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Sustainability, Volume 8, Issue 8 (August 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
A MODIS-Based Retrieval Model of Suspended Particulate Matter Concentration for the Two Largest Freshwater Lakes in China
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080832
Received: 15 May 2016 / Revised: 13 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Viewed by 1440 | PDF Full-text (6631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Suspended particulate matter concentration (CSPM) is a key parameter describing case-II water quality. Empirical and semi-empirical models are frequently developed and applied for estimating CSPM values from remote sensing images; however, they are usually region- or season-dependent. This study [...] Read more.
Suspended particulate matter concentration (CSPM) is a key parameter describing case-II water quality. Empirical and semi-empirical models are frequently developed and applied for estimating CSPM values from remote sensing images; however, they are usually region- or season-dependent. This study aimed to develop a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based retrieval model of CSPM for Poyang and Dongting Lake together. The 89 CSPM measurements in Poyang and Dongting Lake as well as their corresponding MODIS Terra images were used to calibrate CSPM retrieval models, and the calibration results showed that the exponential models of MODIS red band and red minus shortwave infrared (SWIR) band at 1240 nm both explained about 76% of the variation of CSPM of Poyang and Dongting Lake together. When the two models were applied to the validation datasets, the results indicated that the exponential model of red band obtained more stable CSPM estimations with no bias at a significance level of 0.05 in both lakes. The MODIS red-band-based model achieved acceptable results for estimating CSPM in both Poyang and Dongting Lake, and it provided a foundation for obtaining comparable spatiotemporal information of CSPM, which will be helpful for comparing, understanding, managing, and protecting the two aquatic ecosystems. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Plant Pathology and Information Technology: Opportunity for Management of Disease Outbreak and Applications in Regulation Frameworks
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080831
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 13 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1389 | PDF Full-text (217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In many European rural areas, agriculture is not only an economic activity, but it is strictly linked to environmental and social characteristics of the area. Thus, sometimes, a pathogen can become a social threat, as in the case of Xylella fastidiosa and olive [...] Read more.
In many European rural areas, agriculture is not only an economic activity, but it is strictly linked to environmental and social characteristics of the area. Thus, sometimes, a pathogen can become a social threat, as in the case of Xylella fastidiosa and olive trees (Olea europaea L.) in Salento. Fast and systemic response to threats represents the key to success in stopping pest invasions, and proves a great help in managing lots of data in a short time or coordinating large-scale monitoring coming from applying Information Technology tools. Regarding the field of applications, the advantages provided by new technologies are countless. However, is it the same in agriculture? Electronic identification tools can be applied for plant health management and certification. Treatments, agrochemical management or impact assessment may also be supported by dematerialization of data. Information Technology solution for urban forestry management or traceability of commodities belonging to “Food from Somewhere” regimes were analyzed and compared to protection from pests of a unique tree heritage such as olive trees in Salento. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Role of Policy Makers and Institutions in the Energy Sector: The Case of Energy Infrastructure Governance in Nigeria
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080829
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2365 | PDF Full-text (1050 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on investigating the linkages and consequences of the policy decision process in the governance of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. It attempts to gain a better understanding of the role of policy makers and institutions in the provision of energy infrastructure [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on investigating the linkages and consequences of the policy decision process in the governance of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. It attempts to gain a better understanding of the role of policy makers and institutions in the provision of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. Using a combination of semi-structured interviews and documentary evidences from published literature, this study reveals three essential areas where the policy-making processes (and therefore policy makers) intervene in the provision of energy infrastructure. These are: (1) granting access to historical data; (2) regulations; and (3) permitting/issuance of licenses. This study also reveals three major unintended consequences of the policy decision processes and institutions in the governance of energy infrastructure provisions in Nigeria, which are: (1) government financing corruption in the energy sector; (2) economic delusion; and (3) uncontrolled growth in energy demand driven more by export and not local internal demand. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Location-Routing Problem with Simultaneous Home Delivery and Customer’s Pickup for City Distribution of Online Shopping Purchases
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080828
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 7 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2504 | PDF Full-text (1627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the increasing interest in online shopping, the Last Mile delivery is regarded as one of the most expensive and pollutive—and yet the least efficient—stages of the e-commerce supply chain. To address this challenge, a novel location-routing problem with simultaneous home delivery and [...] Read more.
With the increasing interest in online shopping, the Last Mile delivery is regarded as one of the most expensive and pollutive—and yet the least efficient—stages of the e-commerce supply chain. To address this challenge, a novel location-routing problem with simultaneous home delivery and customer’s pickup is proposed. This problem aims to build a more effective Last Mile distribution system by providing two kinds of service options when delivering packages to customers. To solve this specific problem, a hybrid evolution search algorithm by combining genetic algorithm (GA) and local search (LS) is presented. In this approach, a diverse population generation algorithm along with a two-phase solution initialization heuristic is first proposed to give high quality initial population. Then, advantaged solution representation, individual evaluation, crossover and mutation operations are designed to enhance the evolution and search efficiency. Computational experiments based on a large family of instances are conducted, and the results obtained indicate the validity of the proposed model and method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Supply Chain Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Striving for Sustainable Development and the Coordinating Role of the Central Government: Lessons from Swedish Housing Policy
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080827
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1284 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Housing plays an important role in the development of welfare policies and also often in achieving sustainability goals. There exists, however, implementation gaps between policies and practices in urban development and housing. Here it should be possible to draw lessons from policy implementations [...] Read more.
Housing plays an important role in the development of welfare policies and also often in achieving sustainability goals. There exists, however, implementation gaps between policies and practices in urban development and housing. Here it should be possible to draw lessons from policy implementations in the past. In this article we explore the strategies of the Swedish central government in implementing a social housing policy in the mid-20th century. The policy was successfully implemented in that it resulted in the rapid expansion and modernisation of the Swedish apartment stock in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and acute housingshortages and poor housing standards were overcome. The main lesson learned from the Swedish case study is the critical role of the central government in implementation throughthe strategic coordination of policy aims, instruments, stakeholders and interests throughout the implementation process. Although the central government could have used hard, almost authoritarian policy instruments to force the realisation of the new policy, it mainly used soft policy tools and focused on coordination. In the contemporary networked governance setting, the central government, like no other player, still has the potential to guide and coordinate implementation processes for the realization of sustainable housing visions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Carbon Quota Allocation Mechanism on Emissions Trading: An Agent-Based Simulation
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080826
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 30 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1962 | PDF Full-text (843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper establishes an agent-based simulation system of the carbon emissions trading in accordance with the complex feature of the trading process. This system analyzes the impact of the carbon quota allocation mechanism on emissions trading for three different aspects including the amount [...] Read more.
This paper establishes an agent-based simulation system of the carbon emissions trading in accordance with the complex feature of the trading process. This system analyzes the impact of the carbon quota allocation mechanism on emissions trading for three different aspects including the amount of emissions reduction, the economic effect on the emitters, and the emissions reduction cost. Based on the data of the carbon emissions of different industries in China, several simulations were made. The results indicate that the emissions trading policy can effectively reduce carbon emissions in a perfectly competitive market. Moreover, by comparing separate quota allocation mechanisms, we obtain the result that the scheme with a small extent quota decrease in a comprehensive allocation mechanism can minimize the unit carbon emission cost. Implementing this scheme can also achieve minimal effects of carbon emissions limitation on the economy on the basis that the environment is not destroyed. However, excessive quota decrease cannot promote the emitters to reduce emission. Taking into account that several developing countries have the dual task of limiting carbon emissions and developing the economy, it is necessary to adopt a comprehensive allocation mechanism of the carbon quota and increase the initial proportion of free allocation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of European Olive Production Systems
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080825
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1773 | PDF Full-text (2013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: Spain, Italy, and Greece are the world’s top olive oil producers. In recent decades, these countries have gradually diversified their farming system in the olive groves. The element of innovation with respect to the state of the art is that this [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Spain, Italy, and Greece are the world’s top olive oil producers. In recent decades, these countries have gradually diversified their farming system in the olive groves. The element of innovation with respect to the state of the art is that this paper aims to compare the environmental performance of different farming systems in a European context by performing a simplified Life Cycle Assessment; (2) Methods: Environmental performance was calculated according to the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment and the “Guidance for the implementation of the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF)”. Average data were considered in order to describe a system with a great degree of complexity and high spatial heterogeneity; (3) Results: The study highlights the difficulty of identifying the farming method that presents the best environmental performance in each of the impact categories considered. In Greece, the lowest use of diesel, electricity, and water brings about advantages for many impact categories, albeit with low yields. While the highest olive yield obtained in Italy has positive consequences in terms of global warming, the highest use of fertilisers, in many cases, entails higher environmental impacts. On the other hand, in Spain the highest use of organo-phosphorous pesticides entails the highest impacts of eco-toxicity; (4) Conclusion: the reduction of the use of fertilizers and pesticides, as well as water conservation, are important issues which require the optimization of timing and techniques in order to achieve environmental advantages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analyzing the Drivers of Advanced Sustainable Manufacturing System Using AHP Approach
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080824
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1918 | PDF Full-text (459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A number of current manufacturing sectors are striving hard to introduce innovative long-term strategies into their operations. As a result, many scholarly studies have found it fruitful to investigate advanced manufacturing strategies such as agile, computer-integrated, and cellular manufacturing. Through the example of [...] Read more.
A number of current manufacturing sectors are striving hard to introduce innovative long-term strategies into their operations. As a result, many scholarly studies have found it fruitful to investigate advanced manufacturing strategies such as agile, computer-integrated, and cellular manufacturing. Through the example of downstream cases, manufacturing sectors have learned that financial benefits garnered through automated technologies cannot be counted on as a sole measure to ensure their success in today’s competitive and fluctuating marketplaces. The objective of this study is to integrate those advanced techniques with sustainable operations, to promote advanced sustainable manufacturing so those manufacturing sectors can thrive even in uncertain markets. To establish this connection, this study analyzes the drivers of advanced sustainable manufacturing through a proposed framework validated through a case study in India. Common drivers are collected from the literature, calibrated with opinions from experts, and analyzed through an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which is a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach. This study reveals that quality is the primary driver that pressures manufacturing sectors to adopt advanced sustainable manufacturing. Manufacturers can easily note the top ranked driver and adopt it to soundly implement advanced sustainable manufacturing. In addition, some key future scopes are explored along with possible recommendations for effective implementation of advanced sustainable manufacturing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Better Decision-Making Helps to Improve Sustainability - Part II)
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Open AccessEditorial
Toward a Sustainable Low-Carbon China: A Review of the Special Issue of “Energy Economics and Management”
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080823
Received: 14 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1296 | PDF Full-text (176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Severe environmental quality deterioration, along with predatory exploitation of energy resources, are generally associated with economic growth, especially in China. Against this background, the 6th Annual Conference of Energy Economics and Management provides a platform for examining outperforming governance factors and mechanisms of [...] Read more.
Severe environmental quality deterioration, along with predatory exploitation of energy resources, are generally associated with economic growth, especially in China. Against this background, the 6th Annual Conference of Energy Economics and Management provides a platform for examining outperforming governance factors and mechanisms of energy economics and policy. Thanks to Sustainability for providing this special issue. This editorial highlights the contents and methodologies of the special issue for this conference, presenting diverse issues in energy economics and management. We also suggest guidelines for future study in energy economics and management. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Grain Output and Cultivated Land Preservation: Assessment of the Rewarded Land Conversion Quotas Trading Policy in China’s Zhejiang Province
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080821
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1517 | PDF Full-text (1297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although it is difficult, many countries are attempting to balance economic development and cultivated land preservation for various reasons. China’s experience is a good illustration of such challenges during rapid economic development and urbanization. The central government of China emphasized the high self-sufficiency [...] Read more.
Although it is difficult, many countries are attempting to balance economic development and cultivated land preservation for various reasons. China’s experience is a good illustration of such challenges during rapid economic development and urbanization. The central government of China emphasized the high self-sufficiency ratio of grain and therefore set a bottom-line for the area of cultivated land in order to ensure food security. The State Council of China requires that the area of cultivated land should not be less than 120,000,000 hectares until 2020 through strict land management measures. In view of such stringent regulations, various alternative practices, such as rewarded land conversion quota (RLCQ) trading in Zhejiang Province, have been proposed to satisfy the construction demand while preserving cultivated land. This study empirically investigates the impact of RLCQ trading on cultivated land preservation in terms of grain output. Results showed that RLCQ trading leads to decreased grain production, measured in both total grain output and grain output per hectare, for both buyers and sellers. Furthermore, buyers of land quotas experience a more severe grain reduction than sellers. The findings suggest that RLCQ trading is unfavorable to cultivated land preservation in terms of grain output. Recognizing this dilemma, local governments should improve the land market mechanism to motivate intensive use of existing construction land and consolidation for improving quality of cultivated land. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of a Denser City over the Urban Microclimate: The Case of Toronto
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080822
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1921 | PDF Full-text (14307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last decades, several studies have revealed how critical the urban heat island (UHI) effect can be in cities located in cold climates, such as the Canadian one. Meanwhile, many researchers have looked at the impact of the city design over the [...] Read more.
In the last decades, several studies have revealed how critical the urban heat island (UHI) effect can be in cities located in cold climates, such as the Canadian one. Meanwhile, many researchers have looked at the impact of the city design over the urban microclimate, and have raised concerns about the development of too dense cities. Under the effect of the “Places to Growth” plan, the city of Toronto is experiencing one of the highest rates of building development in North America. Over 48,000 and 33,000 new home permits were issued in 2012 and 2013 respectively, and at the beginning of 2015, almost 500 high-rise proposals across the Greater Toronto Area were released. In this context, it is important to investigate how new constructions will affect the urban microclimate, and to propose strategies to mitigate possible UHI effects. Using the software ENVI-met, microclimate simulations for the Church-Yonge corridor both in the current situation and with the new constructions are reported in this paper. The outdoor air temperature and the wind speed are the parameters used to assess the outdoor microclimate changes. The results show that the new constructions could increase the wind speed around the buildings. However, high-rise buildings will somewhat reduce the air temperature during day-time, as they will create large shadow areas, with lower average mean radiant temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Heat Island)
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Open AccessArticle
Breaking Resilient Patterns of Inequality in Santiago de Chile: Challenges to Navigate towards a More Sustainable City
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080820
Received: 26 May 2016 / Revised: 14 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2894 | PDF Full-text (2683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Resilience can have desirable and undesirable consequences. Thus, resilience should not be viewed as a normative desirable goal, but as a descriptor of complex systems dynamics. From this perspective, we apply resilience thinking concepts to assess the dynamics of inequality, spatial segregation, and [...] Read more.
Resilience can have desirable and undesirable consequences. Thus, resilience should not be viewed as a normative desirable goal, but as a descriptor of complex systems dynamics. From this perspective, we apply resilience thinking concepts to assess the dynamics of inequality, spatial segregation, and sustainability in Chile’s capital city of Santiago. Chile’s economy boosted since democracy was restored in 1990, but continuity of neoliberal reforms and transformations of Pinochet’s dictatorship (1973–1990) seem to have locked Chilean cities in resilient, albeit unsustainable, patterns of uneven development. Socio-economic data from Santiago shows highly resilient patterns of urban inequality and segregation from 1992 to 2009 despite democratic efforts, political agendas and discourses packed with calls for reducing poverty and inequality. We present a conceptual model based on the notion of stability landscapes to explore potential trade-offs between resilience and sustainable development. We mapped Santiago’s spatio-temporal inequality trends and explored if these patterns support an inequality-resilience stability landscape. Analysis of temporal and spatial distribution of development assets across four human development dimensions (i.e., income, education, health, democracy) revealed potential socio-political and spatial feedbacks supporting the resilience of inequality and segregation in Santiago. We argue that urban sustainability may require breaking this resilience, a process where bottom-up stressors such as social movements could play a key role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Resilience and Urban Sustainability: From Research to Practice)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Environmental Regulation and Technical Progress on Industrial Carbon Productivity: An Approach Based on Proxy Measure
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080819
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1212 | PDF Full-text (1085 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research aims to study the main influencing factors of China’s industrial carbon productivity by incorporating environmental regulation and technical progress into an econometric model. The paper focuses on data from 35 of China’s industrial sectors and covers the period from 2006 to [...] Read more.
This research aims to study the main influencing factors of China’s industrial carbon productivity by incorporating environmental regulation and technical progress into an econometric model. The paper focuses on data from 35 of China’s industrial sectors and covers the period from 2006 to 2014, in order to examine the impact of environmental regulation and technical progress on carbon productivity. Methods applied include panel fixed effect model, panel random effect model and two stage least squares with instrumental variables (IV-2SLS). The effect of environmental regulation and technical progress has industrial heterogeneity. The paper subdivides industrial sectors into capital and technology intensive, resource intensive and labor intensive sectors according to factor intensiveness. The estimation results of the subgroups have uncovered that for capital and technology intensive and resource intensive sectors, environmental regulation has a more significant impact than technical progress; while for labor intensive sectors, innovation more significantly influences carbon productivity. In addition, foreign direct investment (FDI) and industrialization level facilitate improving carbon productivity for the full sample. By contrast, industrial structure inhibits the overall industrial carbon productivity. The industry-specific results indicate that for capital and technology intensive sectors, optimizing of the industrial structure can improve carbon productivity; for resource intensive sectors, FDI and energy consumption structure should be emphasized more; for labor intensive sectors, industrialization levels help enhance carbon productivity. Finally the industrial sector-specific policy suggestions are proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Curtailment Plan with Energy Storage for AC/DC Combined Distribution Systems
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080818
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Viewed by 1587 | PDF Full-text (4249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For developing a large-scale combined system with a number of distributed resources, an appropriate compensation strategy based on the system components and changeable condition must be configured to handle the characteristics of the internal systems. Since renewable sources generate various fluctuations, the compensation [...] Read more.
For developing a large-scale combined system with a number of distributed resources, an appropriate compensation strategy based on the system components and changeable condition must be configured to handle the characteristics of the internal systems. Since renewable sources generate various fluctuations, the compensation plans for the storage device connected along with the sources should be supported by a precise expectation method. A cooperative strategy involving the sharing of the DC section with environmentally sensitive generators, like photovoltaic system (PVs) or waves, demands appropriate ESS compensation solutions, owing to its complexity. An active power-control algorithm with voltage-expectation based on the DC power flow is introduced in this paper and is applied in the designed case studies performed on the electromagnetic transient simulation. DC based multi-generation system is composed by applying tidal generator and super capacitor. To utilize wind energy, an offshore wind–wave generation system was utilized in the verification process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Welfare Effects of Rice Import Quota in Japan: Based on Measuring Non-Tariff Barriers of SBS Rice Imports
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080817
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1664 | PDF Full-text (947 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS) of the rice importation minimum access (MA) policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed [...] Read more.
The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS) of the rice importation minimum access (MA) policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed model is adopted to measure consumption patterns through estimating elasticity of substitution between imported rice and Japan’s domestic rice, and consumers’ preference parameters for different kinds of rice. The results showed that Japanese households prefer domestic rice to the imported rice. Besides, three scenarios of adjusting rice quota volumes were carried out to examine the changes in consumer prices of imported rice and Japanese consumers’ welfares. The results revealed that tariff equivalents of the SBS import quota almost doubled the scale of the mark-up, and the intervention by the Ministry of Agriculture of Japan did cause non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs). Finally, if the SBS rice quota quantity was fixed at or larger than 180 thousand tons every fiscal year, the consumer prices of imported rice in Japan’s market would decrease to be less than the prices of Japan’s domestic rice, and therefore the imported rice would have more price advantages in this scenario. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ecological Security and Ecosystem Services in Response to Land Use Change in the Coastal Area of Jiangsu, China
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080816
Received: 18 June 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3068 | PDF Full-text (7557 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urbanization, and the resulting land use/cover change, is a primary cause of the degradation of coastal wetland ecosystems. Reclamation projects are seen as a way to strike a balance between socioeconomic development and maintenance of coastal ecosystems. Our aim was to understand the [...] Read more.
Urbanization, and the resulting land use/cover change, is a primary cause of the degradation of coastal wetland ecosystems. Reclamation projects are seen as a way to strike a balance between socioeconomic development and maintenance of coastal ecosystems. Our aim was to understand the ecological changes to Jiangsu’s coastal wetland resulting from land use change since 1977 by using remote sensing and spatial analyses. The results indicate that: (1) The area of artificial land use expanded while natural land use was reduced, which emphasized an increase in production-orientated land uses at the expense of ecologically important wetlands; (2) It took 34 years for landscape ecological security and 39 years for ecosystem services to regain equilibrium. The coastal reclamation area would recover ecological equilibrium only after a minimum of 30 years; (3) The total ecosystem service value decreased significantly from $2.98 billion per year to $2.31 billion per year from 1977 to 2014. Food production was the only one ecosystem service function that consistently increased, mainly because of government policy; (4) The relationship between landscape ecological security and ecosystem services is complicated, mainly because of the scale effect of landscape ecology. Spatial analysis of changing gravity centers showed that landscape ecological security and ecosystem service quality became better in the north than the south over the study period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Role of Rural Official Organization in the Biomass-Based Power Supply Chain in China: A Combined Game Theory and Agent-Based Simulation Approach
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080814
Received: 7 May 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1546 | PDF Full-text (3103 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Developing biomass-based power generation is helpful for China to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to release the targets of carbon emission peak. The decentralized farming method leads to Chinese farmers’ weak willingness to collect and sell crop residues to biomass-based power [...] Read more.
Developing biomass-based power generation is helpful for China to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to release the targets of carbon emission peak. The decentralized farming method leads to Chinese farmers’ weak willingness to collect and sell crop residues to biomass-based power plants. The purpose of this paper is to solve the issue by proposing a novel biomass feedstock supply model with China’s rural official organization—villagers’ committee, which has great influence on villagers’ decision making. Introducing it into the biomass-based power supply chain is beneficial to motivating farmers’ supplying enthusiasm. A combined game theory and agent-based simulation approach is applied to study the effectiveness of this new supply model. Multiple simulation scenarios are built to study impacts of different simulation parameters, and results show that farmers tend to supply more biomass material for electricity production in the proposed villagers’ committee model, compared with the two conventional supply models, direct-deal and broker models. The supply model incorporating the rural official organization can ensure the feedstock sufficiency for plants. A proper model design depends on the feed-in tariff subsidy for biomass-based electricity, feedstock shipping distance, performance appraisal system of the villagers’ committee, as well as farmers’ utility weights on net income and public service improvement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Generativity in the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Consumer Behavior
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080815
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1545 | PDF Full-text (660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although research has theoretically and empirically linked corporate social responsibility (CSR) to consumer responses, understanding the different paths that link CSR to loyalty is still limited. A new pathway for this understanding comes from the idea that generative consumers, or those committed to [...] Read more.
Although research has theoretically and empirically linked corporate social responsibility (CSR) to consumer responses, understanding the different paths that link CSR to loyalty is still limited. A new pathway for this understanding comes from the idea that generative consumers, or those committed to the well-being of future generations, may be inclined to patronize companies engaged in CSR activities. This research addresses the question of how consumer generativity moderates the effect of CSR on consumer behavior through two studies. Study 1 shows how generativity influences purchase intention. Study 2 demonstrates that while a company’s commitment to CSR affects both generative and nongenerative consumers, the effect is greater for the former. This moderating role of generativity of the effect of CSR on purchase intention suggests the utility of considering generativity as a relevant consumer segmentation criterion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Drought Risk Assessment Based on Vulnerability Surfaces: A Case Study of Maize
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080813
Received: 14 June 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2066 | PDF Full-text (9479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agriculture is a sector easily affected by meteorological conditions. Crop yield reduction, even regional conflicts, may occur during a drought. It is extremely important to improve the state of our knowledge on agricultural drought risk. This study has proposed a new method (vulnerability [...] Read more.
Agriculture is a sector easily affected by meteorological conditions. Crop yield reduction, even regional conflicts, may occur during a drought. It is extremely important to improve the state of our knowledge on agricultural drought risk. This study has proposed a new method (vulnerability surfaces) for assessing vulnerability quantitatively and continuously by including the environmental variable as an additional perspective on exposure and assessed global maize drought risk based on these surfaces. In this research, based on the Environmental Policy Impact Climate (EPIC) model, irrigation scenarios were adopted to fit “Loss rate-Drought index-Environmental indicator (L-D-E)” vulnerability surfaces by constructing a database suitable for risk assessment on a large scale. Global maize drought risk was quantitatively assessed based on its optimal vulnerability surface. The results showed an R2 for the optimal vulnerability surface of 0.9934, with coarse fragment content as the environmental indicator. The expected global average annual yield loss rate due to drought was 19.18%. The global average yield loss rate due to drought with different return periods (10a, 20a, 50a, and 100a) was 29.18%, 32.76%, 36.89%, and 38.26%, respectively. From a global perspective, Central Asia, the Iberian Peninsula, Eastern Africa, the Midwestern United States, Chile, and Brazil are the areas with the highest maize drought risk. The vulnerability surface is a further development of the vulnerability curve as a continuous expression of vulnerability and considers differences in environmental factors. It can reflect the spatial heterogeneity of crop vulnerability and can be applied in large-scale risk assessment research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience to Natural and Man-Made Disasters)
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Open AccessArticle
Urbanization and Its Effects on Industrial Pollutant Emissions: An Empirical Study of a Chinese Case with the Spatial Panel Model
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080812
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
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Abstract
Urbanization is considered a main indicator of regional economic development due to its positive effect on promoting industrial development; however, many regions, especially developing countries, have troubled in its negative effect—the aggravating environmental pollution. Many researchers have addressed that the rapid urbanization stimulated [...] Read more.
Urbanization is considered a main indicator of regional economic development due to its positive effect on promoting industrial development; however, many regions, especially developing countries, have troubled in its negative effect—the aggravating environmental pollution. Many researchers have addressed that the rapid urbanization stimulated the expansion of the industrial production and increased the industrial pollutant emissions. However, this statement is exposed to a grave drawback in that urbanization not only expands industrial production but also improves labor productivity and changes industrial structure. To make up this drawback, we first decompose the influence of urbanization impacts on the industrial pollutant emissions into the scale effect, the intensive effect, and the structure effect by using the Kaya Identity and the LMDI Method; second, we perform an empirical study of the three effects by applying the spatial panel model on the basis of the data from 282 prefecture-level cities of China from 2003 to 2014. Our results indicate that (1) there are significant reverse U-shapes between China’s urbanization rate and the volume of industrial wastewater discharge, sulfur dioxide emissions and soot (dust) emissions; (2) the relationship between China’s urbanization and the industrial pollutant emissions depends on the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect jointly. Specifically, the scale effect and the structure effect tend to aggravate the industrial wastewater discharge, the sulfur dioxide emissions and the soot (dust) emissions in China’s cities, while the intensive effect results in decreasing the three types of industrial pollutant emissions; (3) there are significant spatial autocorrelations of the industrial pollutant emissions among China’s cities, but the spatial spillover effect is non-existent or non-significant. We attempt to explain this contradiction due to the fact that the vast rural areas around China’s cities serve as sponge belts and absorb the spatial spillover of the industrial pollutant emissions from cities. According to the results, we argue the decomposition of the three effects is necessary and meaningful, it establishes a cornerstone in understanding the definite relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions, and effectively contributes to the relative policy making. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Climate Change Vulnerability Index and Case Study in a Brazilian Coastal City
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080811
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2171 | PDF Full-text (2015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coastal areas are highly susceptible to the effects of climate change, particularly to sea-level rise and extreme rainfall events, resulting in increased social and environmental vulnerabilities. In this context, the need for predictive planning instruments, especially in densely populated coastal areas, is a [...] Read more.
Coastal areas are highly susceptible to the effects of climate change, particularly to sea-level rise and extreme rainfall events, resulting in increased social and environmental vulnerabilities. In this context, the need for predictive planning instruments, especially in densely populated coastal areas, is a critical management priority. A number of indexes has been developed to assess coastal vulnerability. However, coastal vulnerability indexes are yet to simultaneously consider inland (e.g., landslides and flooding) and ocean (sea-level rise and coastal erosion) hazards in conjunction. To help fill this gap, we developed the Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index for Coastal Areas. The proposed index is a diagnostic tool to assess the socio-environmental vulnerability of coastal regions in the context of climate change. Applied to the city of Santos, a coastal municipality in São Paulo state, Brazil, the index revealed that most of the city are in areas highly vulnerable to sea-level rise and floods related to extreme rainfall events. Findings show that, in fact, approximately 70% of the area of Santos (27.5 km2) consists of high vulnerability areas mostly located close to urban drainage channels, residential, and other built-in areas. Another 0.12% (0.05 km2) were classified as very high vulnerability areas compromising port and industrial infrastructure. These results highlights the susceptibility of the urban insular area of Santos to climatic change hazards. This study might prove relevant to support local decision-makers in preparing adaptation plans and responding to climate-related risks in vulnerable coastal cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Changes: From Sustainability Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Simulation of Urban Expansion Based on Cellular Automata and Logistic Regression Model: Case Study of the Hyrcanian Region of Iran
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080810
Received: 4 June 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1986 | PDF Full-text (7747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The hypothesis addressed in this article is to determine the extent of selected land use categories with respect to their effect on urban expansion. A model that combines a logistic regression model, Markov chain, together with cellular automata based modeling, is introduced here [...] Read more.
The hypothesis addressed in this article is to determine the extent of selected land use categories with respect to their effect on urban expansion. A model that combines a logistic regression model, Markov chain, together with cellular automata based modeling, is introduced here to simulate future urban growth and development in the Gilan Province, Iran. The model is calibrated based on data beginning in 1989 and ending in 2013 and is applied in making predictions for the years 2025 and 2037, across 12 urban development criteria. The relative operating characteristic (ROC) is validated with a very high rate of urban development. The analyzed results indicate that the area of urban land has increased by more than 1.7% that is, from 36,012.5 ha in 1989 to 59,754.8 ha in 2013 and the area of the Caspian Hyrcanian forestland has reduced by 31,628 ha. The simulation results, with respect to prediction, indicate an alarming increase in the rate of urban development in the province by 2025 and 2037 that is, 0.82% and 1.3%, respectively. The development pattern is expected to be uneven and scattered, without following any particular direction. The development will occur close to the existing or newly-formed urban infrastructure and around major roads and commercial areas. If not controlled, this development trend will lead to the loss of 25,101 ha of Hyrcanian forest and, if continued, 21,774 ha of barren and open lands are expected to be destroyed by the year 2037. These results demonstrate the capacity of the integrated model in establishing comparisons with urban plans and their utility to explain both the volume and constraints of urban growth. It is beneficial to apply the integrated approach in urban dynamic assessment through land use modeling with respect to spatio-temporal representation in distinct urban development formats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability and the Tourism and Hospitality Workforce: A Thematic Analysis
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080809
Received: 14 June 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3196 | PDF Full-text (921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper is about the position of workforce and employment considerations within the sustainable tourism narrative. The paper aims to address the relative neglect of this area within the discourse of sustainable tourism and highlights references to the workforce within the United Nations’ [...] Read more.
This paper is about the position of workforce and employment considerations within the sustainable tourism narrative. The paper aims to address the relative neglect of this area within the discourse of sustainable tourism and highlights references to the workforce within the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The discussion follows the emerging field of sustainable human resource management and the contribution that this can make to meeting both the UN Sustainable Development Goals and to enhancing the recognition of workforce and employment issues within the related debate in tourism. The body of the paper highlights examples of key dimensions of work and employment across varied tourism contexts, where sustainability is of increasing consequence and significance. The paper concludes by drawing together the implications of these “mini-cases” and locating them within key principles of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management in Tourism and Hospitality)
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Open AccessArticle
Early Adoption of Innovative Analytical Approach and Its Impact on Organizational Analytics Maturity and Sustainability: A Longitudinal Study from a U.S. Pharmaceutical Company
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080808
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1807 | PDF Full-text (1252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigate the impact of early adoption of an innovative analytics approach on organizational analytics maturity and sustainability. With the sales operation planning involving the accurate determination of physician detailing frequency, multiple product sequencing, nonlinear promotional response functions and achievement of the right [...] Read more.
We investigate the impact of early adoption of an innovative analytics approach on organizational analytics maturity and sustainability. With the sales operation planning involving the accurate determination of physician detailing frequency, multiple product sequencing, nonlinear promotional response functions and achievement of the right level of share of voice (SOV), an analytical approach was developed by integrating domain knowledge, neural network (NN)’s pattern-recognition capability and nonlinear mathematical programming to address these challenges. A pharmaceutical company headquartered in the U.S. championed this initial research in 2005 and became the first major firm to implement the recommendations. The company improved its profitability by 12% when piloted to a sales district with 481 physicians; then it launched this approach nationally. In 2014, the firm again gave us its data, performance of the analytical approach and access to key stakeholders to better understand the changes in the pharmaceutical sales operations landscape, the firm’s analytics maturity and sustainability of analytics. Results suggest that being the early adopter of innovation doubled the firm’s technology utilization from 2005 to 2014, as well as doubling the firm’s ability to continuously improve the sales operations process; it outperformed the standard industry practice by 23%. Moreover, the infusion of analytics from the corporate office to sales, improvement in management commitment to analytics, increased communications for continuous process improvement and the successes from this approach has created the environment for sustainable organizational growth in analytics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation and Assessment of Whole Life-Cycle Carbon Emission Flows from Different Residential Structures
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080807
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 6 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1397 | PDF Full-text (1401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To explore the differences in carbon emissions over the whole life-cycle of different building structures, the published calculated carbon emissions from residential buildings in China and abroad were normalized. Embodied carbon emission flows, operations stage carbon emission flows, demolition and reclamation stage carbon [...] Read more.
To explore the differences in carbon emissions over the whole life-cycle of different building structures, the published calculated carbon emissions from residential buildings in China and abroad were normalized. Embodied carbon emission flows, operations stage carbon emission flows, demolition and reclamation stage carbon emission flows and total life-cycle carbon emission flows from concrete, steel, and wood structures were obtained. This study is based on the theory of the social cost of carbon, with an adequately demonstrated social cost of carbon and social discount rate. Taking into consideration both static and dynamic situations and using a social discount rate of 3.5%, the total life-cycle carbon emission flows, absolute carbon emission and building carbon costs were calculated and assessed. The results indicated that concrete structures had the highest embodied carbon emission flows and negative carbon emission flows in the waste and reclamation stage. Wood structures that started the life-cycle with stored carbon had the lowest carbon emission flows in the operations stage and relatively high negative carbon emission flows in the reclamation stage. Wood structures present the smallest carbon footprints for residential buildings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coping with Migration-Induced Urban Growth: Addressing the Blind Spot of UN Habitat
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080800
Received: 19 June 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
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Abstract
The demography of cities in the 21st century will be shaped, to a large extent, by migration. This paper argues that the rights-based approach to urban policy advocated in the preparatory work of Habitat III, the UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban [...] Read more.
The demography of cities in the 21st century will be shaped, to a large extent, by migration. This paper argues that the rights-based approach to urban policy advocated in the preparatory work of Habitat III, the UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development to be held in October 2016 in Quito, Ecuador, may not be conducive to this goal. The approach lacks a contextual and dynamic understanding of urbanization. It implicitly assumes that a growing and expansive urban economy would primarily benefit the rich and harm the poor. The resulting containment policies to stop “urban sprawl” and defend “the right to the city” can, however, be counterproductive if adopted in cities in less developed countries (LDCs) that grow fast due to internal migration. Attempts to limit urban growth may merely lead to more informal settlements, less affordable housing, and increasing costs of doing business. In other words, it may benefit the rich and harm the poor. LDCs should, therefore, refrain from adopting defensive urban policies mostly advocated by more developed countries (MDCs) and, instead, plan for sustainable urban expansion designed to improve access to essential urban services and to create a level playing field for newcomers in business. In this context, urban policies may build upon the basic insights of the late urbanist Jane Jacobs. She recognized that the vital function of cities is to provide affordable infrastructure and an institutional environment that enable migrants and other marginal urban communities to contribute to urban prosperity and problem-solving with their skills, networks, and entrepreneurial minds. The resulting social and economic empowerment increases access to essential human rights and ensures that cities become more inclusive, resilient, and sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Contextual and Dynamic Understanding of Sustainable Urbanisation)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of China’s Recycling Subsidy Policy in the Product Life Cycle
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080781
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
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Abstract
This paper examines the impact of the Chinese recycling subsidy policy (CRS-policy) on the recycling and reuse industry across the whole product life cycle. We propose a closed-loop dynamic system to illustrate the production flow and interactions among various industry and market factors. [...] Read more.
This paper examines the impact of the Chinese recycling subsidy policy (CRS-policy) on the recycling and reuse industry across the whole product life cycle. We propose a closed-loop dynamic system to illustrate the production flow and interactions among various industry and market factors. A simulation analysis is conducted using data on gas auto engines in China to evaluate the effectiveness of the CRS-policy in encouraging product recycling and reuse. Specifically, we analyze the preventative and regenerative effects of the CRS-policy, and its impact on environmental pollution and social welfare. We further investigate how market factors, including the manufacturer’s innovation environment, consumer environmental awareness and sensitivity to the subsidy, and recycling and reuse industry profit, affect the effectiveness of the CRS-policy. The study provides strong evidence of the important role of the subsidy policy in the recycling and reuse industry and offers insightful recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of the subsidy policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Farmers’ Risk Perception towards Climate Change: A Case of the GAP-Şanlıurfa Region, Turkey
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080806
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 15 August 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1346 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to evaluate farmers’ risk perception towards climate change in dry farming areas of the Şanlıurfa province in Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) Region, Turkey, and their willingness to pay for adaptation practices and explore the potential factors that [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research is to evaluate farmers’ risk perception towards climate change in dry farming areas of the Şanlıurfa province in Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) Region, Turkey, and their willingness to pay for adaptation practices and explore the potential factors that contribute to the understanding of climate change. The main material of this research comes from a sample of 466 farmers among 32,809 in Şanlıurfa who were chosen via a simple random sampling method. Sampling was conducted in 2014 and participants were interviewed face to face by questionnaires and local interviewers were used in order to maximize the reliability of the results. The logistic regression and fit tests were used for analysis. The results indicate that 53% of farmers have a risk perception about climate change and 62% of farmers accept paying for adaptation practices to reduce its potential effects. Explanatory affecting factors, such as age, agricultural income, amount of land owned, farming experience, agricultural credit usage, household numbers, non-agricultural manpower, education level and water perception, significantly explained the risk perceptions. This study is one of the first of its type in GAP-Şanlıurfa, Turkey. Therefore, the results could be helpful for decision- and policy-makers to develop adaptive strategies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Community Resilience to Cyclone Disasters in Coastal Bangladesh
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080805
Received: 16 May 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 15 August 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5929 | PDF Full-text (15241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bangladesh is one of the poorest and most disaster-prone countries in the world. To address both problems simultaneously, sustainable livelihoods (SL) could be better connected with disaster risk reduction (DRR). For this purpose, one initiative implemented in Bangladesh is called the Vulnerability to [...] Read more.
Bangladesh is one of the poorest and most disaster-prone countries in the world. To address both problems simultaneously, sustainable livelihoods (SL) could be better connected with disaster risk reduction (DRR). For this purpose, one initiative implemented in Bangladesh is called the Vulnerability to Resilience (V2R) programme which ran from 2013 to 2016. This programme was primarily initiated and funded by the British Red Cross in a consortium with the Swedish Red Cross and the German Red Cross. This article presents the first evaluation of the V2R programme with three objectives. The first objective was to measure whether the selected communities have achieved community resilience characteristics as defined by the programme. The second objective was to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the intervention. The third objective was to analyse V2R’s impact on the communities in terms of DRR and SL. Community-based focus group discussions and household-based surveys were conducted before and after the intervention (2013–2016) in two coastal communities in Patuakhali district, Nowapara and Pashurbunia. The analysis found that community members are now engaged with many hazard-resilient and vulnerability-reducing livelihood activities, using SL to implement DRR, yet these approaches were almost absent prior to V2R. Consequently, the communities have achieved resilience characteristics, being more well-organized and better connected; having better access to infrastructure, services, and economic opportunities; are more knowledgeable and healthier; and are better managing their available resources. Critiques of the concepts are discussed, although in this case, DRR based on SL has shown positive results, exactly as development theory suggests. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Towards Equitable and Sustainable Urban Space: Introduction to Special Issue on “Urban Land and Sustainable Development”
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080804
Received: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 15 August 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1406 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The unprecedented wave of global urbanization has exerted increased pressure on urban land and made land-use sustainability an urgent concern. This Special Issue examines patterns, structures, and dynamics of urban land use from the economic, social, and, to a lesser extent, environmental standpoints, [...] Read more.
The unprecedented wave of global urbanization has exerted increased pressure on urban land and made land-use sustainability an urgent concern. This Special Issue examines patterns, structures, and dynamics of urban land use from the economic, social, and, to a lesser extent, environmental standpoints, in light of the goal of equitable and sustainable development. This introduction discusses the background and design of the Special Issue and highlights the contribution of the selected papers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Land and Sustainable Development) Printed Edition available
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