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Forests, Volume 5, Issue 11 (November 2014) , Pages 2594-2946

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Open AccessCase Report Ungulate Impact on Natural Regeneration in Spruce-Beech-Fir Stands in Černý důl Nature Reserve in the Orlické Hory Mountains, Case Study from Central Sudetes
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2929-2946; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112929
Received: 13 August 2014 / Revised: 19 November 2014 / Accepted: 21 November 2014 / Published: 24 November 2014
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2639 | PDF Full-text (3239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a study on tree regeneration of forest stands in the Černý důl Nature Reserve, which is situated in the Orlické hory Mountains Protected Landscape area in the Czech Republic. Research was conducted in a spruce-beech stand with [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of a study on tree regeneration of forest stands in the Černý důl Nature Reserve, which is situated in the Orlické hory Mountains Protected Landscape area in the Czech Republic. Research was conducted in a spruce-beech stand with an admixture of silver fir, sycamore maple and rowan on two comparative permanent research plots (PRPs) (PRP 1—fenced enclosure and PRP 2—unfenced). Typological, soil, phytosociological and stand characteristics of the two PRPs are similar. The results showed that ungulate browsing is a limiting factor for successful development of natural regeneration of autochthonous tree species. The population of tree species of natural regeneration on the fenced plot (PRP 1) is sufficient in relation to the site and stand conditions. However, natural regeneration on PRP 2 is considerably limited by browsing. Damage is greatest to fir, sycamore maple and rowan; less severe to beech; and the least to spruce. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Conifer Recruitment in Trembling Aspen (Populus Tremuloides Michx.) Stands along an East-West Gradient in the Boreal Mixedwoods of Canada
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2905-2928; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112905
Received: 7 August 2014 / Revised: 29 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 24 November 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2373 | PDF Full-text (2137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ongoing climate change is likely to result in shifts in successional dynamics in boreal mixedwood stands. Using data from provincial forest inventory databases, we examined the occurrence and abundance of the regeneration of various coniferous species (white spruce, black spruce and balsam fir) [...] Read more.
Ongoing climate change is likely to result in shifts in successional dynamics in boreal mixedwood stands. Using data from provincial forest inventory databases, we examined the occurrence and abundance of the regeneration of various coniferous species (white spruce, black spruce and balsam fir) along an east-west Canadian gradient in aspen-dominated stands. The interpretation of the results was based on environmental conditions, including climate, natural fire regime and human impacts. We found that conifer regeneration was present in aspen stands along the entire gradient, despite differences in climatic conditions and fire regimes between the west (warmer and drier, with large recurrent fires) and east (more humid with relatively long fire cycles). However, abundance and distribution varied from one conifer species to the next. The abundance of white spruce decreased towards the eastern end of the longitudinal gradient, while balsam fir and black spruce abundance decreased towards the west. Although abundance decreased, balsam fir and black spruce regeneration was still present in western Canada. This study shows that it is difficult to interpret the effects of climate change on conifer recruitment without accounting for the superimposed effects of human activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Expansion of Protected Areas under Climate Change: An Example of Mountainous Tree Species in Taiwan
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2882-2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112882
Received: 20 August 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 24 November 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2693 | PDF Full-text (1567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tree species in mountainous areas are expected to shift their distribution upward in elevation in response to climate change, calling for a potential redesign of existing protected areas. This study aims to predict whether or not the distributions of two high-mountain tree species, [...] Read more.
Tree species in mountainous areas are expected to shift their distribution upward in elevation in response to climate change, calling for a potential redesign of existing protected areas. This study aims to predict whether or not the distributions of two high-mountain tree species, Abies (Abies kawakamii) and Tsuga (Tsuga chinensis var. formosana), will significantly shift upward due to temperature change, and whether current protected areas will be suitable for conserving these species. Future temperature change was projected for 15 different future scenarios produced from five global climate models. Shifts in Abies and Tsuga distributions were then predicted through the use of species distribution models (SDMs) which included occurrence data of Abies and Tsuga, as well as seasonal temperature, and elevation. The 25 km × 25 km downscaled General Circulation Model (GCMs) data for 2020–2039 produced by the Taiwan Climate Change Projection and Information Platform was adopted in this study. Habitat suitability in the study area was calculated using maximum entropy model under different climatic scenarios. A bootstrap method was applied to assess the parameter uncertainty of the maximum entropy model. In comparison to the baseline projection, we found that there are significant differences in suitable habitat distributions for Abies and Tsuga under seven of the 15 scenarios. The results suggest that mountainous ecosystems will be substantially impacted by climate change. We also found that the uncertainty originating from GCMs and the parameters of the SDM contribute most to the overall level of variability in species distributions. Finally, based on the uncertainty analysis and the shift in habitat suitability, we applied systematic conservation planning approaches to identify suitable areas to add to Taiwan’s protected area network. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Income Structure in Frontier Villages and Implications for REDD+ Benefit Sharing
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2865-2881; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112865
Received: 5 August 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 18 November 2014 / Published: 24 November 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2629 | PDF Full-text (1562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A methodological characteristic of the REDD+ scheme is that it attempts to reduce deforestation by rewarding communities that change problematic land use practices. This has led to discussions on benefit sharing. This article focuses on incentives for alternative land use practices among village [...] Read more.
A methodological characteristic of the REDD+ scheme is that it attempts to reduce deforestation by rewarding communities that change problematic land use practices. This has led to discussions on benefit sharing. This article focuses on incentives for alternative land use practices among village members living in frontier areas, especially in relation to support for sustainable land use and people’s livelihoods, and clarifies the issues that REDD+ projects are likely to face in this context. Although some documents regarding REDD+ projects have mentioned support to encourage such incentives, insufficient consideration has been given to the realities of the changes in frontier communities. REDD+ projects are unlikely to motivate members to embrace alternative land use practices if support or benefit sharing does not match members’ expectations. Here, we examine the changes in household (HH) income and structure, as well as in livelihood activities, experienced by Cambodian frontier villagers living at the site of a planned REDD+ project. During the nine years compared in this study, the frontier villages experienced broad and imbalanced changes in HH income owing to the rapid expansion of the cultivation of cash crops. Our results indicate that benefit sharing or support inevitably becomes more difficult and challenging in frontier areas than in areas where subsistence production systems still predominate, although such frontiers could, in theory, yield maximum returns with regard to forest carbon balance if the REDD+ projects addressed benefit sharing and support and came to fruition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Financial Dilemmas Associated with the Afforestation of Low-Productivity Farmland in Poland
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2846-2864; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112846
Received: 10 September 2014 / Revised: 15 November 2014 / Accepted: 18 November 2014 / Published: 24 November 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1847 | PDF Full-text (513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Poland, 82% of forests are State-owned, and only 17% of forests constitute private property. Each year, forests are converted to other land-use types, mainly for road construction. The afforestation rate on privately-owned low-productivity land is decreasing steadily. The owners and perpetual usufructuaries [...] Read more.
In Poland, 82% of forests are State-owned, and only 17% of forests constitute private property. Each year, forests are converted to other land-use types, mainly for road construction. The afforestation rate on privately-owned low-productivity land is decreasing steadily. The owners and perpetual usufructuaries of this kind of land are eligible to government subsidies to cover establishment expenditures in whole or in part, provided that the afforestation scheme complies with the local zoning plan or an outline planning permission. The above creates a dilemma for farmers—is this a profitable option of managing low-productivity land? Owners of small farms particularly often face such dilemmas. Owners of small farms, which consist of low-yield agricultural land, can be regarded as investors operating on the real estate market, but those investors have features characteristic of agricultural producers. This study relied on the net present value (NPV) criterion, which is popularly used to assess the effectiveness of investments on the real estate market. A financial feasibility assessment performed with the use of such method in view of afforestation statistics and the 5% discount rate on the Polish forest market revealed the highest increase in net cumulative cash flows in the first five years, followed by a gradual decrease in successive years. The first negative cash flow was reported in year 20. NPV would remain negative because farmers would be charged with periodic maintenance expenditures until the stand reaches harvestable age at approximately 40 years. The longer the investment period, the lower the profits, even if discount rate is excluded. Investments of the type are difficult to terminate because forests younger than 20 years are difficult to sell at a price that covers growing outflows. Afforestation projects are also influenced by other economic and non-economic factors. The paper validates the research hypothesis that afforestation is a long-term investment that delivers benefits for future generations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quantifying the Variability of Internode Allometry within and between Trees for Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. Using a Multilevel Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Model
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2825-2845; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112825
Received: 17 June 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
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Abstract
Allometric models of internodes are an important component of Functional-Structural Plant Models (FSPMs), which represent the shape of internodes in tree architecture and help our understanding of resource allocation in organisms. Constant allometry is always assumed in these models. In this paper, multilevel [...] Read more.
Allometric models of internodes are an important component of Functional-Structural Plant Models (FSPMs), which represent the shape of internodes in tree architecture and help our understanding of resource allocation in organisms. Constant allometry is always assumed in these models. In this paper, multilevel nonlinear mixed-effect models were used to characterize the variability of internode allometry, describing the relationship between the last internode length and biomass of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. trees within the GreenLab framework. We demonstrated that there is significant variability in allometric relationships at the tree and different-order branch levels, and the variability decreases among levels from trees to first-order branches and, subsequently, to second-order branches. The variability was partially explained by the random effects of site characteristics, stand age, density, and topological position of the internode. Tree- and branch-level-specific allometric models are recommended because they produce unbiased and accurate internode length estimates. The model and method developed in this study are useful for understanding and describing the structure and functioning of trees. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Silvicultural Treatment on Sirex noctilio Attacks and Tree Health in Northeastern United States
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2810-2824; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112810
Received: 13 October 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2211 | PDF Full-text (701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The invasive woodwasp Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is established in east-central North America. A replicated case study testing the effectiveness of silvicultural treatments for reducing the number of S. noctilio attacked trees in a stand was conducted in New York, USA. Silvicultural treatments [...] Read more.
The invasive woodwasp Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is established in east-central North America. A replicated case study testing the effectiveness of silvicultural treatments for reducing the number of S. noctilio attacked trees in a stand was conducted in New York, USA. Silvicultural treatments reduced S. noctilio attacked trees by approximately 75% over the course of the study. There was no tree growth response to silvicultural treatments in the four years after thinning, but targeted removal of weakened trees removed potential S. noctilio habitat from treated stands. Two spectral vegetation indices were used to determine tree health in each treatment and potentially provide guidance for detection efforts. Silvicultural treatment significantly influenced the Red Edge Inflection Point, a strong indicator of chlorophyll content, and the Moisture Stress Index, a reflectance measurement sensitive to changes in foliar leaf water content, with the greatest differences occurring between control and treated blocks. Vegetation indices showed promise as a tool for aiding in stand prioritization for S. noctilio surveys or management activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Time since Fire and Micro-Habitat Availability on Terricolous Lichen Communities in Black Spruce (Picea mariana) Boreal Forests
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2793-2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112793
Received: 15 October 2014 / Revised: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2025 | PDF Full-text (361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Terricolous lichens are an important component of boreal forest ecosystems, both in terms of function and diversity. In this study, we examined the relative contribution of microhabitat characteristics and time elapsed since the last fire in shaping terricolous lichen assemblages in boreal forests [...] Read more.
Terricolous lichens are an important component of boreal forest ecosystems, both in terms of function and diversity. In this study, we examined the relative contribution of microhabitat characteristics and time elapsed since the last fire in shaping terricolous lichen assemblages in boreal forests that are frequently affected by severe stand-replacing fires. We sampled 12 stands distributed across five age classes (from 43 to >200 years). In each stand, species cover (%) of all terricolous lichen species and species richness were evaluated within 30 microplots of 1 m2. Our results show that time elapsed since the last fire was the factor that contributed the most to explaining terricolous lichen abundance and species composition, and that lichen cover showed a quadratic relationship with stand age. Habitat variables such as soil characteristics were also important in explaining lichen richness. These results suggest that the presence of suitable substrates is not sufficient for the conservation of late-successional terricolous lichen communities in this ecosystem, and that they also need relatively long periods of times for species dispersal and establishment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mapping the Global Potential Geographical Distribution of Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia L.) Using Herbarium Data and a Maximum Entropy Model
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2773-2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112773
Received: 6 August 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3869 | PDF Full-text (898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a tree species of high economic and ecological value, but is also considered to be highly invasive. Understanding the global potential distribution and ecological characteristics of this species is a prerequisite for its practical exploitation as [...] Read more.
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a tree species of high economic and ecological value, but is also considered to be highly invasive. Understanding the global potential distribution and ecological characteristics of this species is a prerequisite for its practical exploitation as a resource. Here, a maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) was used to simulate the potential distribution of this species around the world, and the dominant climatic factors affecting its distribution were selected by using a jackknife test and the regularized gain change during each iteration of the training algorithm. The results show that the MaxEnt model performs better than random, with an average test AUC value of 0.9165 (±0.0088). The coldness index, annual mean temperature and warmth index were the most important climatic factors affecting the species distribution, explaining 65.79% of the variability in the geographical distribution. Species response curves showed unimodal relationships with the annual mean temperature and warmth index, whereas there was a linear relationship with the coldness index. The dominant climatic conditions in the core of the black locust distribution are a coldness index of −9.8 °C–0 °C, an annual mean temperature of 5.8 °C–14.5 °C, a warmth index of 66 °C–168 °C and an annual precipitation of 508–1867 mm. The potential distribution of black locust is located mainly in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, China, Japan, South Korea, South Africa, Chile and Argentina. The predictive map of black locust, climatic thresholds and species response curves can provide globally applicable guidelines and valuable information for policymakers and planners involved in the introduction, planting and invasion control of this species around the world. Full article
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Open AccessReview Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2750-2772; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112750
Received: 29 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2162 | PDF Full-text (608 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Intensively-managed forest (IMF) ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1) critical aspects of [...] Read more.
Intensively-managed forest (IMF) ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1) critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2) effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3) two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse woody debris (CWD); and (4) research needs for effective management of salamanders in IMF ecosystems. Although plethodontid salamanders are sensitive to microclimate changes, their role as ecological indicators rarely have been evaluated quantitatively. Our case studies of CWD and salamanders in western and eastern forests demonstrated effects of species, region and spatial scale on the existence and strength of relationships between plethodontid species and a “critical” microhabitat variable. Oregon slender salamanders (Batrachoseps wrighti) were more strongly associated with abundance of CWD in managed second growth forests than ensatina salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzii). Similarly, CWD was not an important predictor of abundance of Appalachian salamanders in managed hardwood forest. Gaining knowledge of salamanders in IMF ecosystems is critical to reconciling ecological and economic objectives of intensive forest management, but faces challenges in design and implementation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Differential Effects of the Blue-Stain Fungus Leptographium qinlingensis on Monoterpenes and Sesquiterpenes in the Stem of Chinese White Pine (Pinus armandi) Saplings
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2730-2749; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112730
Received: 20 August 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2089 | PDF Full-text (875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
When conifers such as Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi Fr.) are attacked by insects or pathogens, they respond by increasing their content of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In this study, we determined the effects of the blue-stain fungus Leptographium qinlingensis Tang and Chen [...] Read more.
When conifers such as Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi Fr.) are attacked by insects or pathogens, they respond by increasing their content of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In this study, we determined the effects of the blue-stain fungus Leptographium qinlingensis Tang and Chen on monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in the phloem and xylem of the stem of P. armandi saplings. We found that the total monoterpene concentrations in the phloem and xylem of the stem and the total sesquiterpene concentrations in the xylem of the stem were significantly higher in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in control (mechanically wounded) saplings or untreated saplings. Additionally, the proportions of β-pinene in the xylem of the stem and limonene + β-phellandrene in the phloem and xylem of the stem were significantly higher in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in both control and untreated saplings. The proportions of individual sesquiterpenes in the phloem and xylem of the stem were significantly greater in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in untreated saplings. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that increases in total monoterpene and sesquiterpene concentrations, as well as increases in the concentrations of β-pinene and limonene + β-phellandrene, may play an important defensive role against blue-stain fungus L. qinlingensis inoculation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Near-Term Effects of Repeated-Thinning with Riparian Buffers on Headwater Stream Vertebrates and Habitats in Oregon, USA
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2703-2729; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112703
Received: 7 October 2014 / Revised: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 31 October 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2161 | PDF Full-text (4552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We examined the effects of a second-thinning harvest with alternative riparian buffer management approaches on headwater stream habitats and associated vertebrates in western Oregon, USA. Our analyses showed that stream reaches were generally distinguished primarily by average width and depth, along with the [...] Read more.
We examined the effects of a second-thinning harvest with alternative riparian buffer management approaches on headwater stream habitats and associated vertebrates in western Oregon, USA. Our analyses showed that stream reaches were generally distinguished primarily by average width and depth, along with the percentage of the dry reach length, and secondarily, by the volume of down wood. In the first year post-harvest, we observed no effects of buffer treatment on stream habitat attributes after moderate levels of thinning. One of two “thin-through” riparian treatments showed stronger trends for enlarged stream channels, likely due to harvest disturbances. The effects of buffer treatments on salamanders varied among species and with habitat structure. Densities of Plethodon dunni and Rhyacotriton species increased post-harvest in the moderate-density thinning with no-entry buffers in wider streams with more pools and narrower streams with more down wood, respectively. However, Rhyacotriton densities decreased along streams with the narrowest buffer, 6 m, and P. dunni and Dicamptodon tenebrosus densities decreased in thin-through buffers. Our study supports the use of a 15-m or wider buffer to retain sensitive headwater stream amphibians. Full article
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Open AccessReview Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Salamanders in Riparian Forests: A Review
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2679-2702; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112679
Received: 7 October 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2461 | PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Salamanders and riparian forests are intimately interconnected. Salamanders are integral to ecosystem functions, contributing to vertebrate biomass and complex food webs in riparian forests. In turn, these forests are critical ecosystems that perform many environmental services, facilitate high biodiversity and species richness, and [...] Read more.
Salamanders and riparian forests are intimately interconnected. Salamanders are integral to ecosystem functions, contributing to vertebrate biomass and complex food webs in riparian forests. In turn, these forests are critical ecosystems that perform many environmental services, facilitate high biodiversity and species richness, and provide habitat to salamander populations. Due to the global decline of amphibians, it is important to understand, as thoroughly and holistically as possible, the roles of environmental parameters and the impact of human activities on salamander abundance and diversity in riparian forests. To determine the population responses of salamanders to a variety of environmental factors and anthropogenic activities, we conducted a review of published literature that compared salamander abundance and diversity, and then summarized and synthesized the data into general patterns. We identify stream quality, leaf litter and woody debris, riparian buffer width, and soil characteristics as major environmental factors influencing salamander populations in riparian forests, describe and explain salamander responses to those factors, and discuss the effects of anthropogenic activities such as timber harvest, prescribed fires, urbanization, road construction, and habitat fragmentation. This review can assist land and natural resource managers in anticipating the consequences of human activities and preparing strategic conservation plans. Full article
Open AccessArticle Tending of Young Forests in Secondary Succession on Abandoned Agricultural Lands: An Experimental Study
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2658-2678; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112658
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 31 October 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2072 | PDF Full-text (1238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Europe the area of forested land is increasing, largely due to forest development on abandoned agricultural lands. We compared the structure and composition of woody species in young stands undergoing secondary succession and within gaps of late-successional (LS) forest in Haloze (Slovenia) [...] Read more.
In Europe the area of forested land is increasing, largely due to forest development on abandoned agricultural lands. We compared the structure and composition of woody species in young stands undergoing secondary succession and within gaps of late-successional (LS) forest in Haloze (Slovenia) to derive management options. In a subset of plots in succession, silvicultural measures were carried out in one half, while the other half was left untreated. The attributes of crop trees and their competitor trees were monitored over five years, and a study on the time investment of tending was conducted. We found lower tree density, a larger share of pioneer and shrub species, and a higher diversity of woody plants in succession compared to regeneration within LS forest gaps. Tending resulted in greater density of crop trees, their better social position, fewer competitor trees, and a larger diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) increment, while differences in crop tree stability and quality between tending and control were not confirmed. Our results indicated great structural complexity and species diversity in young successional forests. Their tending represents a cost efficient method of recovering the long-term commercial value and ecosystem services of forests, if applied less intensively than traditional tending of LS forest. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Is the Sustainability Revolution Devouring Its Own Children? Understanding Sustainability as a Travelling Concept and the Role Played by Two German Discourses on Sustainability
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2647-2657; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112647
Received: 7 October 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 31 October 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2677 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines whether the expanded meaning of the term sustainability and its broader use in society, policy and economics will actually bring about the benefits experts anticipate for the forest-based sector. It begins by defining sustainability as a travelling concept, then presents [...] Read more.
This paper examines whether the expanded meaning of the term sustainability and its broader use in society, policy and economics will actually bring about the benefits experts anticipate for the forest-based sector. It begins by defining sustainability as a travelling concept, then presents and analyzes two current lines of discourse in Germany on sustainability, both with high relevance for the forest-based sector: strong sustainability and sustainable building. The analysis shows that each discourse has developed and established a diametrically opposed meaning of sustainability. As a result, it could be argued that the two meanings pose a threat to the German forest-based sector by reducing the raw material base and ultimately minimizing market opportunities. This reasoning reveals a paradox: as the term sustainability, originally coined by the forestry sector, becomes mainstream, it could end up limiting the sector’s future growth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Possibilities and Limitations of Spatially Explicit Site Index Modelling for Spruce Based on National Forest Inventory Data and Digital Maps of Soil and Climate in Bavaria (SE Germany)
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2626-2646; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112626
Received: 22 August 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 31 October 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2900 | PDF Full-text (2128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Combining national forest inventory (NFI) data with digital site maps of high resolution enables spatially explicit predictions of site productivity. The aim of this study is to explore the possibilities and limitations of this database to analyze the environmental dependency of height-growth of [...] Read more.
Combining national forest inventory (NFI) data with digital site maps of high resolution enables spatially explicit predictions of site productivity. The aim of this study is to explore the possibilities and limitations of this database to analyze the environmental dependency of height-growth of Norway spruce and to predict site index (SI) on a scale that is relevant for local forest management. The study region is the German federal state of Bavaria. The exploratory methods comprise significance tests and hypervolume-analysis. SI is modeled with a Generalized Additive Model (GAM). In a second step the residuals are modeled using Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). The interaction between temperature regime and water supply strongly determined height growth. At sites with very similar temperature regime and water supply, greater heights were reached if the depth gradient of base saturation was favorable. Statistical model criteria (Double Penalty Selection, AIC) preferred composite variables for water supply and the supply of basic cations. The ability to predict SI on a local scale was limited due to the difficulty to integrate soil variables into the model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle International Market Leakage from China’s Forestry Policies
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2613-2625; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112613
Received: 10 October 2014 / Revised: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 31 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1959 | PDF Full-text (268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon leakage can be a problem when seeking to reduce carbon emissions through forest policy. International market leakage is mainly caused by supply and demand imbalances in the timber market. This paper selects China, which is implementing forestry policy changes, as the research [...] Read more.
Carbon leakage can be a problem when seeking to reduce carbon emissions through forest policy. International market leakage is mainly caused by supply and demand imbalances in the timber market. This paper selects China, which is implementing forestry policy changes, as the research object. We begin by offering a brief analysis of China’s forestry policy changes, such as the logging quota and Six Key Forestry Programs to determine whether those policies affect timber supply. Second, through the use of three shock variables, carbon leakage is simulated under different scenarios by the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model. The results reveal that the magnitude of leakage caused by implementing China’s forestry policies is between 79.7% and 88.8% with carbon leakage mainly displaced to Russia, Southeast Asia, and the EU. Two effective scenarios for reducing market leakage are presented: forest tenure reform and fast growing forest projects to improve domestic timber production, and raising tariffs on timber imports to reduce imports. Full article
Open AccessArticle Why Do Some Evergreen Species Keep Their Leaves for a Second Winter, While Others Lose Them?
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2594-2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112594
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 October 2014 / Published: 30 October 2014
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Abstract
In subtropical montane semi-moist forest in SW China (SMSF), a large majority of evergreen tree and tall shrub species was found to have only one cohort of old leaves in early spring. In contrast, almost all species of evergreen tree and tall shrub [...] Read more.
In subtropical montane semi-moist forest in SW China (SMSF), a large majority of evergreen tree and tall shrub species was found to have only one cohort of old leaves in early spring. In contrast, almost all species of evergreen tree and tall shrub in warm temperate rain forest (WTRF) in Japan and sclerophylls in Mediterranean-climate forest (MSF) of the Mediterranean Basin have two or more cohorts of old leaves in early spring; they drop their oldest cohort during or soon after leaf outgrowth in spring. Japanese WTRF has no dry season and MSF a dry summer. SMSF has a dry winter. On four evergreen Rhododendron species from SW China with only one cohort of old leaves in spring when in cultivation in Scotland, the majority of leaves in the senescing cohort fell by the end of December. We hypothesize that with dry winters, there is an advantage to dropping older leaves in autumn, because there is a low chance of appreciable positive assimilation in winter and a high chance of desiccation, reducing the resorption of dry mass and mineral nutrients from ageing leaves. Our hypothesis may be extended to cover evergreens at high altitude or high latitude that experience cold soils in winter. Full article
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