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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Cost-Emission Analysis of Vehicle-to-Grid System

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 767-773;
Published: 31 December 2010
PDF [329 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]


In recent years, electric vehicles (EVs) have been widely accepted by general publics due to their low emissions. Particularly, those EVs which are able to be connected to power grid have earned lots of attention. In this paper, a multilayer framework is newly proposed for vehicle-to-grid operation and cost-emission analysis is carried out based on this framework. Hence, operation cost and emissions can be reduced by using these gridable EVs. The key is to introduce particle swarm optimization to find out the optimal scheduling of generating units and gridable EVs.
Keywords: electric vehicle; cost-emission optimization; vehicle-to-grid; smart grid electric vehicle; cost-emission optimization; vehicle-to-grid; smart grid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wu, D.W.; Chau, K.; Gao, S. Cost-Emission Analysis of Vehicle-to-Grid System. World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4, 767-773.

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