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Interplay between Interferon-Mediated Innate Immunity and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

1
Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
2
Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, MI 49007, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2012, 4(4), 424-446; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4040424
Received: 30 January 2012 / Revised: 15 March 2012 / Accepted: 18 March 2012 / Published: 2 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Arteriviruses and Coronaviruses)
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against viral infection, and in turn, viruses have evolved to evade host immune surveillance. As a result, viruses may persist in host and develop chronic infections. Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are among the most potent antiviral cytokines triggered by viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of pigs that is characterized by negligible induction of type I IFNs and viral persistence for an extended period. For IFN production, RIG-I/MDA5 and JAK-STAT pathways are two major signaling pathways, and recent studies indicate that PRRS virus is armed to modulate type I IFN responses during infection. This review describes the viral strategies for modulation of type I IFN responses. At least three non‑structural proteins (Nsp1, Nsp2, and Nsp11) and a structural protein (N nucleocapsid protein) have been identified and characterized to play roles in the IFN suppression and NF-κB pathways. Nsp’s are early proteins while N is a late protein, suggesting that additional signaling pathways may be involved in addition to the IFN pathway. The understanding of molecular bases for virus-mediated modulation of host innate immune signaling will help us design new generation vaccines and control PRRS. View Full-Text
Keywords: arterivirus; interferon; PRRS; PRRSV; RIG-I; MDA5; NF-κB; JAK-STAT; non-structural proteins; Nsp; nucleocapsid arterivirus; interferon; PRRS; PRRSV; RIG-I; MDA5; NF-κB; JAK-STAT; non-structural proteins; Nsp; nucleocapsid
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Sun, Y.; Han, M.; Kim, C.; Calvert, J.G.; Yoo, D. Interplay between Interferon-Mediated Innate Immunity and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. Viruses 2012, 4, 424-446.

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