Next Article in Journal
Low-Field NMR Relaxometry for Intraoperative Tumour Margin Assessment in Breast-Conserving Surgery
Next Article in Special Issue
Overcoming Immune Resistance in Prostate Cancer: Challenges and Advances
Previous Article in Journal
Pancreatic Cancer and Immunotherapy: A Clinical Overview
Previous Article in Special Issue
Geospatial Cellular Distribution of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Significantly Impacts Clinical Outcomes in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Review

Clearing up Clear Cell: Clarifying the Immuno-Oncology Treatment Landscape for Metastatic Clear Cell RCC

Section of Urologic Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Amirali Salmasi and Klaas Kok
Cancers 2021, 13(16), 4140; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164140
Received: 26 June 2021 / Revised: 28 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Immunotherapy for Genitourinary Malignancies)
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common cancer of the kidney. Historically, patients with disease extending beyond the kidney had poor oncologic outcomes. However, discovery of the underlying causes of RCC and the creation of therapeutic agents to target these pathways has revolutionized the management of metastatic RCC. Application of these agents alone or in combination with surgery continue to show encouraging results. In this review, we explore the clinical trial landscape of metastatic RCC, specifically the clear cell type, with particular emphasis on current and upcoming trials utilizing immunotherapeutic agents.
Patients with advanced or malignant renal cell carcinoma at the time of diagnosis have historically had a poor prognosis. Immunonologic agents have significantly altered the therapeutic landscape and clinical outcomes of these patients. In this review, we highlight recent and upcoming clinical trials investigating the role of immunotherapies in clear cell RCC. In particular, we emphasize immunotherapy-based combinations, including immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combinations, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant ICI, and ICI agents combined with anti-VEGF therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: renal cell carcinoma; immunotherapy; kidney cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitors renal cell carcinoma; immunotherapy; kidney cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitors
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Doppalapudi, S.K.; Leopold, Z.R.; Thaper, A.; Kaldany, A.; Chua, K.; Patel, H.V.; Srivastava, A.; Singer, E.A. Clearing up Clear Cell: Clarifying the Immuno-Oncology Treatment Landscape for Metastatic Clear Cell RCC. Cancers 2021, 13, 4140. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164140

AMA Style

Doppalapudi SK, Leopold ZR, Thaper A, Kaldany A, Chua K, Patel HV, Srivastava A, Singer EA. Clearing up Clear Cell: Clarifying the Immuno-Oncology Treatment Landscape for Metastatic Clear Cell RCC. Cancers. 2021; 13(16):4140. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164140

Chicago/Turabian Style

Doppalapudi, Sai K., Zev R. Leopold, Akshay Thaper, Alain Kaldany, Kevin Chua, Hiren V. Patel, Arnav Srivastava, and Eric A. Singer. 2021. "Clearing up Clear Cell: Clarifying the Immuno-Oncology Treatment Landscape for Metastatic Clear Cell RCC" Cancers 13, no. 16: 4140. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164140

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop