a high demand for using biosourced polymers in these composite materials. In this study,
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Natural cork stopper manufacturing produces a significant amount of cork waste, which is granulated and combined with synthetic glues for use in a wide range of applications. There is a high demand for using biosourced polymers in these composite materials. In this study, xanthan gum (XG) and chitosan (CS) were investigated as possible natural binders for cork. Xanthan gum was oxidized at two different aldehyde contents as a strategy to improve its water resistance. This modification was studied in detail by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and the degree of oxidation was determined by the hydroxylamine hydrochloride titration method. The performance of the adhesives was studied by tensile tests and total soluble matter (TSM) determinations. Xanthan gum showed no water resistance, contrary to oxidized xanthan gum and chitosan. It is hypothesized that the good performance of oxidized xanthan gum is due to the reaction of aldehyde groups—formed in the oxidation process—with hydroxyl groups on the cork surface during the high temperature drying. Combining oxidized xanthan gum with chitosan did not yield significant improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Soy Protein-Based Wood Adhesive Modified by Hydroxymethyl Phenol
Polymers 2016, 8(7), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8070256
Received: 17 May 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 12 July 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To explain the reason why using phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin improves the water resistance of soy-based adhesive, the performance of soy-based adhesive cross-linked with hydroxymethyl phenol (HPF) and the reaction between HPF and a common dipeptide N-(2)-l-alanyl-l-glutamine (AG) being
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To explain the reason why using phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin improves the water resistance of soy-based adhesive, the performance of soy-based adhesive cross-linked with hydroxymethyl phenol (HPF) and the reaction between HPF and a common dipeptide N-(2)-l-alanyl-l-glutamine (AG) being used as a model compound were studied in this paper. The DSC and DMA results indicated the reaction between HPF and soy-based adhesive. The soy-based adhesive cross-linked with HPF cured at a lower temperature than the adhesive without HPF. The former showed better mechanical performance and heat resistance than the latter. The ESI-MS, FT-IR and 13C-NMR results proved the reaction between HPF and AG. Because of the existence of branched ether groups in the 13C-NMR results of HPF/AG, the reaction between HPF and AG might mainly happened between hydroxymethyl groups and amino groups under a basic condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Resin Matrix with Two Photoinitiator Systems in Dental Adhesives
Polymers 2016, 8(7), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8070250
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 1 July 2016
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Abstract
This study evaluated the physical and mechanical properties of resin matrices in dental adhesives with two photoinitiator systems. Resin matrix specimens were made with five different kinds of photoinitiators. Neat resin consisted of 60% 2,2-bis[4-2(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA) and 40% hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) by weight,
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This study evaluated the physical and mechanical properties of resin matrices in dental adhesives with two photoinitiator systems. Resin matrix specimens were made with five different kinds of photoinitiators. Neat resin consisted of 60% 2,2-bis[4-2(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA) and 40% hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) by weight, along with camphorquinone (CQ, 1 mol %) and additional components (1 mol % each) as follows: Group 1, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA); Group 2, ethyl-4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (EDMAB); Group 3, diphenyliodonium hexafluorphosphate (DPIHFP); Group 4, DMAEMA+DPIHFP; Group 5, EDMAB+DPIHFP. The degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength, flexural modulus, microhardness, and ultimate tensile strength were tested. The contribution of each photoinitiator to the DC in a selected group was analyzed with contour plots. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05) were used for statistical analyses. The DC of Groups 2, 4, and 5 was similar. The flexural strength was similar in all groups, but flexural modulus was significantly different. Group 3 had the lowest values for all physical and mechanical properties. Among all methods, the microhardness test revealed the greatest degree of difference among the five specimens. CQ, EDMAB, and DPIHFP were the most effective photoinitiators and CQ was the most influential factor for the DC rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Demethylation of Wheat Straw Alkali Lignin for Application in Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesives
Polymers 2016, 8(6), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8060209
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 30 May 2016
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Abstract
Lignin is a natural biopolymer with a complex three-dimensional network. It is the second most abundant natural polymer on earth. Commercially, lignin is largely obtained from the waste liquors of pulping and bioethanol productions. In this study, wheat straw alkali lignin (WSAL) was
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Lignin is a natural biopolymer with a complex three-dimensional network. It is the second most abundant natural polymer on earth. Commercially, lignin is largely obtained from the waste liquors of pulping and bioethanol productions. In this study, wheat straw alkali lignin (WSAL) was demethylated by using an in-situ generated Lewis acid under an optimized demethylation process. The demethylation process was monitored by a semi-quantitative Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) method. The demethylated wheat straw alkali lignin (D-WSAL) was further characterized by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), and titration methods. After the demethylation process, it was found that the relative value of the methoxy group decreased significantly from 0.82 to 0.17 and the phenolic hydroxyl group increased from 5.2% to 16.0%. Meanwhile, the hydroxyl content increased from 6.6% to 10.3%. GPC results suggested that the weighted averaged molecular weight of D-WSAL was lower than that of WSAL with a smaller polydispersity index. The D-WSAL was then used to replace 60 wt % of phenol to prepare lignin-based phenol formaldehyde adhesives (D-LPF). It was found that both the free formaldehyde content and the free phenol content in D-LPF were less than those of the lignin-based phenol formaldehyde adhesives without lignin demethylation (LPF). Gel time of D-LPF was shortened. Furthermore, the wet and dry bonding strengths of lap shear wood samples bonded using D-LPF were higher than those of the samples bonded using LPF. Therefore, D-WSAL has shown good potential for application in phenol formaldehyde adhesives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Mechanism of Metal-Mediated Polymerization of Phenolic Resins
Polymers 2016, 8(5), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8050159
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (5232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin is a high performance adhesive, but has not been widely developed due to its slow curing rate and high curing temperature. To accelerate the curing rate and to lower the curing temperature of PF resin, four types of metal-mediated catalysts
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Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin is a high performance adhesive, but has not been widely developed due to its slow curing rate and high curing temperature. To accelerate the curing rate and to lower the curing temperature of PF resin, four types of metal-mediated catalysts were employed in the synthesis of PF resin; namely, barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), lithium hydroxide (LiOH), and zinc acetate ((CH3COO)2Zn). The cure-acceleration effects of these catalysts on the properties of PF resins were measured, and the chemical structures of the PF resins accelerated with the catalysts were investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and quantitative liquid carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR). The results showed that the accelerated efficiency of these catalysts to PF resin could be ordered in the following sequence: Na2CO3 > (CH3COO)2Zn > Ba(OH)2 > LiOH. The catalysts (CH3COO)2Zn and Na2CO3 increased the reaction activity of the phenol ortho position and the condensation reaction of ortho methylol. The accelerating mechanism of (CH3COO)2Zn on PF resin is probably different from that of Na2CO3, which can be confirmed by the differences in the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curve and thermogravimetric (TG) data. Compared to the Na2CO3-accelerated PF resin, the (CH3COO)2Zn-accelerated PF resin showed different peaks in the DTG curve and higher weight residues. In the synthesis process, the catalyst (CH3COO)2Zn may form chelating compounds (containing a metal-ligand bond), which can promote the linkage of formaldehyde to the phenolic hydroxyl ortho position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Bio-Based Resin Reinforced with Flax Fiber as Thermorheologically Complex Materials
Polymers 2016, 8(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8040153
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 6 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4080 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the increase in structural applications of bio-based composites, the study of long-term creep behavior of these materials turns into a significant issue. Because of their bond type and structure, natural fibers and thermoset resins exhibit nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) provides
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With the increase in structural applications of bio-based composites, the study of long-term creep behavior of these materials turns into a significant issue. Because of their bond type and structure, natural fibers and thermoset resins exhibit nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) provides a useful tool to overcome the challenge of the long time required to perform the tests. The TTS principle assumes that the effect of temperature and time are equivalent when considering the creep behavior, therefore creep tests performed at elevated temperatures may be converted to tests performed at longer times. In this study, flax fiber composites were processed with a novel liquid molding methacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate (MESS) resin. Frequency scans of flax/MESS composites were obtained at different temperatures and storage modulus and loss modulus were recorded and the application of horizontal and vertical shift factors to these viscoelastic functions were studied. In addition, short-term strain creep at different temperatures was measured and curves were shifted with solely horizontal, and with both horizontal and vertical shift factors. The resulting master curves were compared with a 24-h creep test and two extrapolated creep models. The findings revealed that use of both horizontal and vertical shift factors will result in a smoother master curves for loss modulus and storage modulus, while use of only horizontal shift factors for creep data provides acceptable creep strain master curves. Based on the findings of this study, flax/MESS composites can be considered as thermorheologically complex materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis and Testing of Bisphenol A—Free Bio-Based Tannin Epoxy-Acrylic Adhesives
Polymers 2016, 8(4), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8040143
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3760 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A tannin-based epoxy acrylate resin was prepared from glycidyl ether tannin (GET) and acrylic acid. The influence of the reaction condition for producing tannin epoxy acrylate was studied by FT-MIR, 13C-NMR, MALDI-TOF spectroscopy and shear strength. The best reaction conditions for producing
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A tannin-based epoxy acrylate resin was prepared from glycidyl ether tannin (GET) and acrylic acid. The influence of the reaction condition for producing tannin epoxy acrylate was studied by FT-MIR, 13C-NMR, MALDI-TOF spectroscopy and shear strength. The best reaction conditions for producing tannin epoxy acrylate resin without bisphenol A was by reaction between GET and acrylic acid in the presence of a catalyst and hydroquinone at 95 °C for 12 h. FT-MIR, 13C-NMR and MALDI-TOF analysis have confirmed that the resin has been prepared under these conditions. The joints bonded with this resin were tested for block shear strength. The results obtained indicated that the best strength performance was obtained by the bioepoxy-acrylate adhesive resin prepared at 95 °C for a 12-h reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Mussel-Inspired Anisotropic Nanocellulose and Silver Nanoparticle Composite with Improved Mechanical Properties, Electrical Conductivity and Antibacterial Activity
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030102
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 6 March 2016 / Accepted: 16 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (3893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Materials for wearable devices, tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications require both antibacterial activity to prevent bacterial infection and biofilm formation, and electrical conductivity to electric signals inside and outside of the human body. Recently, cellulose nanofibers have been utilized for various applications but
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Materials for wearable devices, tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications require both antibacterial activity to prevent bacterial infection and biofilm formation, and electrical conductivity to electric signals inside and outside of the human body. Recently, cellulose nanofibers have been utilized for various applications but cellulose itself has neither antibacterial activity nor conductivity. Here, an antibacterial and electrically conductive composite was formed by generating catechol mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the surface of cellulose nanofibers. The chemically immobilized catechol moiety on the nanofibrous cellulose network reduced Ag+ to form AgNPs on the cellulose nanofiber. The AgNPs cellulose composite showed excellent antibacterial efficacy against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the catechol conjugation and the addition of AgNP induced anisotropic self-alignment of the cellulose nanofibers which enhances electrical and mechanical properties of the composite. Therefore, the composite containing AgNPs and anisotropic aligned the cellulose nanofiber may be useful for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle Acid Ionic Liquids as a New Hardener in Urea-Glyoxal Adhesive Resins
Polymers 2016, 8(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8030057
Received: 23 January 2016 / Revised: 8 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (8641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of acidic ionic liquid (IL) as a new catalyst on the properties of wood-based panels bonded with urea-glyoxal (UG) resins was investigated. Different levels of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone hydrogen sulfate ([HNMP] HSO4 (0, 1, 2, 3 wt %)) were added to
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The effect of acidic ionic liquid (IL) as a new catalyst on the properties of wood-based panels bonded with urea-glyoxal (UG) resins was investigated. Different levels of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone hydrogen sulfate ([HNMP] HSO4 (0, 1, 2, 3 wt %)) were added to prepared UG resin. The resin was then used for preparing laboratory particleboard panels. Then, the properties of the prepared panels were evaluated. The structure of the prepared UG resin was studied by 13C NMR, and thermal curing behavior of the resin before and after the addition of IL was measured by DSC. Additionally, the main oligomers formed in the UG reaction were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI TOF) mass spectroscopy. The results indicated that IL can be used as an efficient catalyst for UG resin. The physicochemical tests indicated that the addition of [HNMP] HSO4 from 0 to 3 wt % decreased the pH value of the glue-mix, and the pH decreased on curing to the same level as urea-formaldehyde resins. The gel accelerated with increasing catalyst content and with the decreasing of the pH in the UG resin. The panels prepared with IL had higher mechanical strength and dimensional stability compared to those made from UG resins containing NH4Cl. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that the panels prepared with ionic liquid presented low porous. DSC analysis showed that the addition of IL to the UG resin decrease the energy of activation of the curing reaction to render possible cross-linking. The MALDI TOF results indicated a preponderant linearity of the oligomers formed, implying a high energy of activation of curing for UG resins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessReview Bio-Based Adhesives and Evaluation for Wood Composites Application
Polymers 2017, 9(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9020070
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2080 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been a rapid growth in research and innovation of bio-based adhesives in the engineered wood product industry. This article reviews the recent research published over the last few decades on the synthesis of bio-adhesives derived from such renewable resources as lignin,
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There has been a rapid growth in research and innovation of bio-based adhesives in the engineered wood product industry. This article reviews the recent research published over the last few decades on the synthesis of bio-adhesives derived from such renewable resources as lignin, starch, and plant proteins. The chemical structure of these biopolymers is described and discussed to highlight the active functional groups that are used in the synthesis of bio-adhesives. The potentials and drawbacks of each biomass are then discussed in detail; some methods have been suggested to modify their chemical structures and to improve their properties including water resistance and bonding strength for their ultimate application as wood adhesives. Moreover, this article includes discussion of techniques commonly used for evaluating the petroleum-based wood adhesives in terms of mechanical properties and penetration behavior, which are expected to be more widely applied to bio-based wood adhesives to better evaluate their prospect for wood composites application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessReview Polymers in Carbon Dots: A Review
Polymers 2017, 9(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9020067
Received: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (4608 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon dots (CDs) have been widely studied since their discovery in 2004 as a green substitute of the traditional quantum dots due to their excellent photoluminescence (PL) and high biocompatibility. Meanwhile, polymers have increasingly become an important component for both synthesis and modification
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Carbon dots (CDs) have been widely studied since their discovery in 2004 as a green substitute of the traditional quantum dots due to their excellent photoluminescence (PL) and high biocompatibility. Meanwhile, polymers have increasingly become an important component for both synthesis and modification of CDs to provide polymeric matrix and enhance their PL property. Furthermore, critical analysis of composites of CDs and polymers has not been available. Herein, in this review, we summarized the use of polymers in the synthesis and functionalization of CDs, and the applications of these CDs in various fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessReview Process, Design and Materials for Unidirectionally Tilted Polymeric Micro/Nanohairs and Their Adhesion Characteristics
Polymers 2016, 8(9), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8090326
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 18 August 2016 / Accepted: 29 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
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Abstract
Recent research in the field of gecko-inspired dry adhesive has focused on modifying the material and structural properties of polymer-based nanohairs. Polymers such as polystyrene (PS), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), ultraviolet curable epoxy (SU-8), polyurethane acrylate (PUA), polycarbonate (PC), and polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) can
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Recent research in the field of gecko-inspired dry adhesive has focused on modifying the material and structural properties of polymer-based nanohairs. Polymers such as polystyrene (PS), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), ultraviolet curable epoxy (SU-8), polyurethane acrylate (PUA), polycarbonate (PC), and polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) can fulfill many mechanical property requirements, are easily tunable, and can be produced via large-scale fabrication. However, the fabrication process for tilted structure remains challenging. The tilted structure is a crucial factor in high-degree conformal contact, which facilitates high adhesion, low effective modulus, and directional adhesion properties. Recent studies have attempted to create a tilted structure by applying beam irradiation, mechanical and thermal stress, and magnetic fields. This review provides a comprehensive investigation into advanced strategies for producing tilted polymeric nanostructures and their potential applications in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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Open AccessReview Milk Protein Polymer and Its Application in Environmentally Safe Adhesives
Polymers 2016, 8(9), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8090324
Received: 26 June 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Milk proteins (caseins and whey proteins) are important protein sources for human nutrition; in addition, they possess important natural polymers. These protein molecules can be modified by physical, chemical, and/or enzymatic means. Casein is one of the oldest natural polymers, used for adhesives,
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Milk proteins (caseins and whey proteins) are important protein sources for human nutrition; in addition, they possess important natural polymers. These protein molecules can be modified by physical, chemical, and/or enzymatic means. Casein is one of the oldest natural polymers, used for adhesives, dating back to thousands years ago. Research on milk-protein-based adhesives is still ongoing. This article deals with the chemistry and structure of milk protein polymers, and examples of uses in environmentally-safe adhesives. These are promising routes in the exploration of the broad application of milk proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
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