The French Cancer Barometer, a population-based-survey, is carried out every five years and is, to date, one of the few national studies conducted to investigate individual perception linked to cancer risk factors. The aims of the present study were to describe the perceptions of the French population in 2015 and to assess their evolution over a 5-year period (2010–2015). The French Cancer Barometer surveyed a randomly selected sample of participants aged 15–75 years (n
= 3345 in 2010) and 15–85 years (n
= 3764 in 2015), representative of the French population. Questions were on perception of diet, physical activity, obesity, and breastfeeding as cancer risk factors. In 2015, nutritional/activity factors were perceived as having an important role in cancer development for the majority of those surveyed (diet (90.8%), obesity (76%), and physical activity (70%)) with the exception being breastfeeding (34%). However, there was a moderate perception of the risks of red meat (43%) and salt or salty food (55%) consumption. Perceptions of nutritional risk factors were mostly associated with age and education level. Interestingly, there was a greater perception of nutritional risk factors in 2015 compared to 2010, and the participants’ opinions were also stronger. Efforts should be made on individuals with lower educational level and to promote the beneficial effects of breastfeeding. However, to impact food behavior, measures are needed at the environmental level and not only at the individual one.
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