Next Article in Journal
Design and Simulation for Fuel Cell Cathode Air Filter
Previous Article in Journal
Development of Intelligent Electric Vehicle for Study of Unmanned Autonomous Driving Algorithm
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

The role of ICEVs, HEVs, PHEVs, BEVs and FCVs in achieving stringent CO2 targets: results from global energy systems modeling

Department of Energy and Environment, Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goteborg, Sweden
Systems Analytics and Environmental Sciences Department Ford Motor Company, Mail Drop RIC-2122, Dearborn, MI 48121-2053, USA
Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Management of Organizational Renewal and Entrepreneurship (MORE), Goteborg, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 519-530;
Published: 25 September 2009
PDF [925 KB, uploaded 17 May 2018]


A modified GET model version was used to investigate long-term, cost-effective fuel and vehicle technologies for global passenger transport. The aim was to quantify the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and low CO2 intensity electricity from renewable sources, such as concentrating solar power (CSP), on cost-effective passenger vehicle fuel and technology options necessary to achieve stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at 450 ppm. In addition, the model was used to assess the sensitivity of future vehicle cost assumptions. For all cases investigated, there is no single technology and fuel that dominates throughout the century; instead a variety of fuels and vehicle technologies are important. The availability of CCS and CSP have a substantial impact on cost-effective fuel and technology choices, in general: (i) the introduction of CCS increases the use of coal in the energy system and conventional vehicle technology, (ii) the introduction of CSP reduces the relative cost of electricity in relation to hydrogen and tends to increase the use of electricity for transport, and (iii) the introduction of both CCS and CSP reduces the economic incentives to shift to more advanced vehicle technologies. Varying cost estimates for future vehicle technologies results in large differences in the cost-effective fuel and vehicle technology solutions. For instance, for low battery costs ($150/kWh), electrified powertrains dominate and for higher battery costs ($450/kWh), hydrogen-fueled vehicles dominate, regardless of CCS and CSP availability. The results highlight the importance of a multi-sector approach and the importance of pursuing research and development of multiple fuel and vehicle technologies.
Keywords: modeling; cost; alternative fuel; emissions; passenger car modeling; cost; alternative fuel; emissions; passenger car
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Grahn, M.; Anderson, J.E.; Wallington, T.J.; Williander, M. The role of ICEVs, HEVs, PHEVs, BEVs and FCVs in achieving stringent CO2 targets: results from global energy systems modeling. World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3, 519-530.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
World Electr. Veh. J. EISSN 2032-6653 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top