The present study investigated two novel biophotopolymer classes that are chemically based on non-toxic poly (vinyl alcohol). These vinylesters and vinylcarbonates were compared to standard acrylates in vitro
on MC3T3-E1 cells and in vivo
in a small animal model. In vitro
, both vinylester and vinylcarbonate monomers showed about tenfold less cytotoxicity when compared to acrylates (IC50
: 2.922 mM and 2.392 mM vs.
0.201 mM) and at least threefold higher alkaline phosphatase activity (17.038 and 18.836 vs.
5.795, measured at [10 mM]). In vivo
, polymerized 3D cellular structures were implanted into the distal femoral condyle of 16 New Zealand White Rabbits and were observed for periods from 4 to 12 weeks. New bone formation and bone to implant contact was evaluated by histomorphometry at end of observation. Vinylesters showed similar rates of new bone formation but significantly less (p
= 0.002) bone to implant contact, when compared to acrylates. In contrast, the implantation of vinylcarbonate based biophotopolymers led to significantly higher rates of newly formed bone (p
< 0.001) and bone to implant contact (p
< 0.001). Additionally, distinct signs of polymer degradation could be observed in vinylesters and vinylcarbonates by histology. We conclude, that vinylesters and vinylcarbonates are promising new biophotopolymers, that outmatch available poly(lactic acid) and (meth)acrylate based materials.