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Pharmaceutics, Volume 12, Issue 6 (June 2020) – 114 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Mesoporous silica nanoparticles are promising delivery vehicles in cancer therapy. Thanks to their outstanding features, including huge surface area and ordered mesoporous interior, they can carry different anticancer therapeutics with high loading capacity and can offer tunable and stimuli-responsive release mechanisms, avoiding off-targets. The surface of MSN can be easily decorated by various ligands for active targeting to specifically reach the cancer region exploiting overexpressed receptors. In this review, we focus on the most recent efforts on multimodal decorations of MSN, enabling both the active targeting and stimuli-responsive behavior of such promising drug delivery systems. View this paper
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Article
Formulation and Optimization of Avanafil Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles: A Single-Dose Clinical Pharmacokinetic Evaluation
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060596 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
Avanafil (AVA) is a second-generation phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor. AVA shows high selectivity to penile tissues and fast absorption, but has a bioavailability of about 36%. The aim was to formulate and optimize AVA-biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance AVA bioavailability. To assess the impact [...] Read more.
Avanafil (AVA) is a second-generation phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor. AVA shows high selectivity to penile tissues and fast absorption, but has a bioavailability of about 36%. The aim was to formulate and optimize AVA-biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance AVA bioavailability. To assess the impact of variables, the Box–Behnken design was utilized to investigate and optimize the formulation process variables: the AVA:poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) ratio (w/w, X1); sonication time (min, X2); and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration (%, X3). Particle size (nm, Y1) and EE% (%, Y2) were the responses. The optimized NPs were characterized for surface morphology and permeation. Furthermore, a single-oral dose (50 mg AVA) pharmacokinetic investigation on healthy volunteers was carried out. Statistical analysis revealed that all the investigated factors exhibited a significant effect on the particle size. Furthermore, the entrapment efficiency (Y2) was significantly affected by both the AVA:PLGA ratio (X1) and PVA concentration (X3). Pharmacokinetic data showed a significant increase in the area under the curve (1.68 folds) and plasma maximum concentration (1.3-fold) for the AVA NPs when compared with raw AVA. The optimization and formulation of AVA as biodegradable NPs prepared using solvent evaporation (SE) proves a successful way to enhance AVA bioavailability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocarriers and Nanomedicine for Drug Delivery)
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Article
Quantification of Pharmacokinetic Profiles of PD-1/PD-L1 Antibodies by Validated ELISAs
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060595 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Immunotherapy has changed the paradigm of cancer treatments. In this way, several combinatorial strategies based on monoclonal antibodies (mAb) such as anti (a)-PD-1 or anti (a)-PD-L1 are often reported to yield promising clinical benefits. However, the pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior of these mAbs is [...] Read more.
Immunotherapy has changed the paradigm of cancer treatments. In this way, several combinatorial strategies based on monoclonal antibodies (mAb) such as anti (a)-PD-1 or anti (a)-PD-L1 are often reported to yield promising clinical benefits. However, the pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior of these mAbs is a critical issue that requires selective analytical techniques. Indeed, few publications report data on a-PD1/a-PD-L1 exposure and its relationship with therapeutic or toxic effects. In this regard, preclinical assays allow the time profiles of antibody plasma concentrations to be characterized rapidly and easily, which may help to increase PK knowledge. In this study, we have developed and validated two in-house ELISAs to quantify a-PD-1 and a-PD-L1 in plasma collected from tumor-bearing mice. The linear range for the a-PD-1 assay was 2.5–125 ng/mL and 0.11–3.125 ng/mL for the a-PD-L1 assay, whereas the intra-and inter-day precision was lower than 20% for both analytes. The PK characterization revealed a significant decrease in drug exposure after administration of multiple doses. Plasma half-life for a-PD-1 was slightly shorter (22.3 h) than for a-PD-L1 (46.7 h). To our knowledge, this is the first reported preclinical ELISA for these immune checkpoint inhibitors, which is sufficiently robust to be used in different preclinical models. These methods can help to understand the PK behavior of these antibodies under different scenarios and the relationship with response, thus guiding the choice of optimal doses in clinical settings. Full article
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Article
Chitosan Derivatives with Mucoadhesive and Antimicrobial Properties for Simultaneous Nanoencapsulation and Extended Ocular Release Formulations of Dexamethasone and Chloramphenicol Drugs
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060594 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1084
Abstract
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of neat chitosan (CS) and its derivatives with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AAMPS) and [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide (MEDSP) as appropriate nanocarriers for the simultaneous ocular administration of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DxP) and chloramphenicol (CHL). The derivatives [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of neat chitosan (CS) and its derivatives with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AAMPS) and [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide (MEDSP) as appropriate nanocarriers for the simultaneous ocular administration of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DxP) and chloramphenicol (CHL). The derivatives CS-AAMPS and CS-MEDSP have been synthesized by free-radical polymerization and their structure has been proved by Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Both derivatives exhibited low cytotoxicity, enhanced mucoadhesive properties and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Encapsulation was performed via ionic crosslinking gelation using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as the crosslinking agent. Dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS) showed that the prepared nanoparticles had bimodal distribution and sizes ranging from 50–200 nm and 300–800 nm. Drugs were encapsulated in their crystalline (CHL) or amorphous (DexSP) form inside nanoparticles and their release rate was dependent on the used polymer. The CHL dissolution rate was substantially enhanced compared to the neat drug and the release time was extended up to 7 days. The release rate of DexSP was much faster than that of CHL and was prolonged up to 3 days. Drug release modeling unveiled that diffusion is the main release mechanism for both drugs. Both prepared derivatives and their drug-loaded nanoparticles could be used for extended and simultaneous ocular release formulations of DexSP and CHL drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug and Gene Delivery)
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Article
Wearable Fixation Device for a Magnetically Controllable Therapeutic Agent Carrier: Application to Cartilage Repair
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060593 - 26 Jun 2020
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Recently, significant research efforts have been devoted toward the development of magnetically controllable drug delivery systems, however, drug fixation after targeting remains a challenge hindering long-term therapeutic efficacy. To overcome this issue, we present a wearable therapeutic fixation device for fixing magnetically controllable [...] Read more.
Recently, significant research efforts have been devoted toward the development of magnetically controllable drug delivery systems, however, drug fixation after targeting remains a challenge hindering long-term therapeutic efficacy. To overcome this issue, we present a wearable therapeutic fixation device for fixing magnetically controllable therapeutic agent carriers (MCTACs) at defect sites and its application to cartilage repair using stem cell therapeutics. The developed device comprises an array of permanent magnets based on the Halbach array principle and a wearable band capable of wrapping the target body. The design of the permanent magnet array, in terms of the number of magnets and array configuration, was determined through univariate search optimization and 3D simulation. The device was fabricated for a given rat model and yielded a strong magnetic flux density (exceeding 40 mT) in the region of interest that was capable of fixing the MCTAC at the desired defect site. Through in-vitro and in-vivo experiments, we successfully demonstrated that MCTACs, both a stem cell spheroid and a micro-scaffold for cartilage repair, could be immobilized at defect sites. This research is expected to advance precise drug delivery technology based on MCTACs, enabling subject-specific routine life therapeutics. Further studies involving the proposed wearable fixation device will be conducted considering prognostics under actual clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics as a Tool for Drug Delivery)
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Review
Recent Advances and Impact of Chemotherapeutic and Antiangiogenic Nanoformulations for Combination Cancer Therapy
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060592 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Traditional chemotherapy, along with antiangiogenesis drugs (combination cancer therapy), has shown reduced tumor recurrence and improved antitumor effects, as tumor growth and metastasis are often dependent on tumor vascularization. However, the effect of combination chemotherapy, including synergism and additive and even antagonism effects, [...] Read more.
Traditional chemotherapy, along with antiangiogenesis drugs (combination cancer therapy), has shown reduced tumor recurrence and improved antitumor effects, as tumor growth and metastasis are often dependent on tumor vascularization. However, the effect of combination chemotherapy, including synergism and additive and even antagonism effects, depends on drug combinations in an optimized ratio. Hence, nanoformulations are ideal, demonstrating a great potential for the combination therapy of chemo-antiangiogenesis for cancer. The rationale for designing various nanocarriers for combination therapy is derived from organic (polymer, lipid), inorganic, or hybrid materials. In particular, hybrid nanocarriers that consist of more than one material construct provide flexibility for different modes of entrapment within the same carrier—e.g., physical adsorption, encapsulation, and chemical conjugation strategies. These multifunctional nanocarriers can thus be used to co-deliver chemo- and antiangiogenesis drugs with tunable drug release at target sites. Hence, this review attempts to survey the most recent advances in nanoformulations and their impact on cancer treatment in a combined regimen—i.e., conventional cytotoxic and antiangiogenesis agents. The mechanisms and site-specific co-delivery strategies are also discussed herein, along with future prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Multifunctional Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
In Vivo Assessment of Thermosensitive Liposomes for the Treatment of Port Wine Stains by Antifibrinolytic Site-Specific Pharmaco-Laser Therapy
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060591 - 25 Jun 2020
Viewed by 933
Abstract
Antifibrinolytic site-specific pharmaco-laser therapy (SSPLT) is an experimental treatment modality for refractory port wine stains (PWS). Conceptually, antifibrinolytic drugs encapsulated in thermosensitive liposomes are delivered to thrombi that form in semi-photocoagulated PWS blood vessels after conventional laser treatment. Local release of antifibrinolytics is [...] Read more.
Antifibrinolytic site-specific pharmaco-laser therapy (SSPLT) is an experimental treatment modality for refractory port wine stains (PWS). Conceptually, antifibrinolytic drugs encapsulated in thermosensitive liposomes are delivered to thrombi that form in semi-photocoagulated PWS blood vessels after conventional laser treatment. Local release of antifibrinolytics is induced by mild hyperthermia, resulting in hyperthrombosis and complete occlusion of the target blood vessel (clinical endpoint). In this study, 20 thermosensitive liposomal formulations containing tranexamic acid (TA) were assayed for physicochemical properties, TA:lipid ratio, encapsulation efficiency, and endovesicular TA concentration. Two candidate formulations (DPPC:DSPE-PEG, DPPC:MPPC:DSPE-PEG) were selected based on optimal properties and analyzed for heat-induced TA release at body temperature (T), phase transition temperature (Tm), and at T > Tm. The effect of plasma on liposomal stability at 37 °C was determined, and the association of liposomes with platelets was examined by flow cytometry. The accumulation of PEGylated phosphocholine liposomes in laser-induced thrombi was investigated in a hamster dorsal skinfold model and intravital fluorescence microscopy. Both formulations did not release TA at 37 °C. Near-complete TA release was achieved at Tm within 2.0–2.5 min of heating, which was accelerated at T > Tm. Plasma exerted a stabilizing effect on both formulations. Liposomes showed mild association with platelets. Despite positive in vitro results, fluorescently labeled liposomes did not sufficiently accumulate in laser-induced thrombi in hamsters to warrant their use in antifibrinolytic SSPLT, which can be solved by coupling thrombus-targeting ligands to the liposomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Liposome-Based Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Targeting Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells Using Collagen-Binding Chitosan Nanoparticles for siRNA Delivery to Fibrotic Livers
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060590 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) are the main orchestrators of the fibrotic cascade in inflamed livers, with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) being the most potent pro-fibrotic cytokine. Hence, aHSCs serve as interesting therapeutic targets. However, drug delivery to aHSCs is hindered by excessive [...] Read more.
Activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) are the main orchestrators of the fibrotic cascade in inflamed livers, with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) being the most potent pro-fibrotic cytokine. Hence, aHSCs serve as interesting therapeutic targets. However, drug delivery to aHSCs is hindered by excessive collagen deposition in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and capillarization of liver sinusoids. Chitosan-nanoparticles (CS-NPs) show intrinsic affinity for collagen, holding potential for drug delivery to fibrotic livers. Here, we employed CS-NPs for anti-TGF-β siRNA delivery, promoting delivery into aHSCs via modification with platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta binding peptides. In-vitro experiments using aHSCs demonstrated the association of unmodified CS-NPs to the collagen-rich ECM, with reduced intracellular accumulation. Peptide-modified CS-NPs showed a higher propensity to localize intracellularly; however, this was only the case upon ECM-collagen reduction via collagenase treatment. Peptide-modified CS-NPs were more potent than unmodified CS-NPs in reducing TGF-β expression, implying that while collagen binding promotes liver accumulation, it hinders cell-specific siRNA delivery. In-vivo, CS-NPs successfully accumulated in fibrotic livers via collagen binding. Similar to in-vitro findings, when mice were pretreated with collagenase-loaded CS-NPs, the accumulation of peptide-modified NPs increased. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness of NPs modification with targeting ligands and collagenase treatment for aHSCs targeting and highlight the importance of chitosan–collagen binding in drug delivery to fibrotic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid- and/or Polymer-Based Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Biomimetic Magnetoliposomes as Oxaliplatin Nanocarriers: In Vitro Study for Potential Application in Colon Cancer
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060589 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Current chemotherapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) includes the use of oxaliplatin (Oxa), a first-line cytotoxic drug which, in combination with irinotecan/5-fluorouracil or biologic agents, increases the survival rate of patients. However, the administration of this drug induces side effects that limit its application [...] Read more.
Current chemotherapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) includes the use of oxaliplatin (Oxa), a first-line cytotoxic drug which, in combination with irinotecan/5-fluorouracil or biologic agents, increases the survival rate of patients. However, the administration of this drug induces side effects that limit its application in patients, making it necessary to develop new tools for targeted chemotherapy. MamC-mediated biomimetic magnetic nanoparticles coupled with Oxa (Oxa-BMNPs) have been previously demonstrated to efficiently reduce the IC50 compared to that of soluble Oxa. However, their strong interaction with the macrophages revealed toxicity and possibility of aggregation. In this scenario, a further improvement of this nanoassembly was necessary. In the present study, Oxa-BMNPs nanoassemblies were enveloped in phosphatidylcholine unilamellar liposomes (both pegylated and non-pegylated). Our results demonstrate that the addition of both a lipid cover and further pegylation improves the biocompatibility and cellular uptake of the Oxa-BMNPs nanoassemblies without significantly reducing their cytotoxic activity in colon cancer cells. In particular, with the pegylated magnetoliposome nanoformulation (a) hemolysis was reduced from 5% to 2%, being now hematocompatibles, (b) red blood cell agglutination was reduced, (c) toxicity in white blood cells was eliminated. This study represents a truly stepforward in this area as describes the production of one of the very few existing nanoformulations that could be used for a local chemotherapy to treat CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatible Materials in Drug Delivery System in Oncology)
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Article
Novel Cleaning-in-Place Strategies for Pharmaceutical Hot Melt Extrusion
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060588 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1391
Abstract
To avoid any type of cross-contamination, residue-free production equipment is of utmost importance in the pharmaceutical industry. The equipment cleaning for continuous processes such as hot melt extrusion (HME), which has recently gained popularity in pharmaceutical applications, necessitates extensive manual labour and costs. [...] Read more.
To avoid any type of cross-contamination, residue-free production equipment is of utmost importance in the pharmaceutical industry. The equipment cleaning for continuous processes such as hot melt extrusion (HME), which has recently gained popularity in pharmaceutical applications, necessitates extensive manual labour and costs. The present work tackles the HME cleaning issue by investigating two cleaning strategies following the extrusion of polymeric formulations of a hormonal drug and for a sustained release formulation of a poorly soluble drug. First, an in-line quantification by means of UV–Vis spectroscopy was successfully implemented to assess very low active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentrations in the extrudates during a cleaning procedure for the first time. Secondly, a novel in-situ solvent-based cleaning approach was developed and its usability was evaluated and compared to a polymer-based cleaning sequence. Comparing the in-line data to typical swab and rinse tests of the process equipment indicated that inaccessible parts of the equipment were still contaminated after the polymer-based cleaning procedure, although no API was detected in the extrudate. Nevertheless, the novel solvent-based cleaning approach proved to be suitable for removing API residue from the majority of problematic equipment parts and can potentially enable a full API cleaning-in-place of a pharmaceutical extruder for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot-Melt Extrusion)
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Review
Recent Advances in the Structural Design of Photosensitive Agent Formulations Using “Soft” Colloidal Nanocarriers
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060587 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
The growing demand for effective delivery of photosensitive active compounds has resulted in the development of colloid chemistry and nanotechnology. Recently, many kinds of novel formulations with outstanding pharmaceutical potential have been investigated with an expansion in the design of a wide variety [...] Read more.
The growing demand for effective delivery of photosensitive active compounds has resulted in the development of colloid chemistry and nanotechnology. Recently, many kinds of novel formulations with outstanding pharmaceutical potential have been investigated with an expansion in the design of a wide variety of “soft” nanostructures such as simple or multiple (double) nanoemulsions and lipid formulations. The latter can then be distinguished into vesicular, including liposomes and “smart” vesicles such as transferosomes, niosomes and ethosomes, and non-vesicular nanosystems with solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers. Encapsulation of photosensitive agents such as drugs, dyes, photosensitizers or antioxidants can be specifically formulated by the self-assembly of phospholipids or other amphiphilic compounds. They are intended to match unique pharmaceutic and cosmetic requirements and to improve their delivery to the target site via the most common, i.e., transdermal, intravenous or oral administration routes. Numerous surface modifications and functionalization of the nanostructures allow increasing their effectiveness and, consequently, may contribute to the treatment of many diseases, primarily cancer. An increasing article number is evidencing significant advances in applications of the different classes of the photosensitive agents incorporated in the ”soft” colloidal nanocarriers that deserved to be highlighted in the present review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formulation of Photosensitive Drugs)
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Article
Ex Vivo Human Skin is not a Barrier for Cyclic Siloxanes (Cyclic Silicones): Evidence of Diffusion, Bioaccumulation, and Risk of Dermal Absorption Using a New Validated GC-FID Procedure
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060586 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Cyclic methylsiloxanes D4, D5, D6 (also called cyclic silicones) are widely used in various dermatological products and cosmetics, both for children and adults. As a result of their unique physicochemical properties, the production of cyclic methylsiloxanes has greatly increased over the last few [...] Read more.
Cyclic methylsiloxanes D4, D5, D6 (also called cyclic silicones) are widely used in various dermatological products and cosmetics, both for children and adults. As a result of their unique physicochemical properties, the production of cyclic methylsiloxanes has greatly increased over the last few years, which has resulted in increased exposure to mankind. The validated quantitative for gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis with using the transdermal diffusion system with vertical Franz cells demonstrated that ex vivo human skin is not a barrier to cyclic siloxanes. D4, D5, and D6 have a specific affinity to stratum corneum (SC) (especially D6), and can even diffuse into the deeper layers of the skin (epidermis (E) and dermis (D)), or into the receptor fluid as well. An important achievement of this work was the observation of the characteristic ratio partitioning D4, D5, and D6 in skin layers and receptor fluid (RF). The studies have shown that, in order to thoroughly understand the mechanism, it is important to determine not only the differences in the amounts of cumulated doses in total in all skin layers and receptor fluid, but also the mutual ratios of analyte concentrations existing between matrices. For example, in the case of the stratum corneum, the cumulative doses of D4, D5, and D6 were 27.5, 63.9, and 67.2 µg/cm2/24 h, respectively, and in the epidermis, they were 6.9, 29.9, and 10.7 µg/cm2/24 h, respectively, which confirmed the highest affinity of D6 to stratum corneum as the amount diffused into the epidermis was 2.8 times smaller compared to D5. The calculated epidermis-to-stratum corneum ratios of analyte concentrations also confirm this. The largest ratio was identified for D5 (E/SC = 47), followed by D4 (E/SC = 25), and finally by D6 (E/SC = 16). The analysis of the next stage of diffusion from epidermis to dermis revealed that in dermis the highest cumulative dose was observed for D5 (13.9 µg/cm2/24 h), while the doses of D4 and D6 were similar (5.1 and 5.3 µg/cm2/24 h). Considering the concentration gradient, it can be concluded that the diffusion of D5 and D6 occurs at a similar level, while D4 diffuses at a much higher level. These observations were also confirmed by the dermis-to-epidermis concentration ratios. The final stage of diffusion from dermis to the receptor fluid indicated that D4 was able to permeate easily, while D5 exhibited a difficult diffusion and the diffusion of D6 was limited. The receptor fluid-to-dermis concentration ratios (RF/D) were calculated for D4, D5, and D6: 80, 53, and 17, respectively. Our results also revealed the increased risk of D4 and D5 absorption into the blood and lymphatic systems, whereas D6 demonstrated the lowest risk. Therefore, we can argue that, among the three tested compounds, D6 is the safest one that can be used in dermatological, cosmetic, and personal care products. This study demonstrates that the stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis can be also considered reservoirs of cyclic methylsiloxanes. Therefore, these compounds can demonstrate potential long-term bioaccumulation, and can be absorbed to the bloodstream in a long-term and uncontrolled process. Full article
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Article
Development of ErbB2-Targeting Liposomes for Enhancing Drug Delivery to ErbB2-Positive Breast Cancer
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060585 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1270
Abstract
ErbB2 is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase, which is known to be involved in tumorigenesis, tumor aggressiveness, and clinical outcome. ErbB2-targeting therapy using therapeutic antibodies has been successful in breast cancer treatment. However, the need for repeated treatments and the high cost [...] Read more.
ErbB2 is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase, which is known to be involved in tumorigenesis, tumor aggressiveness, and clinical outcome. ErbB2-targeting therapy using therapeutic antibodies has been successful in breast cancer treatment. However, the need for repeated treatments and the high cost are major disadvantages with monoclonal antibody therapies. Compared with antibodies, peptides are cheap, relatively stable, and have low immunogenicity. We have developed a highly specific cancer-targeting drug delivery system using a targeting peptide to maximize the therapeutic efficiency of rapamycin and to help prevent drug resistance in ErbB2-positive breast cancer. Physicochemical characterization confirmed the successful construction of ErbB2-targeting liposomes (ErbB2Lipo). A comparison of a scrambled peptide (ScrErbB2) with the ErbB2-targeting peptide confirmed that these peptides had similar properties except for the targeting ability. The ErbB2Lipo exhibited higher delivery efficiency in ErbB2 positive BT-474 cells than non-targeting liposomes conjugated with ScrErbB2 (ScrErbB2Lipo). This peptide-targeting strategy has the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in ErbB2-positive cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Topical Administration of SLN-Based Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Corneal Inflammation by De Novo IL-10 Production
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060584 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
One of the main challenges in gene therapy is the issue of delivery, and it is especially relevant for the success of gene therapy in the cornea. In the present work, eye drops containing biocompatible non-viral vectors based on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) [...] Read more.
One of the main challenges in gene therapy is the issue of delivery, and it is especially relevant for the success of gene therapy in the cornea. In the present work, eye drops containing biocompatible non-viral vectors based on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as gene delivery systems to induce the expression of interleukin 10 (IL-10) were designed to address the treatment of corneal inflammation. Two kinds of SLNs combined with different ligands (protamine, dextran, or hyaluronic acid (HA)) and formulated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were prepared. SLN-based vectors were characterized in terms of size, adhesiveness, viscosity, and pH, before topical administration to wild type and IL-10 knock out (KO) mice. The formulations showed a homogenous particle size below 400 nm and a positive surface charge to favor bioadhesion; the incorporation of PVA improved the corneal penetration. After three days of treatment by topical instillation, SLN-based vectors mainly transfected corneal epithelial cells, HA-formulations being the most effective ones. IL-10 was capable of reaching even the endothelial layer. Corneal sections showed no histological change and formulations seemed to be well tolerated after repeated topical administration. These promising results highlight the possible contribution of non-viral gene augmentation therapy to the future clinical approach of corneal gene therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocular Drug Delivery: Present Innovations and Future Challenges)
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Article
Manipulation of Medicinal Products for Oral Administration to Paediatric Patients at a German University Hospital: An Observational Study
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060583 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1310
Abstract
Pharmacotherapy in children requires medicinal products in age-appropriate dosage forms and flexible dose strengths. Healthcare professionals often encounter a lack of licensed and commercially available formulations, which results in the need for manipulation. This study aimed to investigate the nature, frequency and preventability [...] Read more.
Pharmacotherapy in children requires medicinal products in age-appropriate dosage forms and flexible dose strengths. Healthcare professionals often encounter a lack of licensed and commercially available formulations, which results in the need for manipulation. This study aimed to investigate the nature, frequency and preventability of the manipulation of medicinal products before oral drug administration to paediatric inpatients in Germany. A prospective, direct observational approach was used. Two thousand and three medication preparation processes (MPP) in 193 patients were included in the analysis. Medicines were manipulated in 37% of oral administrations, affecting 57% of the patients. The percentage of manipulations was highest in infants/toddlers (42%) and lowest in adolescents (31%). Antiepileptics were most frequently manipulated (27%), followed by vitamins (20%) and drugs for acid-related disorders (13%). Fifty-six per cent of all manipulations were off-label. In 71% of these, no alternative appropriate medicinal product was commercially available. These results demonstrate that the manipulation of medicinal products before oral administration is common in paediatric wards in Germany. About half of the manipulations were off-label, indicating that no suitable formulation was available. Evidence-based guidelines for manipulations are required, with the overall aim of improving the safety of paediatric drug therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Drug Delivery)
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Article
Drug Release from a Spherical Matrix: Theoretical Analysis for a Finite Dissolution Rate Affected by Geometric Shape of Dispersed Drugs
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060582 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
Amending the neglect of finite dissolution in traditional release models, this study proposed a more generalized drug release model considering the simultaneous dissolution and diffusion procedure from a drug-loaded spherical matrix. How the shape factor (n = 0, 1/2, and 2/3 for [...] Read more.
Amending the neglect of finite dissolution in traditional release models, this study proposed a more generalized drug release model considering the simultaneous dissolution and diffusion procedure from a drug-loaded spherical matrix. How the shape factor (n = 0, 1/2, and 2/3 for the planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometry, respectively) of dispersed drug particles affected the release from the matrix was examined for the first time. Numerical solutions of this generalized model were validated by consensus with a short-time analytical solution for planar drugs and by the approach of the diffusion-controlled limits with Higuchi’s model. The drug release rate increases with the ratio of dissolution/diffusion rate (G) and the ratio of solubility/drug loading (K) but decreases with the shape factor of drug particles. A zero-order release profile is identified for planar drugs before starting the surface depletion layer, and also found for cylindrical and spherical dispersed drugs when K and G are small, i.e. the loaded drug is mainly un-dissolved and the drug release rate is dissolution-controlled. It is also shown that for the case of a small G value, the variation of drug release profile, due to the drug particle geometry, becomes prominent. Detailed comparison with the results of the traditional Higuchi’s model indicates that Higuchi’s model can be applied only when G is large because of the assumption of an instantaneous dissolution. For K = 1/101–1/2, the present analysis suggests an error of 33–85% for drug release predicted by Higuchi’s model for G = 100, 14–44% error for G = 101, while a less than 5% error for G ≧ 103. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drug Delivery and Controlled Release)
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Article
Rapidly Separable Micropillar Integrated Dissolving Microneedles
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060581 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Dissolving microneedle (DMN) patches were developed as efficient and patient-friendly transdermal delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals. However, recent studies have confirmed that the efficiency of DMNs to deliver biopharmaceuticals is highly reduced because of incomplete insertion caused by the stiffness and elastic properties of [...] Read more.
Dissolving microneedle (DMN) patches were developed as efficient and patient-friendly transdermal delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals. However, recent studies have confirmed that the efficiency of DMNs to deliver biopharmaceuticals is highly reduced because of incomplete insertion caused by the stiffness and elastic properties of the skin. Therefore, micropillar integrated DMNs were developed to overcome the insertion limitations of DMN patches. Although micropillars were designed as integrated applicators to implant DMNs across the skin, they can also become inserted into the skin, leading to skin injury and inflammation. Herein, we have developed a separable micropillar integrated DMN (SPDMN) capable of inserting DMNs across the skin with high efficiency while minimizing skin injury risk through the introduction of a safety ring feature. Unlike previously developed systems, the SPDMN does not require continuous skin attachment and can be detached immediately post-application, leaving DMNs implanted inside the skin. Altogether, the findings of this study lead to the development of a quick, safe, and efficient DMN-based drug delivery platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microneedle-Based Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Fabrication of Core Crosslinked Polymeric Micelles as Nanocarriers for Doxorubicin Delivery: Self-Assembly, In Situ Diselenide Metathesis and Redox-Responsive Drug Release
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060580 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Polymeric micelles (PMs) have been used to improve the poor aqueous solubility, slow absorption and non-selective biodistribution of chemotherapeutic agents (CAs), albeit, they suffer from disassembly and premature release of payloads in the bloodstream. To alleviate the thermodynamic instability of PMs, different core [...] Read more.
Polymeric micelles (PMs) have been used to improve the poor aqueous solubility, slow absorption and non-selective biodistribution of chemotherapeutic agents (CAs), albeit, they suffer from disassembly and premature release of payloads in the bloodstream. To alleviate the thermodynamic instability of PMs, different core crosslinking approaches were employed. Herein, we synthesized the poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly((2-aminoethyl)diselanyl)ethyl l-aspartamide)-b-polycaprolactone (mPEG-P(LA-DSeDEA)-PCL) copolymer which self-assembled into monodispersed nanoscale, 156.57 ± 4.42 nm, core crosslinked micelles (CCMs) through visible light-induced diselenide metathesis reaction between the pendant selenocystamine moieties. The CCMs demonstrated desirable doxorubicin (DOX)-loading content (7.31%) and encapsulation efficiency (42.73%). Both blank and DOX-loaded CCMs ([email protected]) established appreciable colloidal stability in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The [email protected] showed redox-responsive drug releasing behavior when treated with 5 and 10 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.1% H2O2. Unlike the DOX-loaded non-crosslinked micelles ([email protected]) which exhibited initial burst release, [email protected] demonstrated a sustained release profile in vitro where 71.7% of the encapsulated DOX was released within 72 h. In addition, the in vitro fluorescent microscope images and flow cytometry analysis confirmed the efficient cellular internalization of [email protected] The in vitro cytotoxicity test on HaCaT, MDCK, and HeLa cell lines reiterated the cytocompatibility (≥82% cell viability) of the mPEG-P(LA-DSeDEA)-PCL copolymer and [email protected] selectively inhibit the viabilities of 48.85% of HeLa cells as compared to 15.75% of HaCaT and 7.85% of MDCK cells at a maximum dose of 10 µg/mL. Overall, all these appealing attributes make CCMs desirable as nanocarriers for the delivery and controlled release of DOX in tumor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Identification of Cell-Surface Proteins Endocytosed by Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells In Vitro
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060579 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Cell-surface proteins that can endocytose into brain microvascular endothelial cells serve as promising candidates for receptor-mediated transcytosis across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Here, we comprehensively screened endocytic cell-surface proteins in hCMEC/D3 cells, a model of human brain microvascular endothelial cells, using surface biotinylation [...] Read more.
Cell-surface proteins that can endocytose into brain microvascular endothelial cells serve as promising candidates for receptor-mediated transcytosis across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Here, we comprehensively screened endocytic cell-surface proteins in hCMEC/D3 cells, a model of human brain microvascular endothelial cells, using surface biotinylation methodology and sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra-mass spectrometry (SWATH-MS)-based quantitative proteomics. Using this method, we identified 125 endocytic cell-surface proteins from hCMEC/D3 cells. Of these, 34 cell-surface proteins were selectively internalized into human brain microvascular endothelial cells, but not into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), a model of human peripheral microvascular endothelial cells. Two cell-surface proteins, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) and podocalyxin (PODXL), were identified as BBB-localized endocytic cell-surface proteins in humans, using open mRNA and protein databases. Immunohistochemical evaluation confirmed PODXL expression in the plasma membrane of hCMEC/D3 cells and revealed that anti-PODXL antibody-labeled cell-surface PODXL internalized into hCMEC/D3 cells. Immunohistochemistry further revealed that PODXL is localized at the luminal side of human brain microvessels, supporting its potential suitability for translational applications. In conclusion, our findings highlight novel endocytic cell-surface proteins capable of internalizing into human brain microvascular endothelial cells. ICAM1 or PODXL targeted antibody or ligand-labeled biopharmaceuticals and nanocarriers may provide effective targeted delivery to the brain across the BBB for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Drug Delivery across the Blood–Brain Barrier)
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Article
Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling of Buprenorphine in Adults, Children and Preterm Neonates
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060578 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
Buprenorphine plays a crucial role in the therapeutic management of pain in adults, adolescents and pediatric subpopulations. However, only few pharmacokinetic studies of buprenorphine in children, particularly neonates, are available as conducting clinical trials in this population is especially challenging. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) [...] Read more.
Buprenorphine plays a crucial role in the therapeutic management of pain in adults, adolescents and pediatric subpopulations. However, only few pharmacokinetic studies of buprenorphine in children, particularly neonates, are available as conducting clinical trials in this population is especially challenging. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling allows the prediction of drug exposure in pediatrics based on age-related physiological differences. The aim of this study was to predict the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine in pediatrics with PBPK modeling. Moreover, the drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of buprenorphine with CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein perpetrator drugs should be elucidated. A PBPK model of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine in adults has been developed and scaled to children and preterm neonates, accounting for age-related changes. One-hundred-percent of the predicted AUClast values in adults (geometric mean fold error (GMFE): 1.22), 90% of individual AUClast predictions in children (GMFE: 1.54) and 75% in preterm neonates (GMFE: 1.57) met the 2-fold acceptance criterion. Moreover, the adult model was used to simulate DDI scenarios with clarithromycin, itraconazole and rifampicin. We demonstrate the applicability of scaling adult PBPK models to pediatrics for the prediction of individual plasma profiles. The novel PBPK models could be helpful to further investigate buprenorphine pharmacokinetics in various populations, particularly pediatric subgroups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling)
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Article
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Biocompatible Membrane Vesicles Demonstrate Immunomodulatory Activity Inhibiting Activation and Proliferation of Human Mononuclear Cells
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060577 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
Immune-mediated diseases are characterized by abnormal activity of the immune system. The cytochalasin B-induced membrane vesicles (CIMVs) are innovative therapeutic instruments. However, the immunomodulating activity of human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived CIMVs (CIMVs-MSCs) remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate the immunological properties [...] Read more.
Immune-mediated diseases are characterized by abnormal activity of the immune system. The cytochalasin B-induced membrane vesicles (CIMVs) are innovative therapeutic instruments. However, the immunomodulating activity of human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived CIMVs (CIMVs-MSCs) remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate the immunological properties of CIMVs-MSCs and evaluate their effect on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that CIMVs-MSCs are primarily uptaken by monocytes and B-cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that CIMVs-MSCs inhibit phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced proliferation of PBMCs, with more pronounced effect on T-lymphocytes expansion as compared to that of B-cells. In addition, activation of T-helpers (CD4+CD25+), B-cells (CD19+CD25+), and T-cytotoxic lymphocytes (CD8+CD25+) was also significantly suppressed by CIMVs-MSCs. Additionally, CIMVs-MSCs decreased secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and pro-inflammatory Fractalkine in a population of PBMCs, while the releases of FGF-2, G-CSF, anti-inflammatory GM-CSF, MCP-3, anti-inflammatory MDC, anti-inflammatory IL-12p70, pro-inflammatory IL-1b, and MCP-1 were increased. We analyzed the effect of CIMVs-MSCs on an isolated population of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes and demonstrated their different immune response and cytokine secretion. Finally, we observed that no xenogeneic nor allogeneic transplantation of CIMVs induced an immune response in mice. Our data suggest that CIMVs-MSCs have immunosuppressive properties, are potential agents for immunomodulating treatment, and are worthy of further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Immunomodulation)
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Article
Phage Display-Based Homing Peptide-Daunomycin Conjugates for Selective Drug Targeting to PANC-1 Pancreatic Cancer
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060576 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
The Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive and dangerous cancerous diseases, leading to a high rate of mortality. Therefore, the development of new, more efficient treatment approaches is necessary to cure this illness. Peptide-based drug targeting provides a new [...] Read more.
The Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive and dangerous cancerous diseases, leading to a high rate of mortality. Therefore, the development of new, more efficient treatment approaches is necessary to cure this illness. Peptide-based drug targeting provides a new tool for this purpose. Previously, a hexapeptide Cys-Lys-Ala-Ala-Lys-Asn (CKAAKN) was applied efficiently as the homing device for drug-loaded nanostructures in PDAC cells. In this research, Cys was replaced by Ser in the sequence and this new SKAAKN targeting moiety was used in conjugates containing daunomycin (Dau). Five different structures were developed and tested. The results indicated that linear versions with one Dau were not effective on PANC-1 cells in vitro; however, branched conjugates with two Dau molecules showed significant antitumor activity. Differences in the antitumor effect of the conjugates could be explained with the different cellular uptake and lysosomal degradation. The most efficient conjugate was Dau=Aoa-GFLG-K(Dau=Aoa)SKAAKN-OH (conjugate 4) that also showed significant tumor growth inhibition on s.c. implanted PANC-1 tumor-bearing mice with negligible side effects. Our novel results suggest that peptide-based drug delivery systems could be a promising tool for the treatment of pancreatic cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Anticancer Strategies)
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Article
RGD-PEG-PLA Delivers MiR-133 to Infarct Lesions of Acute Myocardial Infarction Model Rats for Cardiac Protection
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060575 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Studies have shown that microRNA-133 (miR-133) plays a positive role in the growth of cardiac myocytes, the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis, and the recovery of cardiac function, which is of great significance for the recovery of acute myocardial infarction. However, the delivery of [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that microRNA-133 (miR-133) plays a positive role in the growth of cardiac myocytes, the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis, and the recovery of cardiac function, which is of great significance for the recovery of acute myocardial infarction. However, the delivery of miRNA to the site of action remains a challenge at present. The purpose of this study was to design an ideal carrier to facilitate the delivery of miR-133 to the infarct lesion for cardiac protection. A disease model was constructed by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery of rats, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles modified with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid tripeptide (RGD) carrying miR-133 were injected via the tail vein. The effects of miR-133 were evaluated from multiple perspectives, including cardiac function, blood indexes, histopathology, and myocardial cell apoptosis. The results showed that RGD-PEG-PLA maintained a high level of distribution in the hearts of model rats, indicating the role of the carrier in targeting the heart infarction lesions. RGD-PEG-PLA/miR-133 alleviated cardiac histopathological changes, reduced the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and reduced the levels of factors associated with myocardial injury. Studies on the mechanism of miR-133 by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the expression level of Sirtuin3 (SIRT3) was increased and that the expression of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) decreased in myocardial tissue. In summary, the delivery of miR-133 by RGD-PEG-PLA carrier can achieve cardiac lesion accumulation, thereby improving the cardiac function damage and reducing the myocardial infarction area. The inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress plays a protective role in the heart. The mechanism may be related to the regulation of the SIRT3/AMPK pathway. Full article
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Article
Controlled Delivery of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 from Bioactive Glass-Incorporated Alginate-Poloxamer/Silk Fibroin Hydrogels
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060574 - 20 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 976
Abstract
Thermosensitive alginate–poloxamer (ALG–POL) copolymer with an optimal POL content was synthesized, and it was used to combine with silk fibroin (SF) for building ALG–POL/SF hydrogels with dual network structure. Mesoporous bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles (NPs) with a high level of mesoporosity and large [...] Read more.
Thermosensitive alginate–poloxamer (ALG–POL) copolymer with an optimal POL content was synthesized, and it was used to combine with silk fibroin (SF) for building ALG–POL/SF hydrogels with dual network structure. Mesoporous bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles (NPs) with a high level of mesoporosity and large pore size were prepared and they were employed as a vehicle for loading insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). IGF-1-loaded BG NPs were embedded into ALG–POL/SF hydrogels to achieve the controlled delivery of IGF-1. The resulting IGF-1-loaded BG/ALG–POL/SF gels were found to be injectable with their sol-gel transition near physiological temperature and pH. Rheological measurements showed that BG/ALG–POL/SF gels had their elastic modulus higher than 5kPa with large ratio of elastic modulus to viscous modulus, indicative of their mechanically strong features. The dry BG/ALG–POL/SF gels were seen to be highly porous with well-interconnected pore characteristics. The gels loaded with varied amounts of IGF-1 showed abilities to administer IGF-1 release in approximately linear manners for a few weeks while effectively preserving the bioactivity of encapsulated IGF-1. Results suggest that such constructed BG/ALG–POL/SF gels can function as a promising injectable biomaterial for bone tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesoporous Materials for Drug Delivery and Theranostics)
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Article
A Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model of CKD-519
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060573 - 19 Jun 2020
Viewed by 829
Abstract
CKD-519 is a selective and potent cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor that is being developed for dyslipidemia. Even though CKD-519 has shown potent CETP inhibition, the exposure of CKD-519 was highly varied, depending on food and dose. For highly variable exposure drugs, [...] Read more.
CKD-519 is a selective and potent cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor that is being developed for dyslipidemia. Even though CKD-519 has shown potent CETP inhibition, the exposure of CKD-519 was highly varied, depending on food and dose. For highly variable exposure drugs, it is crucial to use modeling and simulation to plan proper dose selection. This study aimed to develop population pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) models of CKD-519 and to predict the proper dose of CKD-519 to achieve target levels for HDL-C and LDL-C using results from multiple dosing study of CKD-519 with a standard meal for two weeks in healthy subjects. The results showed that a 3-compartment with Erlang’s distribution, followed by the first-order absorption, adequately described CKD-519 PK, and the bioavailability, which decreased by dose and time was incorporated into the model (NONMEM version 7.3). After the PK model development, the CETP activity and cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C) levels were sequentially modeled using the turnover model, including the placebo effect. According to PK-PD simulation results, 200 to 400 mg of CKD-519 showing a 40% change in HDL-C and LDL-C from baselines was recommended for proof of concept studies in patients with dyslipidemia. Full article
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Article
Ciprofloxacin Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Incorporated into In-Situ Gels to Improve Management of Bacterial Endophthalmitis
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060572 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Bacterial endophthalmitis (BE) is a potentially sight-threatening inflammatory reaction of the intraocular fluids or tissues caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) eye drops are prescribed as first-line therapy in BE. However, frequent administration is necessary due to precorneal loss and poor ocular bioavailability. The [...] Read more.
Bacterial endophthalmitis (BE) is a potentially sight-threatening inflammatory reaction of the intraocular fluids or tissues caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) eye drops are prescribed as first-line therapy in BE. However, frequent administration is necessary due to precorneal loss and poor ocular bioavailability. The objective of the current research was to prepare CIP containing nanostructured lipid carriers (CIP-NLCs) loaded an in situ gel system (CIP-NLC-IG) for topical ocular administration for enhanced and sustained antibacterial activity in BE treatment. CIP-NLCs were prepared by the hot homogenization method and optimized based on physicochemical characteristics and physical stability. The optimized CIP-NLC formulation was converted into CIP-NLC-IG with the addition of gellan gum as a gelling agent. Furthermore, optimized CIP-NLC and CIP-NLC-IG were evaluated for in vitro release and ex vivo transcorneal permeation studies, using commercial CIP ophthalmic solution (CIP-C) as the control. The optimized CIP-NLC formulation showed particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, assay and entrapment efficiency of 193.1 ± 5.1 nm, 0.43 ± 0.01, −32.5 ± 1.5 mV, 99.5 ± 5.5 and 96.3 ± 2.5%, respectively. CIP-NLC-IG with 0.2% w/v gellan gum showed optimal viscoelastic characteristics. The in vitro release studies demonstrated sustained release of CIP from CIP-NLC and CIP-NLC-IG formulations over a 24 h period. Transcorneal flux and permeability increased 4 and 3.5-fold, and 2.2 and 1.9-fold from CIP-NLC and CIP-NLC-IG formulations, respectively, when compared to CIP-C. The results demonstrate that CIP-NLC-IG could be considered as an alternate delivery system to prolong the residence time on the ocular surface after topical administration. Thus, the current CIP ophthalmic formulations may exhibit improved ocular bioavailability and prolonged antibacterial activity, which may improve therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of BE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocular Drug Delivery: Present Innovations and Future Challenges)
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Article
Enteric Release Essential Oil Prepared by Co-Spray Drying Methacrylate/Polysaccharides—Influence of Starch Type
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060571 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Oregano essential oil (EO) enteric release powder was formulated by spray drying feed emulsions stabilized with polysaccharides (PSC) and Eudragit® L100 (PLM). Different modified starches were used in the PSC component. Spray-dried powders were evaluated for particle size and morphology, dynamic packing, [...] Read more.
Oregano essential oil (EO) enteric release powder was formulated by spray drying feed emulsions stabilized with polysaccharides (PSC) and Eudragit® L100 (PLM). Different modified starches were used in the PSC component. Spray-dried powders were evaluated for particle size and morphology, dynamic packing, flowability, chemical interactions, reconstitution, and gastric protection. Feed emulsions were stable, indicating the good emulsification ability of the PLM/PSC combination. The presence of polymer in the encapsulating wall neutralized electrostatic charges indicating physical attraction, and FTIR spectra showed peaks of both PLM and PSC without significant shifting. Furthermore, the presence of polymer influenced spray drying, resulting in the elimination of surface cavities and the improvement of powder packing and flowability, which was best when the surface-active, low-viscosity sodium octenyl succinate starch was used (angle of repose 42°). When a PLM/PSC ratio of 80/20 was used in the encapsulating wall, the spray-dried product showed negligible re-emulsification and less than 15% release in pH 1.2 medium for 2 h, confirming gastric protection, whereas at pH 6.8, it provided complete re-emulsification and release. In conclusion, (1) polymer–PSC physical interaction promoted the formation of a smoother particle surface and product with improved technological properties, which is important for further processing, and (2) the gastro protective function of Eudragit® L100 was not impaired due to the absence of significant chemical interactions. Full article
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Review
Recent Advances in the Design of Topical Ophthalmic Delivery Systems in the Treatment of Ocular Surface Inflammation and Their Biopharmaceutical Evaluation
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060570 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
Ocular inflammation is one of the most common symptom of eye disorders and diseases. The therapeutic management of this inflammation must be rapid and effective in order to avoid deleterious effects for the eye and the vision. Steroidal (SAID) and non-steroidal (NSAID) anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Ocular inflammation is one of the most common symptom of eye disorders and diseases. The therapeutic management of this inflammation must be rapid and effective in order to avoid deleterious effects for the eye and the vision. Steroidal (SAID) and non-steroidal (NSAID) anti-inflammatory drugs and immunosuppressive agents have been shown to be effective in treating inflammation of the ocular surface of the eye by topical administration. However, it is well established that the anatomical and physiological ocular barriers are limiting factors for drug penetration. In addition, such drugs are generally characterized by a very low aqueous solubility, resulting in low bioavailability as only 1% to 5% of the applied drug permeates the cornea. The present review gives an updated insight on the conventional formulations used in the treatment of ocular inflammation, i.e., ointments, eye drops, solutions, suspensions, gels, and emulsions, based on the commercial products available on the US, European, and French markets. Additionally, sophisticated formulations and innovative ocular drug delivery systems will be discussed. Promising results are presented with micro- and nanoparticulated systems, or combined strategies with polymers and colloidal systems, which offer a synergy in bioavailability and sustained release. Finally, different tools allowing the physical characterization of all these delivery systems, as well as in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo evaluations, will be considered with regards to the safety, the tolerance, and the efficiency of the drug products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Pharmaceutics)
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Review
Microneedle-Based Delivery: An Overview of Current Applications and Trends
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060569 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2513
Abstract
Microneedle arrays (MNA) are considered as one of the most promising resources to achieve systemic effects by transdermal delivery of drugs. They are designed as a minimally invasive, painless system which can bypass the stratum corneum, overcoming the potential drawbacks of subcutaneous [...] Read more.
Microneedle arrays (MNA) are considered as one of the most promising resources to achieve systemic effects by transdermal delivery of drugs. They are designed as a minimally invasive, painless system which can bypass the stratum corneum, overcoming the potential drawbacks of subcutaneous injections and other transdermal delivery systems such as chemical enhancers, nano and microparticles, or physical treatments. As a trendy field in pharmaceutical and biomedical research, its applications are constantly evolving, even though they are based on very well-established techniques. The number of molecules administered by MNA are also increasing, with insulin and vaccines administration being the most investigated. Furthermore, MNA are being used to deliver cells and applied in other organs and tissues like the eyes and buccal mucosae. This review intends to offer a general overview of the current state of MNA research, focusing on the strategies, applications, and types of molecules delivered recently by these systems. In addition, some information about the materials and manufacturing processes is presented and safety data is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches in Dermal Drug Delivery)
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Article
The Vaginal-PVPA: A Vaginal Mucosa-Mimicking In Vitro Permeation Tool for Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Formulations
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060568 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Drug administration to the vaginal site has gained increasing attention in past decades, highlighting the need for reliable in vitro methods to assess the performance of novel formulations. To optimize formulations destined for the vaginal site, it is important to evaluate the drug [...] Read more.
Drug administration to the vaginal site has gained increasing attention in past decades, highlighting the need for reliable in vitro methods to assess the performance of novel formulations. To optimize formulations destined for the vaginal site, it is important to evaluate the drug retention within the vagina as well as its permeation across the mucosa, particularly in the presence of vaginal fluids. Herewith, the vaginal-PVPA (Phospholipid Vesicle-based Permeation Assay) in vitro permeability model was validated as a tool to evaluate the permeation of the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen from liposomal formulations (i.e., plain and chitosan-coated liposomes). Drug permeation was assessed in the presence and absence of mucus and simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) at pH conditions mimicking both the healthy vaginal premenopausal conditions and vaginal infection/pre-puberty/post-menopause state. The permeation of ibuprofen proved to depend on the type of formulation (i.e., chitosan-coated liposomes exhibited lower drug permeation), the mucoadhesive formulation properties and pH condition. This study highlights both the importance of mucus and SVF in the vaginal model to better understand and predict the in vivo performance of formulations destined for vaginal administration, and the suitability of the vaginal-PVPA model for such investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mucoadhesive and Mucosal Drug Delivery Systems)
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Review
Injectable Lipid-Based Depot Formulations: Where Do We Stand?
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(6), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060567 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
The remarkable number of new molecular entities approved per year as parenteral drugs, such as biologics and complex active pharmaceutical ingredients, calls for innovative and tunable drug delivery systems. Besides making these classes of drugs available in the body, injectable depot formulations offer [...] Read more.
The remarkable number of new molecular entities approved per year as parenteral drugs, such as biologics and complex active pharmaceutical ingredients, calls for innovative and tunable drug delivery systems. Besides making these classes of drugs available in the body, injectable depot formulations offer the unique advantage in the parenteral world of reducing the number of required injections, thus increasing effectiveness as well as patient compliance. To date, a plethora of excipients has been proposed to formulate depot systems, and among those, lipids stand out due to their unique biocompatibility properties and safety profile. Looking at the several long-acting drug delivery systems based on lipids designed so far, a legitimate question may arise: How far away are we from an ideal depot formulation? Here, we review sustained release lipid-based platforms developed in the last 5 years, namely oil-based solutions, liposomal systems, in situ forming systems, solid particles, and implants, and we critically discuss the requirements for an ideal depot formulation with respect to the used excipients, biocompatibility, and the challenges presented by the manufacturing process. Finally, we delve into lights and shadows originating from the current setups of in vitro release assays developed with the aim of assessing the translational potential of depot injectables. Full article
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