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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Fuel Cell Hybrid Taxi Well-to-Wheel Life-Cycle Analysis

IDMEC - Instituto Superior Técnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1 - 1049-001 Lisboa – Portugal
Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, Holywell Park, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 798-803;
Published: 31 December 2010
PDF [301 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]


In a collaboration led by hydrogen fuel cell developer Intelligent Energy, a fleet of classic London cabs fitted out with hydrogen fuel cell power systems will be produced, with the objective of having a small fleet ready for full road trials in time for the 2012 Olympics. This research develops the Well-to-Wheel (WTW) Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) for two hydrogen powered vehicle powertrain options (fuel cell plug-in hybrid vehicle, PHEV-FC; and fuel cell hybrid vehicle, HEV-FC), in comparison to the conventional ICE Diesel Taxi and a full electric vehicle (EV). In terms of energy pathways, the introduction of these different vehicle technologies is associated with alternative energy sources in a Taxi fleet so the following fuel pathways are compared: diesel, considering the average European diesel fuel characteristics; electricity, considering the 2008 UK electricity generation mix; and hydrogen, considering the compressed hydrogen option from centralized natural gas reforming. This Well-to-Wheel analysis combines the Tank-to-Wheel (TTW), which accounts for the emissions and fuel consumption that result from moving the vehicle through its drive cycle, with the Well-to-Tank (WTT), which accounts for the fuel production stage. For the European certification driving cycle (NEDC), the PHEV-FC Taxi resulted in the lower WTW energy and CO2 emissions results (2.99 MJ/km and 159 g/km), followed by the HEV-FC Taxi (3.28 MJ/km and 174 g/km), and by the EV (3.21 MJ/km and 173 g/km), compared to the ICE Diesel (3.60 MJ/km and 280 g/km). For a more demanding London driving cycle a 33, 28, 54 and 154% increase in the WTW energy consumption and CO2 emissions is observed for the PHEV-FC Taxi, HEV-FC Taxi, EV and ICE Diesel respectively.
Keywords: London Taxi; fuel cell hybrid vehicle; life cycle analysis; energy consumption; CO2 emissions London Taxi; fuel cell hybrid vehicle; life cycle analysis; energy consumption; CO2 emissions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Baptista, P.; Ribau, J.; Bravo, J.; Silva, C.; Adcock, P.; Kells, A. Fuel Cell Hybrid Taxi Well-to-Wheel Life-Cycle Analysis. World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4, 798-803.

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