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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

An environmental analysis of FCEV and H2-ICE vehicles using the Ecoscore methodology

Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department ETEC, Building Z, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(3), 635-646;
Published: 25 September 2009
The environmental issues caused by fossil fuels for transportation are numerous: greenhouse gas emissions are enhancing global warming, city smog, ozone and noise are causing major health problems, acid rain impacts our ecosystems, etc. Strong research efforts have therefore been performed towards alternative fuels and drive trains and hydrogen is still one of the most promising — but at the same time controversial — possibilities. The environmental impact of hydrogen — used in a fuel cell (FCEV) or internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) - depends strongly on the production pathway for hydrogen and should therefore be evaluated on a well-to-wheel basis.
In this paper, the Ecoscore methodology is used to assess the environmental impact of H2-ICE and fuel cell vehicles on a well-to-wheel basis. The Ecoscore is an environmental indicator for vehicles taking into account the impact on global warming, air quality depletion (divided into impact on human health and ecosystems) and noise. The Ecoscores of two FCEV and one H2-ICEV are calculated for different hydrogen production pathways (electrolysis and Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)), as well as for different methods of hydrogen storage (compression and liquefaction) and distribution (pipeline and truck). The highest Ecoscores — and thus best results - are obtained for vehicles using hydrogen from electrolysis produced with 100 % renewable energy, followed by SMR and then electrolysis using the Belgian electricity mix. Compression appears to be better than liquefaction to store hydrogen due to the high energy use for the liquefaction process, and this compressed hydrogen should be transported through pipelines in stead of by trucks to obtain the best environmental performance.
Keywords: hydrogen; fuel cell; ICE (internal combustion engine); environment, energy hydrogen; fuel cell; ICE (internal combustion engine); environment, energy
MDPI and ACS Style

N., S.; F.-S., B.; J., M.; J.-M., T.; J., V.M. An environmental analysis of FCEV and H2-ICE vehicles using the Ecoscore methodology. World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3, 635-646.

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World Electr. Veh. J., EISSN 2032-6653, Published by MDPI AG
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