Next Issue
Volume 3, March
Previous Issue
Volume 3, June
World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2009) , Pages 432-669

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Electric Drive System Faults in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 664-669; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030664 - 25 Sep 2009
Viewed by 357
Abstract
With the increased number of electric drive systems in hybrid electric vehicles also the probability of electric faults within those systems rises. We have developed a Modelica® library to simulate fieldoriented drive systems, including faults. The library is called freeFOClib (short for [...] Read more.
With the increased number of electric drive systems in hybrid electric vehicles also the probability of electric faults within those systems rises. We have developed a Modelica® library to simulate fieldoriented drive systems, including faults. The library is called freeFOClib (short for “free Field-Oriented Control library”) and can be used to build a field-oriented control system for existing machine models from the Modelica Standard Library, investigate the impact of electric faults (e.g., battery faults, inverter faults, machine faults) on a electric drive system, and run simulations to estimate the fuel consumption of hybrid electric vehicles. This paper will show how to model and simulate a faulty electric drives systems in combination with a hybrid electric vehicle. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 651-663; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030651 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 284
Abstract
The Untied States Department of Energy is engaged in the research, development and deployment of PHEV technology through the “Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.” In this program, data has been collected from a Prius PHEV converted by HymotionTM using industry standard dynamometer testing [...] Read more.
The Untied States Department of Energy is engaged in the research, development and deployment of PHEV technology through the “Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.” In this program, data has been collected from a Prius PHEV converted by HymotionTM using industry standard dynamometer testing procedures and from in-use operation of fleets. Differences in fuel-only consumption rates observed in the on-road data compared to the dynamometer results were fairly dramatic. Correlations of the driving style and conditions of dynamometer testing and on-road conditions were made possible by comprehensive onroad loggers. A model was developed to infer driving intensity from the on-road dataset from data load measurement during dynamometer testing. The reasons for the shortfall are detailed in the paper. They range from driver aggressiveness, accessory loads, ambient temperature (weather), and the high sensitivity the control system exhibits with increased acceleration pedal demand and higher average cruising speeds. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Extending EV Range with Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 647-650; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030647 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 211
Abstract
Electric cars are the vehicles of the future, and there is a proven hybrid system for extending their mileage. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) provide safe, lightweight, onboard battery charging that can free car owners from worry about running out of power. The [...] Read more.
Electric cars are the vehicles of the future, and there is a proven hybrid system for extending their mileage. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) provide safe, lightweight, onboard battery charging that can free car owners from worry about running out of power. The hybrid system includes a DMFC fuel cell, fuel cell cartridge and electric vehicle batteries. The fuel cell operates almost silently with virtually no exhaust, it is immune to extreme weather and the convenient fuel cartridges feature extremely high energy density, providing vehicle owners with a lightweight, efficient and onboard power source. When connected to a rechargeable battery, the fuel cell constantly monitors the battery’s charge state. Once this drops below a predefined value, the fuel cell automatically starts recharging the battery. When the battery is full, the fuel cell returns to standby mode. This presentation will discuss the role methanol/battery hybrid systems can play in extending the range and operating time of electric vehicles. In addition, it will discuss the environmental merits of methanol, including its increasing production from biomass. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An environmental analysis of FCEV and H2-ICE vehicles using the Ecoscore methodology
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 635-646; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030635 - 25 Sep 2009
Viewed by 234
Abstract
The environmental issues caused by fossil fuels for transportation are numerous: greenhouse gas emissions are enhancing global warming, city smog, ozone and noise are causing major health problems, acid rain impacts our ecosystems, etc. Strong research efforts have therefore been performed towards alternative [...] Read more.
The environmental issues caused by fossil fuels for transportation are numerous: greenhouse gas emissions are enhancing global warming, city smog, ozone and noise are causing major health problems, acid rain impacts our ecosystems, etc. Strong research efforts have therefore been performed towards alternative fuels and drive trains and hydrogen is still one of the most promising — but at the same time controversial — possibilities. The environmental impact of hydrogen — used in a fuel cell (FCEV) or internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) - depends strongly on the production pathway for hydrogen and should therefore be evaluated on a well-to-wheel basis.
In this paper, the Ecoscore methodology is used to assess the environmental impact of H2-ICE and fuel cell vehicles on a well-to-wheel basis. The Ecoscore is an environmental indicator for vehicles taking into account the impact on global warming, air quality depletion (divided into impact on human health and ecosystems) and noise. The Ecoscores of two FCEV and one H2-ICEV are calculated for different hydrogen production pathways (electrolysis and Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)), as well as for different methods of hydrogen storage (compression and liquefaction) and distribution (pipeline and truck). The highest Ecoscores — and thus best results - are obtained for vehicles using hydrogen from electrolysis produced with 100 % renewable energy, followed by SMR and then electrolysis using the Belgian electricity mix. Compression appears to be better than liquefaction to store hydrogen due to the high energy use for the liquefaction process, and this compressed hydrogen should be transported through pipelines in stead of by trucks to obtain the best environmental performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Fuel Cell Vehicle Customer Usage and Hydrogen Refueling Patterns – Comparison of Private and Fleet Customers
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 629-634; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030629 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 203
Abstract
Honda has been leasing our fuel cell vehicle to numerous fleet customers, such as the City of LA, since 2002, and to individual customers since 2005. Honda is unique in having this combination of customer types. Because of their variety, our customers use [...] Read more.
Honda has been leasing our fuel cell vehicle to numerous fleet customers, such as the City of LA, since 2002, and to individual customers since 2005. Honda is unique in having this combination of customer types. Because of their variety, our customers use the fuel cell vehicle in very different ways. As a result, we have learned a lot about the differences in driving habits and refueling patterns of fleet vs. individual customers. This paper will discuss these differences and show the importance of considering these different usage patterns for future vehicle and hydrogen infrastructure development toward an effective rollout of a fueling network, and to provide maximum vehicle utility to our early customers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management System using Particle Swarm Optimization
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 618-628; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030618 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 313
Abstract
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are the new generation of automobiles that can run not only on the energy from gasoline but also that from an electric outlet stored in a battery pack. Hence, these vehicles can significantly reduce the consumption of gasoline [...] Read more.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are the new generation of automobiles that can run not only on the energy from gasoline but also that from an electric outlet stored in a battery pack. Hence, these vehicles can significantly reduce the consumption of gasoline by taking advantage of cheaper renewable and non renewable sources of energies available at the domestic electric outlet. Thus PHEVs can contribute significantly in reducing the overall green house gas emissions from automobiles. In this paper a simplified powertrain of power split PHEV is modeled. The main objective of the study is to increase the fuel economy of the PHEV. To achieve this goal, a gradient free optimization algorithm, namely “Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)” technique, has been implemented using the aforementioned simplified model. An optimization problem is formulated with Equivalent Fuel Consumption Minimization (EFCM) as the main objective function along with some constraints to be satisfied. This problem is then solved using the PSO algorithm and the optimal energy management algorithms are finally run in Argonne National Lab’s simulation software PSAT. The simulation results are then compared with PSAT’s default control strategy which indicate significant improvements in fuel economy with the PSO optimized algorithms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electro-mechanical Differentials for Reduction of Self-generated Wind-up Torques in DBW AWD Propulsion Mechatronic Control Systems
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 606-617; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030606 - 25 Sep 2009
Viewed by 219
Abstract
This paper deals with the concept of ‘passive’ and ‘active’ electromechanical (E-M) differentials in automotive mechatronics, in particular, for reduction of ‘self-generated wind-up torques’ in drive-by-wire (DBW) all-wheel-drive (AWD) propulsion mechatronic control systems. Self-generated wind-up torques are [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the concept of ‘passive’ and ‘active’ electromechanical (E-M) differentials in automotive mechatronics, in particular, for reduction of ‘self-generated wind-up torques’ in drive-by-wire (DBW) all-wheel-drive (AWD) propulsion mechatronic control systems. Self-generated wind-up torques are created by differing dynamic wheel-tire diameters, kinetic slip between front-wheel-drive (FWD) and rear-wheel-drive (RWD) units during cornering and kinetic slip between the driven wheels or steered, motorized and/or generatorized wheels (SM&GW) of one FWD or RWD unit. However, dissimilar transmission ratios for FWD and RWD units of a rigid DBW AWD propulsion mechatronic control systems, which also could create high self-generated wind-up torques, are usually not selected. The selfgenerated wind-up torques emerging in the DBW AWD propulsion mechatronic control system can only be reduced by power that linearly increases with the wheel angular speed. This power loss, in fact, cannot be utilized as tractive power for the all-terrain (on/off-road) all-electric vehicles (AEV), that is, battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) as well as hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV). The generated power loss increases the electrical energy economy and/or specific fuel consumption (SFC), the wear and tear (W&T) of all DBW AWD propulsion mechatronic control system components, and the wheel-tire wear. Under extreme circumstances, over heating and overload can significantly moderate the fatigue life and lead to an early failure of all DBW AWD propulsion mechatronic control system components. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Goods distribution with electric vans in cities: towards an agent-based simulation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 597-605; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030597 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 201
Abstract
Cities being the framework and power of economics, urban goods distribution is essential for the prosperity of urban areas but at the same time it is a source of problems related to the environment, traffic safety and accessibility. To classify and describe different [...] Read more.
Cities being the framework and power of economics, urban goods distribution is essential for the prosperity of urban areas but at the same time it is a source of problems related to the environment, traffic safety and accessibility. To classify and describe different problem-solving options for urban goods distribution, there is a need for a fundamental way of describing the transport process, its actors and its means (equipments and infrastructures). Few works describe methodologies for facing the problem of goods distribution in historical city centers, while taking into account the particular infrastructural restrictions and especially the narrow streets to which such areas are subject.
The main objective of our work is the specification and design of a software tool for the management of an electric vehicle fleet for goods distribution in small and medium sized cities. This is a part of a multimodal urban traffic simulator based on the paradigm of multi agent system (MAS). Agents and interactions are defined from modeling of the system “Goods Transport in City”. The end-user (e.g. city centre Manager) simulates scenarios in agreement with local traffic regulations, the capacity of the fleet and the routing alternatives.
This paper focuses on the modeling of the management process of the parking place sharing between car drivers and dedicated areas of goods deliveries. Full article
Open AccessArticle
HEV Cruise Control Strategy on GPS (Navigation) Information
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 589-596; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030589 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 251
Abstract
The main objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the development of the hybrid vehicle control system with the GPS (navigation) system of a vehicle travelling a pre-planned driving route. To verify the improvement in vehicle fuel economy, we developed the forward-facing simulator, [...] Read more.
The main objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the development of the hybrid vehicle control system with the GPS (navigation) system of a vehicle travelling a pre-planned driving route. To verify the improvement in vehicle fuel economy, we developed the forward-facing simulator, which can be applied to the proposed HEVs control system. The proposed HEVs control system recognizes upcoming driving patterns because it has terrain (uphill, downhill) and speed information. The controller calculates the parameters related to pattern recognition during a sampling time to choose a comparable driving cycle and to classify into three driving modes (Urban/ Extra-urban/ Highway mode). Moreover, a dynamic programming approach is proposed to obtain the optimal fuel economy and the state of charge (SOC) trajectory. For this approach, we developed a rule-based controller to manage the battery SOC according to the target SOC range. The amount of the target SOC range depends on the driving pattern recognition during a specific time period. The conventional HEV control system sustains the battery SOC within a limited range. Compared with the conventional controller, the proposed control system, by using road slope and speed information, gives results that confirm improved fuel economy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Rotterdam, city of electric transport
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 581-588; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030581 - 25 Sep 2009
Viewed by 224
Abstract
Traffic and transport is an important cause of air-quality and noise pollution in Rotterdam. Solving these problems needs various measurements in our region; cycling, walking and improving public transport are part in that. But large scale use of clean, silent and energy efficient [...] Read more.
Traffic and transport is an important cause of air-quality and noise pollution in Rotterdam. Solving these problems needs various measurements in our region; cycling, walking and improving public transport are part in that. But large scale use of clean, silent and energy efficient vehicle technologies is also a crucial part for a future sustainable transport system.
For the long term, Rotterdam regards the electric vehicle technology as the most promising solution for a real sustainable transport system. In the mean time, Rotterdam already started impulse-projects to create a market basis for large scale introduction of electric and hybrid-electric vehicles on the principle that seeing and trying is believing.
The energy company Eneco has originated from the Rotterdam municipal energy company GEB and is a very logical partner for the city of Rotterdam (still being a main shareholder in Eneco) when it comes to implementing projects where sustainable electricity is the most sound option. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of a Micro-Hybrid System for a Three-Wheeled Motor Taxi
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 572-580; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030572 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 308
Abstract
In large cities in Asia and Africa millions of auto-rickshaws offer their taxi-services. At the same time these three-wheelers cause severe air-pollution and produce large amounts of green house gasses (carbon dioxide). The goal of the research presented in this paper is to [...] Read more.
In large cities in Asia and Africa millions of auto-rickshaws offer their taxi-services. At the same time these three-wheelers cause severe air-pollution and produce large amounts of green house gasses (carbon dioxide). The goal of the research presented in this paper is to develop a compact, robust and affordable hybrid system in order to significantly reduce the fuel consumption and emissions of auto-rickshaws. A Bajaj RE auto-rickshaw equipped with a two-stroke engine is imported from India into The Netherlands and tested on a dynamo meter regarding fuel consumption and emissions on a representative drive cycle. A fully-automated, easy-to-mount, compact and affordable micro-hybrid system has been developed with which the fuel consumption and CO2-emissions are significantly reduced (21%) and the driver’s comfort is increased. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study and Analysis of an Optimized Control Strategy for the Toyota Hybrid System
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 563-571; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030563 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 204
Abstract
The Toyota Prius equipped with the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) II vehicle uses a combination of a combustion engine and two electric machines in order to increase the efficiency and the fuel economy. The Energy Management Strategy (EMS) of the THS II is [...] Read more.
The Toyota Prius equipped with the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) II vehicle uses a combination of a combustion engine and two electric machines in order to increase the efficiency and the fuel economy. The Energy Management Strategy (EMS) of the THS II is analyzed using measurement data collected with a Toyota Prius under different driving conditions on the road and compared with an optimized EMS based on simulations. The main goal of this paper is to verify the control strategy as implemented in the Prius by comparing the measured strategy with an optimized strategy based on Energy Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The differences between the simulation results and the actual measured strategy are analysed and discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Sustainable Transportation: A Canadian Perspective
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 551-562; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030551 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 319
Abstract
The demand for gasoline in Canada, especially by light-duty vehicles, continues to increase with economic growth and development. Fossil fuel driven vehicles are not only creating financial strain due to fluctuating gas prices but are also polluting the environment and posing health risks to the [...] Read more.
The demand for gasoline in Canada, especially by light-duty vehicles, continues to increase with economic growth and development. Fossil fuel driven vehicles are not only creating financial strain due to fluctuating gas prices but are also polluting the environment and posing health risks to the community. In an effort to promote public awareness, this paper reviews hybrid vehicle technology as a logical step towards sustainable, efficient and environment friendly transportation and discusses the measures taken by the Canadian government to encourage hybrid vehicle sales and to minimize fossil fuel dependency of the transportation sector. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Living and Mobility - Blue Angel 3 with SAM for a Demonstration Platform of V2G
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 541-550; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030541 - 25 Sep 2009
Viewed by 217
Abstract
The development of the Blue-Angel light HEV started already in its 1st generation in 1992. In 2006, the 3rd generation redesign, first as a HEV and later on as a full EV with range extender, was started. The current design-concept is [...] Read more.
The development of the Blue-Angel light HEV started already in its 1st generation in 1992. In 2006, the 3rd generation redesign, first as a HEV and later on as a full EV with range extender, was started. The current design-concept is presented in this paper. Emphasis is put on the energy storage integration with a so called SAM2 storage 3rd generation which stands in communication with the energy management of the appropriate building. This paper presents the integration of Blue-Angel in the strategic field of research "living and mobility" of CC IIEE1 of the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts as well as the V2G concept. In this concept, PHEVs and EVs can be utilized for harnessing renewable energy and for providing power for both residential and commercial customers. The amount and the direction of power flow amongst the sub-systems, which include the grid, renewable energy sources, household load and Blue- Angel is part of a new management system. The proposed system is an open and universal platform and is expected to gain popularity amongst both commercial and residential users interested in resolving the global energy crisis. The system components will be demonstrated in a show-area platform of the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts in Horw-Lucerne as well as in a local utility. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Site selection for electric cars of a car-sharing service
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 531-540; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030531 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 265
Abstract
This study is carried out in the framework of SUCCESS (Smaller Urban Communities in CIVITAS for Environmentally Sustainable Solutions), an European project funded by the European Commission under the CIVITAS program. These demonstration projects provide a means of testing out a wide range [...] Read more.
This study is carried out in the framework of SUCCESS (Smaller Urban Communities in CIVITAS for Environmentally Sustainable Solutions), an European project funded by the European Commission under the CIVITAS program. These demonstration projects provide a means of testing out a wide range of projects in a number of cities and the results of the evaluation will assist in showing which were successful, in what way and how that was achieved. One of these projects is the car-sharing implementation. Carsharing is defined as a self service which allows to each subscriber for reaching a vehicle, for the duration and the way of his choice. In the current state, where the impacts of the pollution and the congestion of cities are increasingly acute, the car-sharing service can be an attractive complement for other means of transportation. For it, this type of service must ensure a high level of temporal and spatial availability. For the managers of a car-sharing service it means an efficient management of the existing system and for the local authorities it means the study of the opportunities of its extension. This work proposes to the decision makers an approach of aid to the extension of the service based on the modeling of the preferences of the potential users. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The role of ICEVs, HEVs, PHEVs, BEVs and FCVs in achieving stringent CO2 targets: results from global energy systems modeling
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 519-530; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030519 - 25 Sep 2009
Viewed by 306
Abstract
A modified GET model version was used to investigate long-term, cost-effective fuel and vehicle technologies for global passenger transport. The aim was to quantify the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and low CO2 intensity electricity from renewable sources, [...] Read more.
A modified GET model version was used to investigate long-term, cost-effective fuel and vehicle technologies for global passenger transport. The aim was to quantify the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and low CO2 intensity electricity from renewable sources, such as concentrating solar power (CSP), on cost-effective passenger vehicle fuel and technology options necessary to achieve stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at 450 ppm. In addition, the model was used to assess the sensitivity of future vehicle cost assumptions. For all cases investigated, there is no single technology and fuel that dominates throughout the century; instead a variety of fuels and vehicle technologies are important. The availability of CCS and CSP have a substantial impact on cost-effective fuel and technology choices, in general: (i) the introduction of CCS increases the use of coal in the energy system and conventional vehicle technology, (ii) the introduction of CSP reduces the relative cost of electricity in relation to hydrogen and tends to increase the use of electricity for transport, and (iii) the introduction of both CCS and CSP reduces the economic incentives to shift to more advanced vehicle technologies. Varying cost estimates for future vehicle technologies results in large differences in the cost-effective fuel and vehicle technology solutions. For instance, for low battery costs ($150/kWh), electrified powertrains dominate and for higher battery costs ($450/kWh), hydrogen-fueled vehicles dominate, regardless of CCS and CSP availability. The results highlight the importance of a multi-sector approach and the importance of pursuing research and development of multiple fuel and vehicle technologies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Monitoring and Simulation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 511-518; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030511 - 25 Sep 2009
Viewed by 230
Abstract
The objective of this research is to develop a fuel cell hydrogen vehicle model (FC-RVS) and validate it with existing black-box models and with real on-board data. On-board data for dynamic profile, topography and fuel consumption was collected in the city of Porto [...] Read more.
The objective of this research is to develop a fuel cell hydrogen vehicle model (FC-RVS) and validate it with existing black-box models and with real on-board data. On-board data for dynamic profile, topography and fuel consumption was collected in the city of Porto in the framework of the hydrogen bus demonstration project CUTE (Clean Urban Transport for Europe). The vehicle used is part of a fleet of 27 urban buses developed and built by Evobus and uses a fuel cell based non-hybrid propulsion system. The data collected in Porto reflects a very demanding drive cycle that resulted in the availability of data for several operating conditions. The fuel cell vehicle is modelled by using efficiency maps of each powertrain component. Trough a backward approach the power requested is transformed in hydrogen consumption. Finally, optimized configurations to achieve the lowest hydrogen consumption possible are analyzed, including hybridization. FC-RVS model predictions were within 4% of measured results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Full life cycle analysis of market penetration of electricity based vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 505-510; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030505 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 278
Abstract
The main objective of the present study is to analyze the impact of the market share increase of different vehicle technologies in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the Portuguese mainland region. An extensive characterization of how road vehicle technologies [...] Read more.
The main objective of the present study is to analyze the impact of the market share increase of different vehicle technologies in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the Portuguese mainland region. An extensive characterization of how road vehicle technologies energy consumption and CO2 emissions compare in a full life cycle perspective was attained. The main conclusions are that plug-in hybrid, electric and fuel cell vehicles can have the potential to reduced energy consumption (up to 9%) and CO2 emissions (up to 19%) in a full life cycle analysis. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Predictive Cruise Control in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 494-504; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030494 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 518
Abstract
Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To support the driver in tracking [...] Read more.
Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To support the driver in tracking of the energy optimal velocity trajectory, automatic cruise control is an important driver aid. In practice, perfect tracking of the optimal velocity trajectory is often not possible. An Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system is employed to react to the actual traffic situation. The combination of optimal velocity trajectory construction and ACC is presented as Predictive Cruise Control (PCC). Full article
Open AccessArticle
U.S. Department of Energy – Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 482-493; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030482 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 250
Abstract
The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer, and on-road testing environments. The purpose of this testing is to determine the potential of PHEV technology to reduce petroleum consumption. It also allows [...] Read more.
The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer, and on-road testing environments. The purpose of this testing is to determine the potential of PHEV technology to reduce petroleum consumption. It also allows documentation of PHEV driving and charging profiles and electric charging infrastructure requirements. As of March 2009, the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity has initiated testing on 12 PHEV models from aftermarket conversion companies and original equipment manufacturers. In addition to performing controlled dynamometer and on-road testing, AVTA has collected in-use data from 155 PHEVs operating in 23 U.S. states and Canadian provinces. This fleet has demonstrated an average increase in cumulative fuel economy of 22 to 55% when in charge depleting mode, as compared to charge sustaining mode. Charge depleting range has varied from 32 to 64 miles, depending on the vehicle and battery pack. In ideal conditions, some vehicles have achieved monthly fuel economy results of 80 to 120 miles per gallon through frequent charging and less aggressive driving styles. Full article
Open AccessArticle
CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR CONVERTERS APPLIED IN GENERATOR-SETS FOR SHEV’s
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 477-481; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030477 - 25 Sep 2009
Viewed by 208
Abstract
This paper compares controlled series capacitor (CSC) converters applied to generator-sets used in series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEV). The operation of each circuit is discussed and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. It is concluded that CSC converters can improve the power factor (PF) of the [...] Read more.
This paper compares controlled series capacitor (CSC) converters applied to generator-sets used in series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEV). The operation of each circuit is discussed and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. It is concluded that CSC converters can improve the power factor (PF) of the generator-set. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparative LCA of electric, hybrid, LPG and gasoline cars in Belgian context
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 469-476; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030469 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
In this paper, an environmental comparison of electric, hybrid, LPG and gasoline passenger vehicles is performed through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Thanks to a range-based modeling system, the variations of the weight, the fuel consumption and the emissions within the family [...] Read more.
In this paper, an environmental comparison of electric, hybrid, LPG and gasoline passenger vehicles is performed through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Thanks to a range-based modeling system, the variations of the weight, the fuel consumption and the emissions within the family car category are considered instead of the average values. Unlike in a classic LCA, the use phase of vehicles has been modeled to cover vehicles with both a short and long lifespan in such way that the number of times a vehicle needs to be produced to cover the comparison basis or functional unit is taken into account. According to the assumptions and the used impact calculation method, the greenhouse effect of the LPG hybrid and battery electric vehicles are respectively 20.27 %, 27.44 % and 78.27% lower than for the gasoline vehicles. The assessment of the impact on human health and the air acidification give the best environmental score to the battery electric vehicle. A sensitivity analysis has allowed the assessment of the correlation between the respiratory effects and the euro emission standards. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Factors Determining the Manufacturing Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for PHEVs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 457-468; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030457 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 354
Abstract
In this study, we developed a model for calculating the costs of lithium-ion batteries supporting electric drive in light duty passenger vehicles (LDVs). The model calculates the annual materials requirements from design criteria for the battery pack including power, capacity, number of cells, [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a model for calculating the costs of lithium-ion batteries supporting electric drive in light duty passenger vehicles (LDVs). The model calculates the annual materials requirements from design criteria for the battery pack including power, capacity, number of cells, and cell chemistry parameters. The costs of capital equipment, plant area and labor for each step in the manufacturing process were estimated for a baseline plant. These costs are adjusted for each battery pack studied by comparing the processing rate pertinent for each step (area to be coated, number of cells to be tested, etc.) with that of the baseline process and applying correction factors. We applied the cost modelling method to batteries with four lithium-ion cell chemistries and for several levels of capacity and power. For quality assurance purposes, electrode coating thicknesses are limited to 100 microns by the model. The result of this restriction is that as the capacity of the cells is increased to achieve longer range under electric power, the electrode area and the cell power are also increased and the power of the entire battery pack is also increased. In simulations of our reference chemistry for 16, 32 and 48 -km PHEVs there is almost no cost increase for increasing the pack power from 40 to 60kW; for PHEVs with 48- and 64 km electric range, there was almost no additional cost for power up to 90 kW. For a set value of pack energy storage, a small number of high capacity cells are much less expensive to manufacture than a large number of low-capacity cells. The useable fraction of the state-of-charge range for a battery system is shown to be an important cost factor. In view of cost similarities, the choice of cell chemistry will probably depend more on proven safety, reliability, and long life rather than on initial cost. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Heat Recovery for next Generation of Hybrid Vehicles: Simulation and Design of a Rankine Cycle System
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 440-456; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030440 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 253
Abstract
Improvement of vehicle effectiveness thanks to hybridisation are limited by the engine efficiency. In this way, the use of additional energy converters pave the way to a next generation of hybird vehicles.
After taking stock of the main sources of recoverable energy of [...] Read more.
Improvement of vehicle effectiveness thanks to hybridisation are limited by the engine efficiency. In this way, the use of additional energy converters pave the way to a next generation of hybird vehicles.
After taking stock of the main sources of recoverable energy of a IC engine, this paper focuses on the Rankine cycle solution. This parametric study relies on a dedicated 0D/1D simulation tool to emphasize the effect of design and operating parameters on heat recovery potential and limitations. So, interactions between working fluid properties, pressure level in boiler and condenser, flow rate, component arrangement and engine operating conditions are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Overview of Automotive Home and Neighborhood Refueling
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 432-439; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3030432 - 25 Sep 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 204
Abstract
Home refueling helped address the fuel availability issue for gasoline vehicles a century ago; it may still have important implications for alternative fuel vehicles today. The positive consumer response and lessons learned about home refueling for compressed natural gas vehicles, battery electric vehicles, [...] Read more.
Home refueling helped address the fuel availability issue for gasoline vehicles a century ago; it may still have important implications for alternative fuel vehicles today. The positive consumer response and lessons learned about home refueling for compressed natural gas vehicles, battery electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid vehicles demonstrate its potential and warrant further research. This paper presents a historical review and comparison of home refueling methods for a wide range of motor vehicles; the home refueling experience of these vehicles and consumer preferences and response to these methods are discussed as well. A description of neighborhood refueling is also provided. Furthermore, the important questions, challenges, and opportunities of adopting a home and neighborhood refueling strategy for alternative fuel pathways are summarized. The paper intends to help us understand the potential of home and neighborhood refueling and the difference between home refueling for different alternative fuel pathways, and help facilitate further exploring of the implications. Full article
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop