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Open AccessArticle

An Exercise‐Only Intervention in Obese Fathers Restores Glucose and Insulin Regulation in Conjunction with the Rescue of Pancreatic Islet Cell Morphology and MicroRNA Expression in Male Offspring

1
Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
2
Freemasons Centre for Men’s Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
3
Monash IVF Group, Dulwich 5056, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020122
Received: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
Paternal obesity programs metabolic syndrome in offspring. Low‐impact exercise in obese males improves the metabolic health of female offspring, however whether this occurred in male offspring remained unknown. C57BL/6NHsd (Harlan) mice were fed a control diet (CD; 6% fat, n = 7) or a high‐fat diet (HFD; 21% fat, n = 16) for 18 weeks. After 9 weeks, HFD‐fed mice either remained sedentary (HH, n = 8) or undertook low–moderate exercise (HE, n = 8) for another 9 weeks. Male offspring were assessed for glucose/insulin tolerance, body composition, plasma lipids, pancreatic islet cell morphology and microRNA expression. Founder HH induced glucose intolerance, insulin insensitivity, and hyperlipidaemia in male offspring (p < 0.05). Metabolic health was fully restored in male offspring by founder exercise to control levels. Founder HH reduced pancreatic β‐cell area and islet cell size in male offspring, and altered the expression of 13 pancreatic microRNAs (p < 0.05). Founder HE led to partial restoration of pancreatic islet cell morphology and the expression of two pancreatic microRNAs (let7d‐5p, 194‐5p) in male offspring. Founder HE reduced male offspring adiposity, increased muscle mass, reduced plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), and further altered pancreatic microRNAs (35 vs. HH; 32 vs. CD) (p < 0.05). Low‐impact exercise in obese fathers prior to conception, without dietary change, may be a viable intervention strategy to reduce the illeffects of obesity‐induced paternal programming in male offspring. View Full-Text
Keywords: sperm; fertility; nutrition sperm; fertility; nutrition
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McPherson, N.O.; Lane, M.; Sandeman, L.; Owens, J.A.; Fullston, T. An Exercise‐Only Intervention in Obese Fathers Restores Glucose and Insulin Regulation in Conjunction with the Rescue of Pancreatic Islet Cell Morphology and MicroRNA Expression in Male Offspring. Nutrients 2017, 9, 122.

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