Next Article in Journal
An Exercise‐Only Intervention in Obese Fathers Restores Glucose and Insulin Regulation in Conjunction with the Rescue of Pancreatic Islet Cell Morphology and MicroRNA Expression in Male Offspring
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Acute Blueberry Flavonoids on Mood in Children and Young Adults
Previous Article in Journal
Lutein and Zeaxanthin—Food Sources, Bioavailability and Dietary Variety in Age‐Related Macular Degeneration Protection
Previous Article in Special Issue
Towards an Understanding of the Low Bioavailability of Quercetin: A Study of Its Interaction with Intestinal Lipids
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Impact of Flavonols on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers: A Meta‐Analysis of Randomized Controlled Human Trials to Explore the Role of Inter‐Individual Variability

BET/ITQB, Molecular Nutrition & Health Laboratory, 2780‐157 Oeiras, Portugal
Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, London SE1 9NH, UK
FAME Laboratory, School of Exercise Science, University of Thessaly, 42100 Volos, Greece
CEBAS‐CSIC, E‐30100 Murcia, Spain
Unilever R&D, 3133AT Vlaardingen, The Netherlands
University of Nicosia, CY1700 Engomi, Cyprus
Biomarkers and Nutrimetabolomic Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Gastronomy, Campus Torribera, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, CIBER de Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERFES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
INRA, UMR 1019, UNH, CRNH Auvergne, F‐63000 Clermont‐Ferrand, Clermont Université, Université d’Auvergne, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, BP 10448, F‐63000 Clermont‐Ferrand, France
University College Dublin, D4 Dublin, Ireland
Université Lille, INSERM, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1167—RID‐AGE—Facteurs de Risque et Déterminants Moléculaires des Maladies Liées au Vieillissement, F‐59000 Lille, France
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK
Human Nutrition, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G31 2ER, UK
Goce Delcev University, 2000 Stip, Macedonia
Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, ESA, Department of Food Technology, Biotechnology and Nutrition, 2001‐904 Santarém, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 117;
Received: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
PDF [2217 KB, uploaded 14 February 2017]


Several epidemiological studies have linked flavonols with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, some heterogeneity in the individual physiological responses to the consumption of these compounds has been identified. This meta‐analysis aimed to study the effect of flavonol supplementation on biomarkers of CVD risk such as, blood lipids, blood pressure and plasma glucose, as well as factors affecting their inter‐individual variability. Data from 18 human randomized controlled trials were pooled and the effect was estimated using fixed or random effects meta‐analysis model and reported as difference in means (DM). Variability in the response of blood lipids to supplementation with flavonols was assessed by stratifying various population subgroups: age, sex, country, and health status. Results showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (DM = −0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.20, −0.01), LDL cholesterol (DM = −0.14 mmol/L; Nutrients 2017, 9, 117 2 of 21 95% CI: −0.21, 0.07), and triacylglycerol (DM = −0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.18, 0.03), and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol (DM = 0.05 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.07). A significant reduction was also observed in fasting plasma glucose (DM = −0.18 mmol/L; 95%CI: −0.29, −0.08), and in blood pressure (SBP: DM = −4.84 mmHg; 95% CI: −5.64, −4.04; DBP: DM = −3.32 mmHg; 95% CI: -4.09, -2.55). Subgroup analysis showed a more pronounced effect of flavonol intake in participants from Asian countries and in participants with diagnosed disease or dyslipidemia, compared to healthy and normal baseline values. In conclusion, flavonol consumption improved biomarkers of CVD risk, however, country of origin and health status may influence the effect of flavonol intake on blood lipid levels View Full-Text
Keywords: flavonols;  quercetin;  cardiovascular  disease;  meta‐analysis;  systematic  review;  Interindividual variability; blood lipids; blood pressure; glucose flavonols;  quercetin;  cardiovascular  disease;  meta‐analysis;  systematic  review;  Interindividual variability; blood lipids; blood pressure; glucose

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Menezes, R.; Rodriguez‐Mateos, A.; Kaltsatou, A.; González‐Sarrías, A.; Greyling, A.; Giannaki, C.; Andres‐Lacueva, C.; Milenkovic, D.; Gibney, E.R.; Dumont, J.; Schär, M.; Garcia‐Aloy, M.; Palma‐Duran, S.A.; Ruskovska, T.; Maksimova, V.; Combet, E.; Pinto, P. Impact of Flavonols on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers: A Meta‐Analysis of Randomized Controlled Human Trials to Explore the Role of Inter‐Individual Variability. Nutrients 2017, 9, 117.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top