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Materials, Volume 8, Issue 6 (June 2015), Pages 2849-3792

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials. Materials 2014, 7(8), 5816-5842
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3791-3792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063791
Received: 17 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the published manuscript “Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials. Materials 2014, 7(8), 5816-5842” [1] we detected that in three places reference numbers were inserted incorrectly due to an error in the editing. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Microstructural Study on Molten Marks of Fire-Causing Copper Wires
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3776-3790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063776
Received: 12 January 2015 / Revised: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although electrical fires constitute the greatest percentage of the main causes of building fires, the critical evidence used by fire investigators to identify electrical fires is not always convincing to the general public. In this study, we scrutinized the microstructures of fire-causing copper
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Although electrical fires constitute the greatest percentage of the main causes of building fires, the critical evidence used by fire investigators to identify electrical fires is not always convincing to the general public. In this study, we scrutinized the microstructures of fire-causing copper wires and simulated the external environmental conditions required for the formation of fire-causing arc beads. Our metallographic investigation revealed that the primary thermal dendrites of copper at the fire-causing arc bead grew parallel to one another, but in the opposite direction to the heat flow. We determined the relationships of the undercooling (∆T0), the growth velocity (ν), and the primary spacing (λ) of the dendrites with respect to the electrical wire’s diameter. Accordingly, fire investigators can now identify fire-causing arc beads in terms of these metallographic characteristics, thereby providing clear scientific evidence for litigant judgments of electrical fires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Liquid- and Gas-Phase Diffusion of Ferrocene in Thin Films of Metal-Organic Frameworks
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3767-3775; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063767
Received: 5 May 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mass transfer of the guest molecules in nanoporous host materials, in particular in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), is among the crucial features of their applications. By using thin surface-mounted MOF films in combination with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the diffusion of ferrocene
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The mass transfer of the guest molecules in nanoporous host materials, in particular in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), is among the crucial features of their applications. By using thin surface-mounted MOF films in combination with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the diffusion of ferrocene vapor and of ethanolic and hexanic ferrocene solution in HKUST-1 was investigated. For the first time, liquid- and gas-phase diffusion in MOFs was compared directly in the identical sample. The diffusion coefficients are in the same order of magnitude (~10−16 m2·s−1), whereas the diffusion coefficient of ferrocene in the empty framework is roughly 3-times smaller than in the MOF which is filled with ethanol or n-hexane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion under Confinement in Nanopores)
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Open AccessArticle Revealing New Structural Insights from Surfactant Micelles through DLS, Microrheology and Raman Spectroscopy
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3754-3766; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063754
Received: 12 May 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The correlation between molecular changes and microstructural evolution of rheological properties has been demonstrated for the first time in a mixed anionic/zwitterionic surfactant-based wormlike micellar system. Utilizing a novel combination of DLS-microrheology and Raman Spectroscopy, the effect of electrostatic screening on these properties
[...] Read more.
The correlation between molecular changes and microstructural evolution of rheological properties has been demonstrated for the first time in a mixed anionic/zwitterionic surfactant-based wormlike micellar system. Utilizing a novel combination of DLS-microrheology and Raman Spectroscopy, the effect of electrostatic screening on these properties of anionic (SLES) and zwitterionic (CapB) surfactant mixtures was studied by modulating the NaCl concentration. As Raman Spectroscopy delivers information about the molecular structure and DLS-microrheology characterizes viscoelastic properties, the combination of data delivered allows for a deeper understanding of the molecular changes underlying the viscoelastic ones. The high frequency viscoelastic response obtained through DLS-microrheology has shown the persistence of the Maxwell fluid response for low viscosity solutions at high NaCl concentrations. The intensity of the Raman band at 170 cm1 exhibits very strong correlation with the viscosity variation. As this Raman band is assigned to hydrogen bonding, its variation with NaCl concentration additionally indicates differences in water structuring due to potential microstructural differences at low and high NaCl concentrations. The microstructural differences at low and high NaCl concentrations are further corroborated by persistence of a slow mode at the higher NaCl concentrations as seen through DLS measurements. The study illustrates the utility of the combined DLS, DLS-optical microrheology and Raman Spectroscopy in providing new molecular structural insights into the self-assembly process in complex fluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Seismic Experimental Study on New-Type Composite Exterior Wallboard with Integrated Structural Function and Insulation
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3732-3753; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063732
Received: 9 May 2015 / Revised: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to evaluate the seismic performance of new-type composite exterior wallboard, a total of six exterior and interior wallboards were incorporated in the experiment of seismic performance. Seismic performance such as the stress process, damage mode, hysteresis and skeleton curve, load-carrying and
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In order to evaluate the seismic performance of new-type composite exterior wallboard, a total of six exterior and interior wallboards were incorporated in the experiment of seismic performance. Seismic performance such as the stress process, damage mode, hysteresis and skeleton curve, load-carrying and ductility coefficient, damping and energy dissipation, stiffness degradation as well as material strain of the exterior wallboards were analyzed with emphasis and compared with interior wallboards. Results of the experiment and analysis showed that both interior and exterior wallboards exhibited outstanding seismic performance. Due to the existence of insulation layer and externally bonded single gypsum board, the capacity of elastoplastic deformation and seismic energy dissipation of the exterior wallboards was improved and each seismic performance indicator of the exterior wallboards outperformed the interior wallboards. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Properties of Cement Mortar by Use of Hot-Melt Polyamides as Substitute for Fine Aggregate
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3714-3731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063714
Received: 10 April 2015 / Revised: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
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Abstract
This paper presents an experimental study on use of hot-melt polyamide (HMP) to prepare mortar specimens with improved crack healing and engineering properties. The role of HMP in the crack repairing of cement mortar subjected to several rounds of heat treatment was investigated.
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This paper presents an experimental study on use of hot-melt polyamide (HMP) to prepare mortar specimens with improved crack healing and engineering properties. The role of HMP in the crack repairing of cement mortar subjected to several rounds of heat treatment was investigated. Compatibility between HMP and hydraulic cement was investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) technology. Mortar specimens were prepared using standard cement mortar mixes with HMP at 1%, 3% and 5% (by volume) for fine aggregate substitute. After curing for 28 days, HMP specimens were subjected to heating at temperature of 160 °C for one, two, and three days and then natural cooling down to ambient temperature. Mechanical and durability properties of the heated HMP mortars were evaluated and compared with those of the corresponding mortars without heating. The microscopic observation of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) of HMP mortar was conducted through environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results reveal that incorporation of HMP improves the workability of the HMP/cement binder while leading to decrease in compressive strength and durability. The heated HMP mortars after exposure to heating for one, two, and three days exhibit no obvious change in compressive strength while presenting notable increase in flexural strength and durability compared with the corresponding mortars without heating. The XRD, FTIR and ESEM analyses indicate that no obvious chemical reaction occurs between HMP and hydraulic cement, and thus the self-repairing for interfacial micro-crack in HMP/cement composite system is ascribed to the physical adhesion of HMP to cement matrix rather than the chemical bonding between them. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mechanism of Filling and Feeding of Thin-Walled Structures during Gravity Casting
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3701-3713; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063701
Received: 19 May 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The filling and feeding of thin-walled structures in metal castings pose significant difficulties in manufacturing aerospace structural materials. Samples containing 2 mm and 5 mm thin-walled structures were designed to study the kinetics of filling. The microstructural evolution of the solidification of thin-walled
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The filling and feeding of thin-walled structures in metal castings pose significant difficulties in manufacturing aerospace structural materials. Samples containing 2 mm and 5 mm thin-walled structures were designed to study the kinetics of filling. The microstructural evolution of the solidification of thin-walled structures was studied with synchrotron X-radiation imaging. The formation of dendritic networks and the isotherm profiles of samples of different thickness were examined. The experimental results showed solidification microstructures of 2 mm and 5 mm thin-walled parts containing elongated equiaxed grains and normal equiaxed grains, respectively. The filling and feeding abilities of thin-walled parts were found to depend more on the wall thickness than on the pouring temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle 3D Printable Biophotopolymers for in Vivo Bone Regeneration
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3685-3700; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063685
Received: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (952 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigated two novel biophotopolymer classes that are chemically based on non-toxic poly (vinyl alcohol). These vinylesters and vinylcarbonates were compared to standard acrylates in vitro on MC3T3-E1 cells and in vivo in a small animal model. In vitro, both
[...] Read more.
The present study investigated two novel biophotopolymer classes that are chemically based on non-toxic poly (vinyl alcohol). These vinylesters and vinylcarbonates were compared to standard acrylates in vitro on MC3T3-E1 cells and in vivo in a small animal model. In vitro, both vinylester and vinylcarbonate monomers showed about tenfold less cytotoxicity when compared to acrylates (IC50: 2.922 mM and 2.392 mM vs. 0.201 mM) and at least threefold higher alkaline phosphatase activity (17.038 and 18.836 vs. 5.795, measured at [10 mM]). In vivo, polymerized 3D cellular structures were implanted into the distal femoral condyle of 16 New Zealand White Rabbits and were observed for periods from 4 to 12 weeks. New bone formation and bone to implant contact was evaluated by histomorphometry at end of observation. Vinylesters showed similar rates of new bone formation but significantly less (p = 0.002) bone to implant contact, when compared to acrylates. In contrast, the implantation of vinylcarbonate based biophotopolymers led to significantly higher rates of newly formed bone (p < 0.001) and bone to implant contact (p < 0.001). Additionally, distinct signs of polymer degradation could be observed in vinylesters and vinylcarbonates by histology. We conclude, that vinylesters and vinylcarbonates are promising new biophotopolymers, that outmatch available poly(lactic acid) and (meth)acrylate based materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Modification of a Tetrafunctional Epoxy and Its Curing Reaction
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3671-3684; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063671
Received: 25 January 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent experimental results showed that the Tg of cured resin scarcely decreased and the impact strength of resins increased by over 50% when a tetrafunctional epoxy named N,N,N',N'-tetraglycidyl-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (TGDDE) was introduced to an appropriate
[...] Read more.
Recent experimental results showed that the Tg of cured resin scarcely decreased and the impact strength of resins increased by over 50% when a tetrafunctional epoxy named N,N,N',N'-tetraglycidyl-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (TGDDE) was introduced to an appropriate flexible chain from a dimer fatty acid (DFA). In order to understand the reason for this phenomenon, the modification and the chemical structure of the prepolymer together with the curing reaction and the viscoelasticity of the cured resins were studied in detail in the present work. The results indicated that the modification would help the prepolymer improve its molecular mobility. As a result, the resins could be further cured, resulting in the cross-linking density increasing. This is because the curing efficiency was increased, but the tetrafunctional epoxy was not cured completely due to its large steric hindrance. Moreover, the flexibility of some parts of the networks was improved, which was beneficial for the toughness of the cured resins. Therefore, the toughness of the tetrafunctional resin was improved with little influence on the thermal properties when the epoxies were modified with an appropriate content of DFA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICETI2014)
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Open AccessArticle Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells: Impact of Modeling on Performance Prediction
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3648-3670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063648
Received: 27 May 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a comparative study on numerical models used to predict the absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells due to the presence of structured back-reflectors exciting, at specific wavelengths, hybrid plasmonic-photonic resonances. To evaluate the effectiveness of the analyzed models, they have been
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We present a comparative study on numerical models used to predict the absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells due to the presence of structured back-reflectors exciting, at specific wavelengths, hybrid plasmonic-photonic resonances. To evaluate the effectiveness of the analyzed models, they have been applied in a case study: starting from a U-shaped textured glass thin-film, µc-Si:H solar cells have been successfully fabricated. The fabricated cells, with different intrinsic layer thicknesses, have been morphologically, optically and electrically characterized. The experimental results have been successively compared with the numerical predictions. We have found that, in contrast to basic models based on the underlying schematics of the cell, numerical models taking into account the real morphology of the fabricated device, are able to effectively predict the cells performances in terms of both optical absorption and short-circuit current values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasmonic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Photocatalytic Membrane Reactor for the Removal of C.I. Disperse Red 73
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3633-3647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063633
Received: 7 April 2015 / Revised: 15 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
After the dyeing process, part of the dyes used to color textile materials are not fixed into the substrate and are discharged into wastewater as residual dyes. In this study, a heterogeneous photocatalytic process combined with microfiltration has been investigated for the removal
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After the dyeing process, part of the dyes used to color textile materials are not fixed into the substrate and are discharged into wastewater as residual dyes. In this study, a heterogeneous photocatalytic process combined with microfiltration has been investigated for the removal of C.I. Disperse Red 73 from synthetic textile effluents. The titanium dioxide (TiO2) Aeroxide P25 was selected as photocatalyst. The photocatalytic treatment achieved between 60% and 90% of dye degradation and up to 98% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. The influence of different parameters on photocatalytic degradation was studied: pH, initial photocatalyst loading, and dye concentration. The best conditions for dye degradation were pH 4, an initial dye concentration of 50 mg·L−1, and a TiO2 loading of 2 g·L1. The photocatalytic membrane treatment provided a high quality permeate, which can be reused. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developments in Organic Dyes and Pigments)
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Open AccessArticle Adsorption, Thermodynamic and Quantum Chemical Studies of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium Based Ionic Liquids as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in HCl
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3607-3632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063607
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 2 May 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (1679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution by some ionic liquids (ILs) namely, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [HMIM][TfO], 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [HMIM][BF4], 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [HMIM][PF6], and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide [HMIM][I] was investigated using electrochemical measurements, spectroscopic analyses and quantum
[...] Read more.
The inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution by some ionic liquids (ILs) namely, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [HMIM][TfO], 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [HMIM][BF4], 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [HMIM][PF6], and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide [HMIM][I] was investigated using electrochemical measurements, spectroscopic analyses and quantum chemical calculations. All the ILs showed appreciably high inhibition efficiency. At 303 K, the results of electrochemical measurements indicated that the studied ILs are mixed-type inhibitors. The adsorption studies showed that all the four ILs adsorb spontaneously on steel surface with [HMIM][TfO], [HMIM][BF4] and [HMIM][I] obeying Langmuir adsorption isotherm, while [HMIM][PF6] conformed better with Temkin adsorption isotherm. Spectroscopic analyses suggested the formation of Fe/ILs complexes. Some quantum chemical parameters were calculated to corroborate experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biomimetic Coating on Porous Alumina for Tissue Engineering: Characterisation by Cell Culture and Confocal Microscopy
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3584-3606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063584
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
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Abstract
In this study porous alumina samples were prepared and then coated using the biomimetic coating technique using a five times Simulated Body Fluid (5.0SBF) as the growth solution. A coating was achieved after pre-treatment with concentrated acid. From elemental analysis, the coating contained
[...] Read more.
In this study porous alumina samples were prepared and then coated using the biomimetic coating technique using a five times Simulated Body Fluid (5.0SBF) as the growth solution. A coating was achieved after pre-treatment with concentrated acid. From elemental analysis, the coating contained calcium and phosphorous, but also sodium and chlorine. Halite was identified by XRD, a sodium chloride phase. Sintering was done to remove the halite phase. Once halite was burnt off, the calcium phosphate crystals were not covered with halite and, therefore, the apatite phases can be clearly observed. Cell culturing showed sufficient cell attachment to the less porous alumina, Sample B, that has more calcium phosphate growth, while the porous alumina, Sample A, with minimal calcium phosphate growth attained very little cell attachment. This is likely due to the contribution that calcium phosphate plays in the attachment of bone-like cells to a bioinert ceramic such as alumina. These results were repeated on both SEM and confocal microscopy analysis. Confocal microscopy was a novel characterisation approach which gave useful information and was a visual aid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
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Open AccessArticle A New Predictive Model of Centerline Segregation in Continuous Cast Steel Slabs by Using Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Approach
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3562-3583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063562
Received: 25 May 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to obtain a predictive model able to perform an early detection of central segregation severity in continuous cast steel slabs. Segregation in steel cast products is an internal defect that can be very harmful when slabs are
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The aim of this study was to obtain a predictive model able to perform an early detection of central segregation severity in continuous cast steel slabs. Segregation in steel cast products is an internal defect that can be very harmful when slabs are rolled in heavy plate mills. In this research work, the central segregation was studied with success using the data mining methodology based on multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. For this purpose, the most important physical-chemical parameters are considered. The results of the present study are two-fold. In the first place, the significance of each physical-chemical variable on the segregation is presented through the model. Second, a model for forecasting segregation is obtained. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and coefficients of determination equal to 0.93 for continuity factor estimation and 0.95 for average width were obtained when the MARS technique was applied to the experimental dataset, respectively. The agreement between experimental data and the model confirmed the good performance of the latter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Advanced Carbon Anode Materials from Mesocarbon Microbeads for Use in High C-Rate Lithium Ion Batteries
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3550-3561; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063550
Received: 13 May 2015 / Revised: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mesophase soft carbon (MSC) and mesophase graphite (SMG), for use in comparative studies of high C-rate Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) anodes, were made by heating mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) at 1300 °C and 3000 °C; respectively. The crystalline structures and morphologies of the MSC,
[...] Read more.
Mesophase soft carbon (MSC) and mesophase graphite (SMG), for use in comparative studies of high C-rate Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) anodes, were made by heating mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) at 1300 °C and 3000 °C; respectively. The crystalline structures and morphologies of the MSC, SMG, and commercial hard carbon (HC) were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, their electrochemical properties, when used as anode materials in LIBs, were also investigated. The results show that MSC has a superior charging rate capability compared to SMG and HC. This is attributed to MSC having a more extensive interlayer spacing than SMG, and a greater number of favorably-oriented pathways when compared to HC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICETI2014)
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Open AccessReview The Use of Quaternary Ammonium to Combat Dental Caries
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3532-3549; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063532
Received: 23 March 2015 / Revised: 14 May 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (465 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Resin composites and adhesives are increasingly popular in dental restorations, but secondary caries is one of the main reasons for restoration failure. Quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs) have an anti-microbial effect and are widely used in many fields. Since the concept of the immobilized
[...] Read more.
Resin composites and adhesives are increasingly popular in dental restorations, but secondary caries is one of the main reasons for restoration failure. Quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs) have an anti-microbial effect and are widely used in many fields. Since the concept of the immobilized antibacterial effect was put forward, dental restorations containing QAMs have been studied to reduce secondary caries. Previous studies have been struggling to develop novel anti-caries materials which might have triple benefits: good mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and remineralization potentials. Different kinds of QAMs have been proven to be effective in inhibiting the growth and metabolism of biofilms. Combination of QAMs and other nanoparticles in resin composites and adhesives could enhance their anti-caries capability. Therefore, QAMs are promising to show significant impact on the future of restorative and preventive dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Role of Interphase in the Mechanical Behavior of Silica/Epoxy Resin Nanocomposites
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3519-3531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063519
Received: 31 January 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A nanoscale representative volume element has been developed to investigate the effect of interphase geometry and property on the mechanical behavior of silica/epoxy resin nanocomposites. The role of interphase–matrix bonding was also examined. Results suggested that interphase modulus and interfacial bonding conditions had
[...] Read more.
A nanoscale representative volume element has been developed to investigate the effect of interphase geometry and property on the mechanical behavior of silica/epoxy resin nanocomposites. The role of interphase–matrix bonding was also examined. Results suggested that interphase modulus and interfacial bonding conditions had significant influence on the effective stiffness of nanocomposites, while its sensitivities with respect to both the thickness and the gradient property of the interphase was minimal. The stiffer interphase demonstrated a higher load-sharing capacity, which also increased the stress distribution uniformity within the resin nanocomposites. Under the condition of imperfect interfacial bonding, the effective stiffness of nanocomposites was much lower, which was in good agreement with the documented experimental observations. This work could shed some light on the design and manufacturing of resin nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Highly Stretchable, Biocompatible, Striated Substrate Made from Fugitive Glue
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3508-3518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063508
Received: 21 March 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We developed a novel substrate made from fugitive glue (styrenic block copolymer) that can be used to analyze the effects of large strains on biological samples. The substrate has the following attributes: (1) It is easy to make from inexpensive components; (2) It
[...] Read more.
We developed a novel substrate made from fugitive glue (styrenic block copolymer) that can be used to analyze the effects of large strains on biological samples. The substrate has the following attributes: (1) It is easy to make from inexpensive components; (2) It is transparent and can be used in optical microscopy; (3) It is extremely stretchable as it can be stretched up to 700% strain; (4) It can be micro-molded, for example we created micro-ridges that are 6 μm high and 13 μm wide; (5) It is adhesive to biological fibers (we tested fibrin fibers), and can be used to uniformly stretch those fibers; (6) It is non-toxic to cells (we tested human mammary epithelial cells); (7) It can tolerate various salt concentrations up to 5 M NaCl and low (pH 0) and high (pH 14) pH values. Stretching of this extraordinary stretchable substrate is relatively uniform and thus, can be used to test multiple cells or fibers in parallel under the same conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Biomaterials) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Catalytically Enhanced Hydrogen Sorption in Mg-MgH2 by Coupling Vanadium-Based Catalyst and Carbon Nanotubes
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3491-3507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063491
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mg (MgH2)-based composites, using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and pre-synthesized vanadium-based complex (VCat) as the catalysts, were prepared by high-energy ball milling technique. The synergistic effect of coupling CNTs and VCat in MgH2 was observed for an ultra-fast absorption rate of
[...] Read more.
Mg (MgH2)-based composites, using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and pre-synthesized vanadium-based complex (VCat) as the catalysts, were prepared by high-energy ball milling technique. The synergistic effect of coupling CNTs and VCat in MgH2 was observed for an ultra-fast absorption rate of 6.50 wt. % of hydrogen per minute and 6.50 wt. % of hydrogen release in 10 min at 200 °C and 300 °C, respectively. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) results reveal that coupling VCat and CNTs reduces both peak and onset temperatures by more than 60 °C and 114 °C, respectively. In addition, the presence of both VCat and CNTs reduces the enthalpy and entropy of desorption of about 7 kJ/mol H2 and 11 J/mol H2·K, respectively, as compared to those of the commercial MgH2, which ascribe to the decrease of desorption temperature. From the study of the effect of CNTs milling time, it is shown that partially destroyed CNTs (shorter milling time) are better to enhance the hydrogen sorption performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Storage Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical and Thermal Dehydrogenation of the Mechano-Chemically Synthesized Calcium Alanate (Ca(AlH4)2) and Lithium Chloride (LiCl) Composite
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3479-3490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063479
Received: 24 March 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1973 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
LiAlH4 and CaCl2 were employed for mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS) of Ca(AlH4)2 and LiCl hydride composite. After short ball milling time, their X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks are clearly observed. After ball milling for a longer duration than 0.5
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LiAlH4 and CaCl2 were employed for mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS) of Ca(AlH4)2 and LiCl hydride composite. After short ball milling time, their X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks are clearly observed. After ball milling for a longer duration than 0.5 h, the CaAlH5 diffraction peaks are observed which indicates that Ca(AlH4)2 starts decomposing during ball milling into CaAlH5+Al+1.5H2. It is estimated that less than 1 wt % H2 was mechanically dehydrogenated in association with decomposition reaction. After 2.5 h of ball milling, no Ca(AlH4)2 diffraction peaks were observed on XRD patterns which suggests that Ca(AlH4)2 was decomposed. Thermal behavior of ball milled powders, which was investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), indicates that a certain fraction of Ca(AlH4)2 could have been disordered/amorphized during ball milling being undetectable by XRD. The apparent activation energy for the decomposition of Ca(AlH4)2 and CaAlH5 equals 135 kJ/mol and 183 kJ/mol, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Storage Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Boron Doping on Cellular Discontinuous Precipitation for Age-Hardenable Cu–Ti Alloys
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3467-3478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063467
Received: 7 April 2015 / Revised: 25 May 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
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Abstract
The effects of boron doping on the microstructural evolution and mechanical and electrical properties of age-hardenable Cu–4Ti (at.%) alloys are investigated. In the quenched Cu–4Ti–0.03B (at.%) alloy, elemental B (boron) is preferentially segregated at the grain boundaries of the supersaturated solid-solution phase. The
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The effects of boron doping on the microstructural evolution and mechanical and electrical properties of age-hardenable Cu–4Ti (at.%) alloys are investigated. In the quenched Cu–4Ti–0.03B (at.%) alloy, elemental B (boron) is preferentially segregated at the grain boundaries of the supersaturated solid-solution phase. The aging behavior of the B-doped alloy is mostly similar to that of conventional age-hardenable Cu–Ti alloys. In the early stage of aging at 450 °C, metastable β′-Cu4Ti with fine needle-shaped precipitates continuously form in the matrix phase. Cellular discontinuous precipitates composed of the stable β-Cu4Ti and solid-solution laminates are then formed and grown at the grain boundaries. However, the volume fraction of the discontinuous precipitates is lower in the Cu–4Ti–0.03B alloy than the Cu–4Ti alloy, particularly in the over-aging period of 72–120 h. The suppression of the formation of discontinuous precipitates eventually results in improvement of the hardness and tensile strength. It should be noted that minor B doping of Cu–Ti alloys also effectively enhances the elongation to fracture, which should be attributed to segregation of B at the grain boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle The Concept about the Regeneration of Spent Borohydrides and Used Catalysts from Green Electricity
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3456-3466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063456
Received: 15 March 2015 / Revised: 31 May 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 10 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, the Brown-Schlesinger process is still regarded as the most common and mature method for the commercial production of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). However, the metallic sodium, currently produced from the electrolysis of molten NaCl that is mass-produced by evaporation of seawater
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Currently, the Brown-Schlesinger process is still regarded as the most common and mature method for the commercial production of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). However, the metallic sodium, currently produced from the electrolysis of molten NaCl that is mass-produced by evaporation of seawater or brine, is probably the most costly raw material. Recently, several reports have demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing green electricity such as offshore wind power to produce metallic sodium through electrolysis of seawater. Based on this concept, we have made improvements and modified our previously proposed life cycle of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and ammonia borane (NH3BH3), in order to further reduce costs in the conventional Brown-Schlesinger process. In summary, the revision in the concept combining the regeneration of the spent borohydrides and the used catalysts with the green electricity is reflected in (1) that metallic sodium could be produced from NaCl of high purity obtained from the conversion of the byproduct in the synthesis of NH3BH3 to devoid the complicated purification procedures if produced from seawater; and (2) that the recycling and the regeneration processes of the spent NaBH4 and NH3BH3 as well as the used catalysts could be simultaneously carried out and combined with the proposed life cycle of borohydrides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Storage Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Ru-N-C Hybrid Nanocomposite for Ammonia Dehydrogenation: Influence of N-doping on Catalytic Activity
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3442-3455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063442
Received: 19 April 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 10 June 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
For application to ammonia dehydrogenation, novel Ru-based heterogeneous catalysts, Ru-N-C and Ru-C, were synthesized via simple pyrolysis of a mixture of RuCl3·6H2O and carbon black with or without dicyandiamide as a nitrogen-containing precursor at 550 °C. Characterization of the
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For application to ammonia dehydrogenation, novel Ru-based heterogeneous catalysts, Ru-N-C and Ru-C, were synthesized via simple pyrolysis of a mixture of RuCl3·6H2O and carbon black with or without dicyandiamide as a nitrogen-containing precursor at 550 °C. Characterization of the prepared Ru-N-C and Ru-C catalysts via scanning transmission electron microscopy, in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicated the formation of hollow nanocomposites in which the average sizes of the Ru nanoparticles were 1.3 nm and 5.1 nm, respectively. Compared to Ru-C, the Ru-N-C nanocomposites not only proved to be highly active for ammonia dehydrogenation, giving rise to a NH3 conversion of >99% at 550 °C, but also exhibited high durability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the Ru active sites in Ru-N-C were electronically perturbed by the incorporated nitrogen atoms, which increased the Ru electron density and ultimately enhanced the catalyst activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Storage Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Directional Solidification Microstructure of a Ni-Based Superalloy: Influence of a Weak Transverse Magnetic Field
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3428-3441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063428
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 10 June 2015
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Abstract
A Ni-based superalloy CMSX-6 was directionally solidified at various drawing speeds (5–20 μm·s−1) and diameters (4 mm, 12 mm) under a 0.5 T weak transverse magnetic field. The results show that the application of a weak transverse magnetic field significantly modified
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A Ni-based superalloy CMSX-6 was directionally solidified at various drawing speeds (5–20 μm·s−1) and diameters (4 mm, 12 mm) under a 0.5 T weak transverse magnetic field. The results show that the application of a weak transverse magnetic field significantly modified the solidification microstructure. It was found that if the drawing speed was lower than 10 μm·s−1, the magnetic field caused extensive macro-segregation in the mushy zone, and a change in the mushy zone length. The magnetic field significantly decreases the size of γ’ and the content of γ-γ’ eutectic. The formation of macro-segregation under a weak magnetic field was attributed to the interdendritic solute transport driven by the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC). The γ’ phase refinement could be attributed to a decrease in nucleation activation energy owing to the magnetic field during solid phase transformation. The change of element segregation is responsible for the content decrease of γ-γ’ eutectic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessReview Nanocomposites Based on Thermoplastic Polymers and Functional Nanofiller for Sensor Applications
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3377-3427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063377
Received: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 May 2015 / Published: 10 June 2015
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (4037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermoplastic polymers like polyolefins, polyesters, polyamide, and styrene polymers are the most representative commodity plastics thanks to their cost-efficient manufacturing processes, excellent thermomechanical properties and their good environmental compatibility, including easy recycling. In the last few decades much effort has been devoted worldwide
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Thermoplastic polymers like polyolefins, polyesters, polyamide, and styrene polymers are the most representative commodity plastics thanks to their cost-efficient manufacturing processes, excellent thermomechanical properties and their good environmental compatibility, including easy recycling. In the last few decades much effort has been devoted worldwide to extend the applications of such materials by conferring on them new properties through mixing and blending with different additives. In this latter context, nanocomposites have recently offered new exciting possibilities. This review discusses the successful use of nanostructured dispersed substrates in designing new stimuli-responsive nanocomposites; in particular, it provides an updated description of the synthetic routes to prepare nanostructured systems having the typical properties of thermoplastic polymers (continuous matrix), but showing enhanced optical, conductive, and thermal features dependent on the dispersion topology. The controlled nanodispersion of functional labeled clays, noble metal nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes is here evidenced to play a key role in producing hybrid thermoplastic materials that have been used in the design of devices, such as NLO devices, chemiresistors, temperature and deformation sensors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study on Crack Propagation in Brittle Jointed Rock Mass Influenced by Fracture Water Pressure
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3364-3376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063364
Received: 8 April 2015 / Revised: 23 May 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (3989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The initiation, propagation, coalescence and failure mode of brittle jointed rock mass influenced by fissure water pressure have always been studied as a hot issue in the society of rock mechanics and engineering. In order to analyze the damage evolution process of jointed
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The initiation, propagation, coalescence and failure mode of brittle jointed rock mass influenced by fissure water pressure have always been studied as a hot issue in the society of rock mechanics and engineering. In order to analyze the damage evolution process of jointed rock mass under fracture water pressure, a novel numerical model on the basis of secondary development in fast Lagrangian analysis of continua (FLAC3D) is proposed to simulate the fracture development of jointed rock mass under fracture water pressure. To validate the feasibility of this numerical model, the failure process of a numerical specimen under uniaxial compression containing pre-existing fissures is simulated and compared with the results obtained from the lab experiments, and they are found to be in good agreement. Meanwhile, the propagation of cracks, variations of stress and strain, peak strength and crack initiation principles are further analyzed. It is concluded that the fissure water has a significant reducing effect on the strength and stability of the jointed rock mass. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The pH Sensing Properties of RF Sputtered RuO2 Thin-Film Prepared Using Different Ar/O2 Flow Ratio
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3352-3363; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063352
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
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Abstract
The influence of the Ar/O2 gas ratio during radio frequency (RF) sputtering of the RuO2 sensing electrode on the pH sensing performance is investigated. The developed pH sensor consists in an RF sputtered ruthenium oxide thin-film sensing electrode, in conjunction with
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The influence of the Ar/O2 gas ratio during radio frequency (RF) sputtering of the RuO2 sensing electrode on the pH sensing performance is investigated. The developed pH sensor consists in an RF sputtered ruthenium oxide thin-film sensing electrode, in conjunction with an electroplated Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The performance and characterization of the developed pH sensors in terms of sensitivity, response time, stability, reversibility, and hysteresis are investigated. Experimental results show that the pH sensor exhibits super-Nernstian slopes in the range of 64.33–73.83 mV/pH for Ar/O2 gas ratio between 10/0–7/3. In particular, the best pH sensing performance, in terms of sensitivity, response time, reversibility and hysteresis, is achieved when the Ar/O2 gas ratio is 8/2, at which a high sensitivity, a low hysteresis and a short response time are attained simultaneously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Materials for Chemical Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Two Glass Transitions Associated to Different Dynamic Disorders in the Nematic Glassy State of a Non-Symmetric Liquid Crystal Dimer Dopped with g-Alumina Nanoparticles
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3334-3351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063334
Received: 14 May 2015 / Revised: 28 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
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Abstract
In the present work, the nematic glassy state of the non-symmetric LC dimer α-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yloxy)-ω-(1-pyrenimine-benzylidene-4′-oxy) undecane is studied by means of calorimetric and dielectric measurements. The most striking result of the work is the presence of two different glass transition temperatures: one due to
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In the present work, the nematic glassy state of the non-symmetric LC dimer α-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yloxy)-ω-(1-pyrenimine-benzylidene-4′-oxy) undecane is studied by means of calorimetric and dielectric measurements. The most striking result of the work is the presence of two different glass transition temperatures: one due to the freezing of the flip-flop motions of the bulkier unit of the dimer and the other, at a lower temperature, related to the freezing of the flip-flop and precessional motions of the cyanobiphenyl unit. This result shows the fact that glass transition is the consequence of the freezing of one or more coupled dynamic disorders and not of the disordered phase itself. In order to avoid crystallization when the bulk sample is cooled down, the LC dimer has been confined via the dispersion of γ-alumina nanoparticles, in several concentrations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tension-Tension Fatigue Behavior of Unidirectional C/Sic Ceramic-Matrix Composite at Room Temperature and 800 °C in Air Atmosphere
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3316-3333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063316
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 17 May 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The tension-tension fatigue behavior of unidirectional C/SiC ceramic-matrix composite at room temperature and 800 °C under air has been investigated. The fatigue hysteresis modulus and fatigue hysteresis loss energy corresponding to different number of applied cycles have been analyzed. The fatigue hysteresis loops
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The tension-tension fatigue behavior of unidirectional C/SiC ceramic-matrix composite at room temperature and 800 °C under air has been investigated. The fatigue hysteresis modulus and fatigue hysteresis loss energy corresponding to different number of applied cycles have been analyzed. The fatigue hysteresis loops models for different interface slip cases have been derived based on the fatigue damage mechanism of fiber slipping relative to matrix in the interface debonded region upon unloading and subsequent reloading. The fiber/matrix interface shear stress has been estimated for different numbers of applied cycles. By combining the interface shear stress degradation model and fibers strength degradation model with fibers failure model, the tension-tension fatigue life S-N curves of unidirectional C/SiC composite at room temperature and 800 °C under air have been predicted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Shear-Bond Strength of Six Dental Self-Adhesive Resin Cements to Zirconia
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3306-3315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8063306
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 31 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 5 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study compared shear bond strength (SBS) of six self-adhesive resin cements (SARC) and one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) to zirconia before and after thermocycling. The cylinder shape (Φ 2.35 mm × 3 mm) of six SARCs (G-CEM LinkAce (GLA), Maxcem Elite
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This study compared shear bond strength (SBS) of six self-adhesive resin cements (SARC) and one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) to zirconia before and after thermocycling. The cylinder shape (Φ 2.35 mm × 3 mm) of six SARCs (G-CEM LinkAce (GLA), Maxcem Elite (MAX), Clearfil SA Luting (CSL), PermaCem 2.0 (PM2), Rely-X U200 (RXU), Smartcem 2 (SC2)) were bonded to the top surface of the zirconia specimens with light-curing. RMGIC (Fujicem (FJC)) was bonded to the specimens with self-curing. The shear bond strength of all cemented specimens was measured with universal testing machine. Half of the specimens were thermocycled 5000 times before shear bonding strength testing. Fractured surfaces were examined with a field-emission SEM (10,000×) and analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. MAX, PM2, SC2 group without thermocycling and GLA, MAX, PM2 group with thermocycling showed adhesive failure, but GLA, CSL, RXU, FJC group without thermocycling and SLC, RXU, SC2, FJC group with thermocycling indicated cohesive failure. Within the limitation of this study, All of SARCs except MAX demonstrated higher bond strength than that of RMGIC regardless of thermocycling. Also, SARC containing MDP monomers (CSL) retained better bonds than other cements. Full article
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