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Urban Circular Policies and Employment through Greenfield FDI

Department of Applied Economics and Erasmus Happiness Research Organization (EHERO), Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Tinbergen Institute, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Circle Economy, Mauritskade 64, 1092 AD Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1458;
Received: 14 January 2020 / Revised: 12 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
This paper examines the association between circular strategies imposed by European cities on the attraction of greenfield foreign direct investment (FDI) and the creation of circular gross employment through greenfield FDI. We utilize a recently developed database of circular strategies employed by local authorities in 43 European cities with information on greenfield FDI in these cities and other city characteristics for the years 2016–2017. We find that urban circular policies are positively and significantly associated with the attraction of greenfield FDI–generated employment, where the effect is stronger for regulatory and economic instruments compared to soft instruments. View Full-Text
Keywords: circular employment; circular strategies; FDI; policy instruments circular employment; circular strategies; FDI; policy instruments
MDPI and ACS Style

Stavropoulos, S.; Burger, M.J.; Dufourmont, J. Urban Circular Policies and Employment through Greenfield FDI. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1458.

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